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Strengthening Upper Secondary
Education in Lithuania
Launch of OECD Report, Vilnius
Andreas Schleicher, Director
17 November 2023
Directorate for Education and Skills, OECD
Lithuania asked the OECD…
➢ Upper secondary graduates lack the knowledge and skills that are needed both in the
labour market and in higher education:
• Suggestions based on international practice to improve the quality of upper
secondary education?
➢ Enrolments in upper secondary VET are continually below our national targets:
• Suggestions based on international practice to raise the prestige of VET and
increase enrolments?
➢ Aligning the national upper secondary certification – the Matura – with our new
curriculum:
• Suggestions based on international practice for integrating more competency
assessments into the Matura?
Attainment of upper secondary education is one of the highest across the OECD
OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators
Educational attainment of 25–34 year-olds (2021)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
% Below upper secondary education Upper secondary education and above
93% of 25-34
year-olds attain
upper secondary
education or
higher
Differences literacy proficiency in PIAAC for individuals aged 16-34 by educational attainment, including VET,
PIAAC (2012)
Yet returns to skills are modest
OECD (2012, 2015, 2018), Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
Below upper secondary General VET Tertiary
Graduates of upper secondary VET have the same level of literacy skills (260
points) as young people without upper secondary education. OECD average:
VET graduates score 26 points higher
Key messages
➢ Lithuania achieves modest returns on its investment in upper secondary education
• One of highest rates of upper secondary attainment across the OECD vs. one of the
lowest increases in learning outcomes for completion of upper secondary
➢ Upper secondary education requires purposefully designed pathways that promote
deeper skills acquisition
• Creating purposefully designed vocational pathways into high quality employment or
technical education, supported by recognising a broader range of skills and knowledge
at different levels in the country’s upper secondary certification (the Matura)
➢ Investing in assessment expertise as part of the continual adaption of the national upper
secondary certification
• Using the introduction of a new competency-based curriculum as the impetus to revise
some parts of the Matura to drive the learning that the students, teachers and
employers believe really matters for young people.
Strengthening upper secondary
pathways
> The share of students choosing
VET as they enter upper
secondary is lower than
national targets
> Students progressively
accumulate gaps in their
learning as they progress
through school
> Students and parents are
unaware of the opportunities of
vocational education
Transitions into upper secondary Learning during upper secondary
Challenges across upper secondary pathways
> Vocational education is not a
valued option
> VET programmes contribute
modestly to the student skills
> The demands and expectations
in general subjects are very
similar across VET and general
programmes
> Space for work-based learning is
limited
> Pathways into tertiary education
and employment are
challenging for vocational upper
secondary students
> Upper secondary vocational
qualifications are modestly
rewarded on the labour market
> Few vocational students access
tertiary education
Transitions post-school
Insights from data, policy makers, teachers, students, researchers and
civil society in Lithuania…
Countries with a higher share of VET students have higher employment
rates among young adults with upper secondary attainment
Slovenia
Czech Republic
Austria
Netherlands
Finland
Slovak Republic
Switzerland
Luxembourg
Romania
Belgium
Poland
Australia
Bulgaria
Italy
Norway
Hungary
Germany
Israel
Estonia
Franc
Latvia
United Kingdom
Denmark
Portugal
Spain
Türkiye
New
Zealand
Mexico
Sweden
Greece
Chile
Icelan
Costa Rica
Colombia
Lithuania
Ireland
Korea
Brazil
Canada
55
65
75
85
95
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Employment
rate
of
25-34
year-olds
with
upper
secondary
or
post-secondary
non-tertiary
attainment
Share of vocational students among upper secondary students
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Upper secondary vocational education Upper secondary general education
Participation in upper secondary VET is lower than national targets
OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators
Share of students aged 15-19 enrolled in upper secondary, by programme orientation (2021)
23% of 15-19
year-olds are
enrolled in
VET compared
to the OECD
average of
36%
1 in 4 15-year-olds do not have basic maths competency
OECD (2018), PISA 2018 Database
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Estonia
Japan
Denmark
Poland
Finland
Korea
Ireland
Netherlands
Canada
Slovenia
Switzerland
Latvia
Sweden
Norway
nited
Kingdom
Belgium
Czechia
Iceland
Austria
Germany
France
New
Zealand
Australia
Portugal
Italy
OECD
average
Spain
lovak
Republic
Lithuania
Hungary
United
States
Luxembourg
Israel
Greece
Türkiye
Chile
Mexico
Costa
Rica
Colombia
Level 6
Level 5
Level 4
Level 3
Level 2
Below Level 1
Level 1
%
Students below Level 2
Students at Level 2 or
above
