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Consumer Attitude Formation and change

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Consumer Attitude Formation and change
Attitude
What Are Attitudes?
Structural Models of Attitudes
Tricomponent Attitude Model
Multiattribute Attitude Models
A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action
Theory of Trying to Consume
Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
Changing the Basic Motivational Function
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

Published in: Education
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Consumer Attitude Formation and change

  1. 1. 8 - 1 Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Prepared By: Mr. Nishant Agrawal
  2. 2. 8 - 2 Chapter Outline • What Are Attitudes? • Structural Models of Attitudes • Attitude Formation • Strategies of Attitude Changes • Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude Formation
  3. 3. 8 - 3 Attitude A learned predisposition / tendency to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
  4. 4. 8 - 4 A Company Which Specializes in Attitude Measurement
  5. 5. 8 - 5 What Are Attitudes? • The Attitude “Object” – Attitude should be interpreted broadly to include specific consumption • Attitudes are a learned predisposition – Attitude relevant to purchase are formed as a result of direct experience with the product • Attitudes have consistency – Attitude is relatively consistent with behavior they reflect. • Attitudes occur within a situation – Consumer can have variety of attitude towards particular object.
  6. 6. 8 - 6 This attempts to change the attitude toward calcium in a soft drink situation.
  7. 7. 8 - 7 Structural Models of Attitudes • Tricomponent Attitude Model • Multiattribute Attitude Model • The Trying-to-Consume Model • Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
  8. 8. 8 - 8 Cognition Tricomponent Attitude Model Figure 8.2
  9. 9. 8 - 9 The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative Components •The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. Ex. LCD Vs LED •It is important from viewpoint of developing brand and new product are launched.
  10. 10. 8 - 10 The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative •A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand •This emotions are treated by consumer researches as primarily evaluation in nature. Components
  11. 11. 8 - 11 Broadband Internet Access Figure 8-3
  12. 12. 8 - 12 The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative •The tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object. •It is frequently treated as an expression of consumer’s intention to buy. Components
  13. 13. 8 - 13 Discussion Question • Explain your attitude toward your college/university based on the tricomponent attribute model. Be sure to isolate the cognitive, affective, and conative elements
  14. 14. 8 - 14 MultiattributeMultiattribute AttitudeAttitude ModelsModels Attitude models that examine the work of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.
  15. 15. 8 - 15 Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of- reasoned-action model • Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations • Useful to measure attitudes toward brands or product. • What customer feel are important feature. • Ex. LCD Vs LED Types
  16. 16. 8 - 16 Positive attitudes toward brands help with brand extensions
  17. 17. 8 - 17 Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of- reasoned-action model • Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself • Corresponds closely to actual behavior. • Ex. BMW Types
  18. 18. 8 - 18 Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of- reasoned-action model (TRA) • Includes cognitive, affective, and conative components • Includes subjective norms in addition to attitude • Arrange in the different pattern than tricomponent model. Types
  19. 19. 8 - 19 A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action - Figure 8.5
  20. 20. 8 - 20 Discussion Question • Now use the theory of reasoned action to describe your attitude toward your college/university when deciding on which school to attend.
  21. 21. 8 - 21 Subjective Norms Are Extremely Important for Teens
  22. 22. 8 - 22 Theory of Trying to Consume An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).
  23. 23. 8 - 23 Ad illustrating the theory of trying to consume
  24. 24. 8 - 24 Table 8.6 Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact Trying POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS “I wonder whether my hair will be longer by the time of my wedding.” “I want to try to lose two inches off my waist by my birthday.” “I’m going to try to get tickets for the Rolling Stones concert for our anniversary.” “I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.” “I am going to increase how often I run two miles from three to five times a week.” “Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.” POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS “The first 1,000 people at the baseball game will receive a team cap.” “Sorry, the car you ordered didn’t come in from Japan on the ship that docked yesterday.” “There are only two cases of chardonnay in our stockroom. You better come in sometime today.” “I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of an electrical problem.”
  25. 25. 8 - 25 Attitude-Attitude- Toward-the-Toward-the- Ad ModelAd Model A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.
  26. 26. 8 - 26 A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model - Figure 8.7
  27. 27. 8 - 27 Issues in Attitude Formation • How attitudes are learned – Conditioning and experience – Knowledge and beliefs • Sources of influence on attitude formation – Personal experience – Influence of family, friend ,Direct marketing & mass media • Personality factors – Celebrity personality
  28. 28. 8 - 28 Strategies of Attitude Change 1. Changing the Basic Motivational Function 2. Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event 3. Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes 4. Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model 5. Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands
  29. 29. 8 - 29 Discussion Question • A local pizza restaurant is having a hard time attracting customers due to a poor image. Explain how they can change people’s attitudes
  30. 30. 8 - 30 Changing the Basic Motivational Function 1. Utilitarian – Consumer value a particular brand because of its valuable function. When a consumer is having an experience of using a product in past, he will tend to have positive opinion about it. – So marketer can change the attitude of consumer by focusing on the useful function which the consumers are not aware of. – Eg: Hit which can be used to kill mosquito and cockroach.
  31. 31. 8 - 31 Continue… 2. Ego-defensive – It is natural that most of the consumer wants to protect their self images and they want to feel secure and safe about the product which they are going to buy. – Many advertisements helps the consumer to feel secure and confident by which the marketer tries to changes the attitude by offering reassurance to the consumers self concept. Eg: Bolero advertisement. 3. Knowledge – Customers always have the advise of knowing more about the products. This “need to know” is considered to be important while positioning the product..
  32. 32. 8 - 32 Continue… 4. Value-expressive – Attitudes are an expression or reflection of the consumer’s general values, lifestyles, and outlook. – If a consumer segment generally holds a positive attitude toward owning the latest designer jeans, then their attitudes toward new brands of designer jeans are likely to reflect that orientation. – Thus by knowing target consumers attitudes, marketers can better anticipate their values, lifestyles or outlook and can reflect these characteristics in their advertising and direct marketing efforts.
  33. 33. 8 - 33 Swiffer Appeals to Utilitarian Function weblink
  34. 34. 8 - 34 Crest uses a knowledge appeal.
  35. 35. 8 - 35 ElaborationElaboration LikelihoodLikelihood ModelModel (ELM)(ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.
  36. 36. 8 - 36 Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? • Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase)Behave (Purchase) Form AttitudeForm AttitudeForm Attitude
  37. 37. 8 - 37 Cognitive Dissonance / disagreement Theory There is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their beliefs, opinions. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviours something must change to eliminate the conflict.
  38. 38. 8 - 38 AttributionAttribution TheoryTheory A theory concerned with how people assign causalty to events and form their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior.
  39. 39. 8 - 39 Issues in Attribution Theory • Self-perception Theory – Foot-in-the-Door Technique • Attributions toward Others • Attributions toward Things • How We Test Our Attributions – Distinctiveness – Consistency over time – Consistency over modality – Consensus
  40. 40. 8 - 40 End of Session "I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work."

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