Chapter8consumer attitude-formation-and-change-091011084913-phpapp01

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Chapter8consumer attitude-formation-and-change-091011084913-phpapp01

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Consumer AttitudeFormation and Change Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Chapter Outline • What Are Attitudes? • Structural Models of Attitudes • Attitude Formation • Strategies of Attitude Changes • Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude FormationCopyright 2007 by 8-2
  3. 3. A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently Attitude favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.Copyright 2007 by 8-3
  4. 4. A Company Which Specializes in Attitude Measurement weblinkCopyright 2007 by 8-4
  5. 5. What Are Attitudes? • The attitude “object” • Attitudes are a learned predisposition • Attitudes have consistency • Attitudes occur within a situationCopyright 2007 by 8-5
  6. 6. This attempts to change the attitude toward calcium in a soft drink situation.Copyright 2007 by 8-6
  7. 7. Structural Models of Attitudes • Tricomponent Attitude Model • Multiattribute Attitude Model • The Trying-to-Consume Model • Attitude-Toward-the-Ad ModelCopyright 2007 by 8-7
  8. 8. A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model Figure 8.2 CognitionCopyright 2007 by 8-8
  9. 9. The Tricomponent Model Components • Cognitive The knowledge and perceptions that are • Affective acquired by a • Conative combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sourcesCopyright 2007 by 8-9
  10. 10. The Tricomponent Model Components • Cognitive A consumer’s • Affective emotions or feelings about a particular • Conative product or brand Starbucks CoffeeCopyright 2007 by 8 - 10
  11. 11. The Tricomponent Model Components • Cognitive The likelihood or • Affective tendency that an individual will • Conative undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitudeCopyright 2007 by object 8 - 11
  12. 12. Discussion Question • Explain your attitude toward your college/university based on the tricomponent attribute model. Be sure to isolate the cognitive, affective, and conative elementsCopyright 2007 by 8 - 12
  13. 13. Broadband Internet Access Figure 8-3Copyright 2007 by 8 - 13
  14. 14. Attitude models that examine the Multiattribute composition of Attitude consumer attitudes Models in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 14
  15. 15. Multiattribute Attitude Models Types• The attitude-toward- • Attitude is function of object model evaluation of product-• The attitude-toward- specific beliefs and behavior model evaluations• Theory-of- • Useful to measure attitudes toward reasoned-action brands modelCopyright 2007 by 8 - 15
  16. 16. Positive attitudes toward brands help with brand extensionsCopyright 2007 by 8 - 16
  17. 17. Multiattribute Attitude Models Types• The attitude-toward- • Is the attitude toward object model behaving or acting• The attitude-toward- with respect to an behavior model object, rather than the• Theory-of- attitude toward the object itself reasoned-action model • Corresponds closely to actual behaviorCopyright 2007 by 8 - 17
  18. 18. Multiattribute Attitude Models Types• The attitude-toward- • Includes cognitive, object model affective, and• The attitude-toward- conative components behavior model • Includes subjective• Theory-of- norms in addition to attitude reasoned-action modelCopyright 2007 by 8 - 18
  19. 19. A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action - Figure 8.5Copyright 2007 by 8 - 19
  20. 20. Discussion Question • Now use the theory of reasoned action to describe your attitude toward your college/university when deciding on which school to attend.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 20
  21. 21. Subjective Norms Are Extremely Important for TeensweblinkCopyright 2007 by 8 - 21
  22. 22. An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases Theory of where the action or Trying to outcome is not certain Consume but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).Copyright 2007 by 8 - 22
  23. 23. Ad illustrating the theory of trying to consumeCopyright 2007 by 8 - 23
  24. 24. Table 8.6 Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact Trying POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS “I wonder whether my hair will be longer by the time of my wedding.” “I want to try to lose two inches off my waist by my birthday.” “I’m going to try to get tickets for the Rolling Stones concert for our anniversary.” “I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.” “I am going to increase how often I run two miles from three to five times a week.” “Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.” POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS “The first 1,000 people at the baseball game will receive a team cap.” “Sorry, the car you ordered didn’t come in from Japan on the ship that docked yesterday.” “There are only two cases of chardonnay in our stockroom. You better come in sometime today.” “I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of an electrical problem.”Copyright 2007 by 8 - 24
  25. 25. A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments Attitude- (cognitions) as the result Toward-the- of exposure to an Ad Model advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 25
  26. 26. This ad attempts to build a positive attitude toward the ad.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 26
  27. 27. A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude- Toward-the-Ad Model - Figure 8.7Copyright 2007 by 8 - 27
  28. 28. Issues in Attitude Formation • How attitudes are learned – Conditioning and experience – Knowledge and beliefs • Sources of influence on attitude formation – Personal experience – Influence of family – Direct marketing and mass media • Personality factorsCopyright 2007 by 8 - 28
  29. 29. Strategies of Attitude Change 1. Changing the Basic Motivational Function 2. Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event 3. Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes 4. Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model 5. Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ BrandsCopyright 2007 by 8 - 29
  30. 30. Discussion Question • A local pizza restaurant is having a hard time attracting customers due to a poor image. Explain how they can change people’s attitudes by using three of the following: – Changing the Basic Motivational Function – Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event – Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes – Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model – Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ BrandsCopyright 2007 by 8 - 30
  31. 31. Changing the Basic Motivational Function • Utilitarian • Ego-defensive • Value-expressive • KnowledgeCopyright 2007 by 8 - 31
  32. 32. Swiffer Appeals to Utilitarian Function weblinkCopyright 2007 by 8 - 32
  33. 33. Crest uses a knowledge appeal.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 33
  34. 34. A theory that suggests that a person’s level Elaboration of involvement during Likelihood message processing is Model a critical factor in (ELM) determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 34
  35. 35. Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? • Cognitive Dissonance Theory Behave (Purchase) • Attribution Theory Form Attitude Form AttitudeCopyright 2007 by 8 - 35
  36. 36. Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when Cognitive a consumer holds Dissonance conflicting thoughts Theory about a belief or an attitude object.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 36
  37. 37. A theory concerned with how people assign causalty to events and Attribution form or alter their Theory attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior.Copyright 2007 by 8 - 37
  38. 38. Issues in Attribution Theory • Self-perception Theory – Foot-in-the-Door Technique • Attributions toward Others • Attributions toward Things • How We Test Our Attributions – Distinctiveness – Consistency over time – Consistency over modality – Consensus weblinkCopyright 2007 by 8 - 38

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