Students’ proficiency in mathematics, PISA (2018)
26% of 15 year olds
scored below Level 2 in
2018
Policy option 1: A transition recommendation for each student
➢ Monitor students’ learning outcomes as they transition into upper secondary education
• To inform transition recommendations and identify needs for targeted support in
foundational skills upon entry to upper secondary education
➢ Draw on a broad range of information to inform transition recommendations
• Academic achievement from Grade 10 exam, teachers’ views, conversations with
parents and students
• Provide advice about different levels and subject choice as part of transition
recommendations
➢ Give guidance counsellors the role of developing transition recommendations for
students
• Use the new guidance counsellors to provide initiate discussion with students about
interests, talents and inform them about pathway options
• Support guidance counsellors with access to up-to-date employment data
Completion is high but not among VET students
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Completion within the theoretical duration - vocational upper secondary Completion within the theoretical duration - general upper secondary
OECD (2023), Education at a Glance 2023: OECD Indicators
Upper secondary completion rates, by timeframe and programme orientation on entry (2021)
Completion rates are 35
percentage points higher
for general students
compared with VET
students
Workers with VET attainment are less likely to participate in non-
formal education and training
Participation in non-formal job-related education and training, by educational attainment and programme
orientation (2022)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Sweden
Norway
Iceland
Netherlands
Switzerland
Finland
Estonia
Slovak
Republic
Portugal
Spain
Luxembourg
Denmark
Slovenia
Average
Austria
Czech
Republic
Italy
France
Romania
Hungary
Belgium
Ireland
Germany
Latvia
Lithuania
Poland
Croatia
Greece
Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (vocational) Tertiary
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Australia
Canada
Surveys with a reference period of four weeks prior to the interview
Surveys with a reference period of
twelve months prior to the interview
VET graduates are less rewarded on the labour market than in other
systems
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
Below upper secondary education (Below ISCED 3) Upper secondary education (general) (ISCED 3)
Upper secondary education (vocational) (ISCED 3) Tertiary education (ISCED 6 or above)
%
OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators
Employment rates of 25–34 year-olds, by educational attainment and programme orientation
(2021)
Employment rates for individuals with VET upper secondary as their
highest qualification are just 3 percentage points higher than for
individuals with general upper secondary education as their highest
qualification. (OECD average: 10 percentage points)
The fourth of 15-year-olds without basic maths competency…
OECD (2018), PISA 2018 Database
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Estonia
Japan
Denmark
Poland
Finland
Korea
Ireland
Netherlands
Canada
Slovenia
Switzerland
Latvia
Sweden
Norway
nited
Kingdom
Belgium
Czechia
Iceland
Austria
Germany
France
New
Zealand
Australia
Portugal
Italy
OECD
average
Spain
lovak
Republic
Lithuania
Hungary
United
States
Luxembourg
Israel
Greece
Türkiye
Chile
Mexico
Costa
Rica
Colombia
Level 6
Level 5
Level 4
Level 3
Level 2
Below Level 1
Level 1
%
Students below Level 2
Students at Level 2 or
above
Students’ proficiency in mathematics, PISA (2018)
26% of 15 year olds
scored below Level 2 in
2018
Differences literacy proficiency in PIAAC for individuals aged 16-34 by educational attainment, including VET,
PIAAC (2012)
…might not receive support to raise skills in upper secondary
OECD (2012, 2015, 2018), Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
Below upper secondary General VET Tertiary
Graduates of upper secondary VET have the same level of literacy skills (260
points) as young people without upper secondary education. OECD average:
VET graduates score 26 points higher
Policy option 2: Create valued vocational pathways
➢ Provide more flexibility in vocational education to adapt to students’ needs and abilities
• Review the level of demand and breadth and depth of learning in mathematics and
Lithuanian to ensure that it aligns with the needs and future ambitions of all students
➢ Create 2 VET programmes to better meet different student needs and ambitions
1. VET programme 1 - More work-based learning that promotes acquisition of
foundational skills
• Supporting employers to engage with apprenticeships
• Strong support for essential foundational skills
2. VET programme 2 - Technically focused and a more academically oriented vocational
upper secondary option
• Providing stronger preparation in technically focused VET
• Ensuring that general content promotes strong technical skills
Improving the attractiveness and reputation of VET programmes
Improving the
quality of VET
programmes
•By focusing on
the quality of
teachers (Brazil)
Ensuring VET
leads to
employment
•Through labour-market
forecasting and regular
collaboration with
employers (Germany)
Brazil (2019) considerably
expanded the training on
offer for VET teachers and
trainers, taking advantage of
digital training solutions.
Germany has taken
steps to ensure adult
learning responds to
digitalisation and
automation.
Countries with more students in programmes that combine school and
work-based learning have higher employment rates among VET graduates
Denma
Hungary
Ireland
Latvia
Switzerland
Germany
Norway
Iceland
Austri
United
Kingdo
Australia
Franc
Slovak
Republic
Luxembourg
Finland
Poland
Chile
Romania
Sweden
Estonia
Belgium
Bulgaria
Israel
Spain
65
75
85
95
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Employment
rate
of
25-34
year-olds
with
vocational
upper
secondary
or
post-secondary
non-tertiary
attainment
Share of upper secondary vocational students enrolled in combined school- and work-based programmes
The current access route into tertiary is inaccesible for VET students
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
General programmes Vocational programmes All programmes
Share of entrants to bachelor's programmes who entered tertiary education directly from upper secondary education, by upper
secondary programme orientation (2020)
Source: OECD Education at a Glance (2022)
Enrolment of general students in
tertiary education is 69 percentage
points higher than the enrolment of
VET students. 16 percentage points
difference on average
Only taking VET students general skills into consideration tertiary
education puts them at a major disadvantage
98.54
93.05
99.31
66.5
99.37
96.98
99.37
87.02
97.48
96.51
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
English (foreign language) (16254)
Lithuanian (16203)
Russian (foreign language) (1595)
Mathematics (13872)
History (6636)
Biology (5406)
Geography (3161)
Information technology (2235)
Physics (1862)
Chemistry (889)
General
93.85
71.36
98.38
19.03
92.55
75.6
97.17
56.52
77.42
60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
English (foreign language) (862)
Lithuanian (398)
Russian (foreign language) (185)
Mathematics (247)
History (188)
Biology (168)
Geography (212)
Information technology (23)
Physics (31)
Chemistry (5)
Vocational
Share of students who passed their national level Matura examinations by subjects and
programme orientation (2022)
Source: NSA 2022
Policy option 3: Design pathways with clear progression post-
secondary
➢ Ensuring clear and diverse options of progression from upper secondary vocational
education into further education
• Reward upper secondary vocational qualifications for entrance into tertiary
education
• Create ISCED 4 as a clear option for progression and a sequential programme
from ISCED 3 VET
➢ Improve the quality of upper secondary vocational education to ensure its value is
recognised by employers
• Ensure that VET teachers receive high-quality preparation in pedagogy and
provide them with continuous professional development
• Increase the involvement of employers in VET programmes
• Expand the quality assurance system in VET
Consolidating upper secondary
certification
> Widely respected nationally as a
fair and reliable tool for tertiary
entrance
> Yet, recent cases of variable
results
> How far items are perceived to
be engaging and stimulating
varies widely across subjects
> Evolution needed in response to
implementation of new
curriculum
Is the Matura fit –for-purpose? Assessment tools
Challenges for the Matura
> Value of diverse assessment
tools for assessing broad range
of skills
> Project assessment is widely
recognised to asses broad skills
but not recognised for tertiary
entry
> Teaching is very dense in upper
secondary with 8-9 subjects and
extensive content
> Matura assessment in 3 subjects
constrains student choice and
opportunities for skills
deepening
> VET students can theoretically
enter tertiary education with the
Matura but in practice, the
pathway is inaccessible.
Certifying different pathways
Insights from data, policy makers, teachers, students, researchers and
civil society in Lithuania…
Variable results, public confidence and perceptions
2022 2021 2020 2019 2018
Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate
Mathematics 14 418 64.6% 15 149 84.8% 15 241 67.6% 16 487 82.1% 17 043 87.2%
Lithuanian Language
and Literature 16 822 92.2% 16 660 91.4% 17 243 89.3% 17 904 90.8% 18 602 91.3%
English Language 17 622 98.37% 18 107 97.92% 18 022 99.0% 19 155 97.9% 20 633 99.1%
History 7 533 99.2% 8 490 98.7% 8 458 99.8% 8 510 98.8% 10 023 95.3%
Geography 3 842 99.2% 3 346 98.0% 3 203 99.0% 2 727 96.2% 3 849 96.2%
Biology 5 752 96.2% 5 582 97.2% 5 404 97.7% 5 786 97.6% 6 344 98.7%
Physics 1 898 97.2% 1 951 97.0% 2 050 94.7% 2 371 96.8% 2 506 97.7%
Chemistry 915 96.4% 996 94.6% 1 069 97.4% 1 263 97.8% 1 385 98.5%
Source: Nacionalinė švietimo agentūra (2022[4]), Rezultatų analizės, https://www.nsa.smm.lt/egzaminai-ir-pasiekimu-patikrinimai/brandos-egzaminai/rezultatai/ (accessed on 28 February 2023).
Lithuania State Matura Results, 2018-22
Policy option 1: Continual improvement for high quality
assessment
➢ Support Matura item developers to produce high-quality items that fulfil their purpose
• Clear specifications to guide item development
• Use the results of technical analysis to drive improvements
• Introduce adjustments to promote consistent standards from year to year
➢ Develop continuous review, research and evaluation to ensure that the Matura remains
fit for purpose
• Introduce continuous review, research and evaluation including investigating
the reasons for the mathematics 2022 results
• Develop the examinations team in the National Agency for Education as an
independent centre of assessment expertise
Strengthening the project assignment to assess a broader range of skills
Pursue
interests
➢ Students tend to find project assessments stimulating and engaging → space to
pursue their interests
➢ Can support skills development e.g. organisation, independence, self-regulation →
transfer to other subjects and assessments
➢ Support perceived relevance of the Matura among students, teachers, employers,
HE → promote learning and teaching goals of Lithuania’s new curriculum
Accessibility
• Clear
expectations
• VET Project
Reliability
• Controlled
assessment
• Robust
moderation
Validity
•Exemplars of student
work
•Communities of practice
•Sample assessment
instruments
Promoting greater differentiation, specialisation and options within the
Matura
Science
Moral
education
Ethics
➢ All students (GEN and VET) study a wide breadth of general subjects in upper
secondary
Social
science
Physical
Education
Language
Lithuanian
Maths
Promoting greater differentiation, specialisation and options within the
Matura
Science
Moral
education
Ethics
➢ All students (GEN and VET) study a wide breadth of subjects in upper secondary
➢ Yet only 3 count for selection to tertiary entry
➢ Breadth of content → less space for specialisation and depth
➢ Absence of assessments across broad learning areas → reduces incentives for
student learning and motivation across all subjects
Social
science
Physical
Education
Language
Lithuania
Maths
VET students do not take exams that are eligible for tertiary entry
% of Matura state exam candidates from
VET % of VET students that passed
Mathematics 1.7% 19%
Lithuanian language and literature 2.4% 71.4%
English foreign language 5.0% 93.6%
Information Technology 0.7% 56.5
Biology 2.4% 75.6%
Chemistry 0.6% 60%
Physics 1.6% 77.4%
History 2.8% 92.6%
Geography 6.3% 97.2%
Source: NEA (2022)
The same certification ≠ parity
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
General programmes Vocational programmes All programmes
Share of entrants to bachelor's programmes who entered tertiary education directly from upper secondary education, by upper
secondary programme orientation (2020)
Source: OECD Education at a Glance (2022)
Enrolment of general students in
tertiary education is 69 percentage
points higher than the enrolment of
VET students. 16 percentage points
difference on average
Three types of baccalauréat - France
ISCED 6 – bachelor’s,
masters….
ISCED 6 – technical
programmes or ISCED
5 – short course
technical programmes
ISCED 5 – technical
and applied short
course tertiary
programmes
Source: Ministère de l’Education Nationale et de la Jeunesse (n.d.), Réussir au lycée, https://www.education.gouv.fr/reussir-au-lycee (accessed on 1 May 2023).
Policy option 3: Providing more flexible choices and options within Matura
➢ Support a better match between course and examination choices
• Move forward with plans to provide Lithuanian and mathematics at general
and higher levels
• Choose to promote breadth or depth with the Matura
➢ Meet the needs of vocational upper secondary students in the Matura
• Develop a dedicated upper secondary certification for vocational students
e.g. fewer general subjects, content adapted to occupational-focus of VET
programmes
Thank you

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Andreas Schleicher_ Strengthening Upper Secondary Education in Lithuania

  • 1. Strengthening Upper Secondary Education in Lithuania Launch of OECD Report, Vilnius Andreas Schleicher, Director 17 November 2023 Directorate for Education and Skills, OECD
  • 2. Lithuania asked the OECD… ➢ Upper secondary graduates lack the knowledge and skills that are needed both in the labour market and in higher education: • Suggestions based on international practice to improve the quality of upper secondary education? ➢ Enrolments in upper secondary VET are continually below our national targets: • Suggestions based on international practice to raise the prestige of VET and increase enrolments? ➢ Aligning the national upper secondary certification – the Matura – with our new curriculum: • Suggestions based on international practice for integrating more competency assessments into the Matura?
  • 3. Attainment of upper secondary education is one of the highest across the OECD OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators Educational attainment of 25–34 year-olds (2021) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Below upper secondary education Upper secondary education and above 93% of 25-34 year-olds attain upper secondary education or higher
  • 4. Differences literacy proficiency in PIAAC for individuals aged 16-34 by educational attainment, including VET, PIAAC (2012) Yet returns to skills are modest OECD (2012, 2015, 2018), Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 Below upper secondary General VET Tertiary Graduates of upper secondary VET have the same level of literacy skills (260 points) as young people without upper secondary education. OECD average: VET graduates score 26 points higher
  • 5. Key messages ➢ Lithuania achieves modest returns on its investment in upper secondary education • One of highest rates of upper secondary attainment across the OECD vs. one of the lowest increases in learning outcomes for completion of upper secondary ➢ Upper secondary education requires purposefully designed pathways that promote deeper skills acquisition • Creating purposefully designed vocational pathways into high quality employment or technical education, supported by recognising a broader range of skills and knowledge at different levels in the country’s upper secondary certification (the Matura) ➢ Investing in assessment expertise as part of the continual adaption of the national upper secondary certification • Using the introduction of a new competency-based curriculum as the impetus to revise some parts of the Matura to drive the learning that the students, teachers and employers believe really matters for young people.
  • 7. > The share of students choosing VET as they enter upper secondary is lower than national targets > Students progressively accumulate gaps in their learning as they progress through school > Students and parents are unaware of the opportunities of vocational education Transitions into upper secondary Learning during upper secondary Challenges across upper secondary pathways > Vocational education is not a valued option > VET programmes contribute modestly to the student skills > The demands and expectations in general subjects are very similar across VET and general programmes > Space for work-based learning is limited > Pathways into tertiary education and employment are challenging for vocational upper secondary students > Upper secondary vocational qualifications are modestly rewarded on the labour market > Few vocational students access tertiary education Transitions post-school Insights from data, policy makers, teachers, students, researchers and civil society in Lithuania…
  • 8. Countries with a higher share of VET students have higher employment rates among young adults with upper secondary attainment Slovenia Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Finland Slovak Republic Switzerland Luxembourg Romania Belgium Poland Australia Bulgaria Italy Norway Hungary Germany Israel Estonia Franc Latvia United Kingdom Denmark Portugal Spain Türkiye New Zealand Mexico Sweden Greece Chile Icelan Costa Rica Colombia Lithuania Ireland Korea Brazil Canada 55 65 75 85 95 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment Share of vocational students among upper secondary students
  • 9. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Upper secondary vocational education Upper secondary general education Participation in upper secondary VET is lower than national targets OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators Share of students aged 15-19 enrolled in upper secondary, by programme orientation (2021) 23% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in VET compared to the OECD average of 36%
  • 10. 1 in 4 15-year-olds do not have basic maths competency OECD (2018), PISA 2018 Database -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Estonia Japan Denmark Poland Finland Korea Ireland Netherlands Canada Slovenia Switzerland Latvia Sweden Norway nited Kingdom Belgium Czechia Iceland Austria Germany France New Zealand Australia Portugal Italy OECD average Spain lovak Republic Lithuania Hungary United States Luxembourg Israel Greece Türkiye Chile Mexico Costa Rica Colombia Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Below Level 1 Level 1 % Students below Level 2 Students at Level 2 or above Students’ proficiency in mathematics, PISA (2018) 26% of 15 year olds scored below Level 2 in 2018
  • 11. Policy option 1: A transition recommendation for each student ➢ Monitor students’ learning outcomes as they transition into upper secondary education • To inform transition recommendations and identify needs for targeted support in foundational skills upon entry to upper secondary education ➢ Draw on a broad range of information to inform transition recommendations • Academic achievement from Grade 10 exam, teachers’ views, conversations with parents and students • Provide advice about different levels and subject choice as part of transition recommendations ➢ Give guidance counsellors the role of developing transition recommendations for students • Use the new guidance counsellors to provide initiate discussion with students about interests, talents and inform them about pathway options • Support guidance counsellors with access to up-to-date employment data
  • 12. Completion is high but not among VET students 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Completion within the theoretical duration - vocational upper secondary Completion within the theoretical duration - general upper secondary OECD (2023), Education at a Glance 2023: OECD Indicators Upper secondary completion rates, by timeframe and programme orientation on entry (2021) Completion rates are 35 percentage points higher for general students compared with VET students
  • 13. Workers with VET attainment are less likely to participate in non- formal education and training Participation in non-formal job-related education and training, by educational attainment and programme orientation (2022) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Sweden Norway Iceland Netherlands Switzerland Finland Estonia Slovak Republic Portugal Spain Luxembourg Denmark Slovenia Average Austria Czech Republic Italy France Romania Hungary Belgium Ireland Germany Latvia Lithuania Poland Croatia Greece Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (vocational) Tertiary 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Australia Canada Surveys with a reference period of four weeks prior to the interview Surveys with a reference period of twelve months prior to the interview
  • 14. VET graduates are less rewarded on the labour market than in other systems 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Below upper secondary education (Below ISCED 3) Upper secondary education (general) (ISCED 3) Upper secondary education (vocational) (ISCED 3) Tertiary education (ISCED 6 or above) % OECD (2022), Education at a Glance 2022: OECD Indicators Employment rates of 25–34 year-olds, by educational attainment and programme orientation (2021) Employment rates for individuals with VET upper secondary as their highest qualification are just 3 percentage points higher than for individuals with general upper secondary education as their highest qualification. (OECD average: 10 percentage points)
  • 15. The fourth of 15-year-olds without basic maths competency… OECD (2018), PISA 2018 Database -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Estonia Japan Denmark Poland Finland Korea Ireland Netherlands Canada Slovenia Switzerland Latvia Sweden Norway nited Kingdom Belgium Czechia Iceland Austria Germany France New Zealand Australia Portugal Italy OECD average Spain lovak Republic Lithuania Hungary United States Luxembourg Israel Greece Türkiye Chile Mexico Costa Rica Colombia Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Below Level 1 Level 1 % Students below Level 2 Students at Level 2 or above Students’ proficiency in mathematics, PISA (2018) 26% of 15 year olds scored below Level 2 in 2018
  • 16. Differences literacy proficiency in PIAAC for individuals aged 16-34 by educational attainment, including VET, PIAAC (2012) …might not receive support to raise skills in upper secondary OECD (2012, 2015, 2018), Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 Below upper secondary General VET Tertiary Graduates of upper secondary VET have the same level of literacy skills (260 points) as young people without upper secondary education. OECD average: VET graduates score 26 points higher
  • 17. Policy option 2: Create valued vocational pathways ➢ Provide more flexibility in vocational education to adapt to students’ needs and abilities • Review the level of demand and breadth and depth of learning in mathematics and Lithuanian to ensure that it aligns with the needs and future ambitions of all students ➢ Create 2 VET programmes to better meet different student needs and ambitions 1. VET programme 1 - More work-based learning that promotes acquisition of foundational skills • Supporting employers to engage with apprenticeships • Strong support for essential foundational skills 2. VET programme 2 - Technically focused and a more academically oriented vocational upper secondary option • Providing stronger preparation in technically focused VET • Ensuring that general content promotes strong technical skills
  • 18. Improving the attractiveness and reputation of VET programmes Improving the quality of VET programmes •By focusing on the quality of teachers (Brazil) Ensuring VET leads to employment •Through labour-market forecasting and regular collaboration with employers (Germany) Brazil (2019) considerably expanded the training on offer for VET teachers and trainers, taking advantage of digital training solutions. Germany has taken steps to ensure adult learning responds to digitalisation and automation.
  • 19. Countries with more students in programmes that combine school and work-based learning have higher employment rates among VET graduates Denma Hungary Ireland Latvia Switzerland Germany Norway Iceland Austri United Kingdo Australia Franc Slovak Republic Luxembourg Finland Poland Chile Romania Sweden Estonia Belgium Bulgaria Israel Spain 65 75 85 95 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment Share of upper secondary vocational students enrolled in combined school- and work-based programmes
  • 20. The current access route into tertiary is inaccesible for VET students 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 General programmes Vocational programmes All programmes Share of entrants to bachelor's programmes who entered tertiary education directly from upper secondary education, by upper secondary programme orientation (2020) Source: OECD Education at a Glance (2022) Enrolment of general students in tertiary education is 69 percentage points higher than the enrolment of VET students. 16 percentage points difference on average
  • 21. Only taking VET students general skills into consideration tertiary education puts them at a major disadvantage 98.54 93.05 99.31 66.5 99.37 96.98 99.37 87.02 97.48 96.51 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 English (foreign language) (16254) Lithuanian (16203) Russian (foreign language) (1595) Mathematics (13872) History (6636) Biology (5406) Geography (3161) Information technology (2235) Physics (1862) Chemistry (889) General 93.85 71.36 98.38 19.03 92.55 75.6 97.17 56.52 77.42 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 English (foreign language) (862) Lithuanian (398) Russian (foreign language) (185) Mathematics (247) History (188) Biology (168) Geography (212) Information technology (23) Physics (31) Chemistry (5) Vocational Share of students who passed their national level Matura examinations by subjects and programme orientation (2022) Source: NSA 2022
  • 22. Policy option 3: Design pathways with clear progression post- secondary ➢ Ensuring clear and diverse options of progression from upper secondary vocational education into further education • Reward upper secondary vocational qualifications for entrance into tertiary education • Create ISCED 4 as a clear option for progression and a sequential programme from ISCED 3 VET ➢ Improve the quality of upper secondary vocational education to ensure its value is recognised by employers • Ensure that VET teachers receive high-quality preparation in pedagogy and provide them with continuous professional development • Increase the involvement of employers in VET programmes • Expand the quality assurance system in VET
  • 24. > Widely respected nationally as a fair and reliable tool for tertiary entrance > Yet, recent cases of variable results > How far items are perceived to be engaging and stimulating varies widely across subjects > Evolution needed in response to implementation of new curriculum Is the Matura fit –for-purpose? Assessment tools Challenges for the Matura > Value of diverse assessment tools for assessing broad range of skills > Project assessment is widely recognised to asses broad skills but not recognised for tertiary entry > Teaching is very dense in upper secondary with 8-9 subjects and extensive content > Matura assessment in 3 subjects constrains student choice and opportunities for skills deepening > VET students can theoretically enter tertiary education with the Matura but in practice, the pathway is inaccessible. Certifying different pathways Insights from data, policy makers, teachers, students, researchers and civil society in Lithuania…
  • 25. Variable results, public confidence and perceptions 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate Entries Pass Rate Mathematics 14 418 64.6% 15 149 84.8% 15 241 67.6% 16 487 82.1% 17 043 87.2% Lithuanian Language and Literature 16 822 92.2% 16 660 91.4% 17 243 89.3% 17 904 90.8% 18 602 91.3% English Language 17 622 98.37% 18 107 97.92% 18 022 99.0% 19 155 97.9% 20 633 99.1% History 7 533 99.2% 8 490 98.7% 8 458 99.8% 8 510 98.8% 10 023 95.3% Geography 3 842 99.2% 3 346 98.0% 3 203 99.0% 2 727 96.2% 3 849 96.2% Biology 5 752 96.2% 5 582 97.2% 5 404 97.7% 5 786 97.6% 6 344 98.7% Physics 1 898 97.2% 1 951 97.0% 2 050 94.7% 2 371 96.8% 2 506 97.7% Chemistry 915 96.4% 996 94.6% 1 069 97.4% 1 263 97.8% 1 385 98.5% Source: Nacionalinė švietimo agentūra (2022[4]), Rezultatų analizės, https://www.nsa.smm.lt/egzaminai-ir-pasiekimu-patikrinimai/brandos-egzaminai/rezultatai/ (accessed on 28 February 2023). Lithuania State Matura Results, 2018-22
  • 26. Policy option 1: Continual improvement for high quality assessment ➢ Support Matura item developers to produce high-quality items that fulfil their purpose • Clear specifications to guide item development • Use the results of technical analysis to drive improvements • Introduce adjustments to promote consistent standards from year to year ➢ Develop continuous review, research and evaluation to ensure that the Matura remains fit for purpose • Introduce continuous review, research and evaluation including investigating the reasons for the mathematics 2022 results • Develop the examinations team in the National Agency for Education as an independent centre of assessment expertise
  • 27. Strengthening the project assignment to assess a broader range of skills Pursue interests ➢ Students tend to find project assessments stimulating and engaging → space to pursue their interests ➢ Can support skills development e.g. organisation, independence, self-regulation → transfer to other subjects and assessments ➢ Support perceived relevance of the Matura among students, teachers, employers, HE → promote learning and teaching goals of Lithuania’s new curriculum Accessibility • Clear expectations • VET Project Reliability • Controlled assessment • Robust moderation Validity •Exemplars of student work •Communities of practice •Sample assessment instruments
  • 28. Promoting greater differentiation, specialisation and options within the Matura Science Moral education Ethics ➢ All students (GEN and VET) study a wide breadth of general subjects in upper secondary Social science Physical Education Language Lithuanian Maths
  • 29. Promoting greater differentiation, specialisation and options within the Matura Science Moral education Ethics ➢ All students (GEN and VET) study a wide breadth of subjects in upper secondary ➢ Yet only 3 count for selection to tertiary entry ➢ Breadth of content → less space for specialisation and depth ➢ Absence of assessments across broad learning areas → reduces incentives for student learning and motivation across all subjects Social science Physical Education Language Lithuania Maths
  • 30. VET students do not take exams that are eligible for tertiary entry % of Matura state exam candidates from VET % of VET students that passed Mathematics 1.7% 19% Lithuanian language and literature 2.4% 71.4% English foreign language 5.0% 93.6% Information Technology 0.7% 56.5 Biology 2.4% 75.6% Chemistry 0.6% 60% Physics 1.6% 77.4% History 2.8% 92.6% Geography 6.3% 97.2% Source: NEA (2022)
  • 31. The same certification ≠ parity 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 General programmes Vocational programmes All programmes Share of entrants to bachelor's programmes who entered tertiary education directly from upper secondary education, by upper secondary programme orientation (2020) Source: OECD Education at a Glance (2022) Enrolment of general students in tertiary education is 69 percentage points higher than the enrolment of VET students. 16 percentage points difference on average
  • 32. Three types of baccalauréat - France ISCED 6 – bachelor’s, masters…. ISCED 6 – technical programmes or ISCED 5 – short course technical programmes ISCED 5 – technical and applied short course tertiary programmes Source: Ministère de l’Education Nationale et de la Jeunesse (n.d.), Réussir au lycée, https://www.education.gouv.fr/reussir-au-lycee (accessed on 1 May 2023).
  • 33. Policy option 3: Providing more flexible choices and options within Matura ➢ Support a better match between course and examination choices • Move forward with plans to provide Lithuanian and mathematics at general and higher levels • Choose to promote breadth or depth with the Matura ➢ Meet the needs of vocational upper secondary students in the Matura • Develop a dedicated upper secondary certification for vocational students e.g. fewer general subjects, content adapted to occupational-focus of VET programmes