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Individual Determinants
of Consumer Behaviour
Introduction
• Consumer Behaviour is influenced by
many factors like, individual, group,
social, economical cultural determinants.
• Among them individual determinants like,
motivation, personality, attitude and self-
concept play a very important role. This
chapter takes you through the details of
the said variables in individual
determinants.
Motivation
• Motivation is what makes people move
and act. Motivation refers to the
initiation, direction, intensity and
persistence of behavior.
• Motivation is having the desire and
willingness to do something. It is the
driving force of all human behavior.
• Motivation is formally defined as the
state of drive or arousal, which impels
behaviour towards a goal object.
• Thus motivation is comprised of two
components –
– Drive or arousal, and
– Goal Object.
Theories of Motivation
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
• Maslow's theory contended that as humans meet
'basic needs', they seek to satisfy successively
'higher needs' that occupy a set hierarchy.
• Higher level needs are dormant till the lower levels
are satisfied. In effect, according to this theory,
dissatisfaction and not satisfaction motivates
behaviour.
This theory is based on four assumptions:
1. All human beings acquire a similar set of
motives through genetic factors as also
social influences.
2. Some motives among these are more basic
than others.
3. First the more basic motives are to be
satisfied to a minimum level before other
motives are activated.
4. As more and more basic motives are satisfied,
more advanced motives come into effect.
McGuire’s Psychological Motives
• McGuire proposed a system of
classification, by which marketers
could isolate motives likely to be
involved in various consumption
situations.
• In this system, motivation is first divided into
four categories based on two criteria:
– Cognitive motivation or affective motivation:
Cognitive motives deal with a consumer’s need for
adapting to the environment and achieving a sense
of meaning while satisfying the need. Affective
motive is the one wherein the individual gets a
feeling of satisfaction while attaining personal
goals.
– Preservation of status quo or growth focus: Status-
quo goal emphasizes on maintaining equilibrium
while the growth-oriented motive emphasizes
development.
• These four categories are further divided
into 16 categories, based on the source
and objective of the motive as under:
• Whether the behaviour is actively
initiated or whether it is in response to
the environment.
• Whether the behaviour helps the
consumer to achieve a new internal state
or whether it creates new external
relationship to the environment.
Cognitive Preservation Motives:
• Need for consistency (active, internal): A consumer always desires to have
consistency in attitudes, behaviours, opinions, self-image, etc. If there is any
inconsistency, the consumer will try to reduce such inconsistency. One of the
examples is that of “Cognitive Dissonance” wherein the consumer tries to
resolve the conflict in his mind of a wrong decision on a purchase by actively
supporting decision in his own mind by selective exposure and search. This will
be dealt with more detail later. It is important for marketers to design their
advertising campaigns so that the consumer beliefs are consistent with the
information provided in the advertisement. If the objective of the marketer is
to change the consumer’s attitude, different strategies have to be used which
will be discussed later.
• .
• Need for attribution (active, external): This
motive attributes the reason for a favourable or
unfavourable outcome of a decision to self or to some
outside element. This is based an area of research
called as “ Attribution Theory” When a consumer feels
that the salesman who is describing the product
features is doing so for getting his commission,
•
• he/she will discount the advice by attributing sales
motive to the salesman. A similar advice given by a
friend or relative may be accepted more readily since
the consumer feels that this person is trying to be
helpful. Since the consumers always attribute motives
to the messages received by them from advertisements
or sales people, many of these messages may not have
the intended impact. One approach to overcome this is
to use a credible spokes person in the ads
• Need to categorise (passive, internal): Consumers always
organize the information received by them in meaningful and
manageable categories. This will help them to process the vast
amount of information in a proper way. For example, the consumer
may categorise the price parameter of a product while taking a
purchase decision. Hence Bata’s pricing strategy of prices for their
footwear such as Rs. 99.95 instead of Rs. 100 will elicit better
response since the consumer will categorise this product as being
below Rs.100 level.
• Need for objectification (passive, external): Feelings,
impressions and attitudes of consumers are established by
observing and comparing cues and symbols from outside. An
individual always compares own behaviour with that of others and
comes to conclusions as to these impressions. Clothing companies
like Raymonds make use of this need to promote their products by
presenting a subtle meaning of the desired image and lifestyle to
the consumer.
Cognitive Growth Motives:
• Need for autonomy (active, internal): This is
the need for individuality and independence. This is
characteristic of some cultures like that of USA. All
cultures have this need at different levels,
depending on the social acceptance of this need.
While in America this need is actively encouraged
from childhood, in Japan, this need is discouraged.
Marketers respond to this need by designing their
products with unique features or by offering a wide
variety of products. Many go for customisation of
options as per the individualistic needs. Many
products are advertised as unique, independent
and individualistic to cater to this need.
• Need for stimulation (active, external): This
is a variety seeking behaviour of a consumer just
for self-stimulation. This behaviour results in
brand switching and also impulse purchases.
• This need for stimulation keeps changing over
time. Some consumers who in their early years
want rapid changes become more stable over a
period of time desiring stability. Some consumers
who prefer stable environments may start getting
bored & then look for stimulation by desiring
change.
• Teleological Need (passive, internal):
Consumers have certain images of desired
outcomes and they try to compare that to
their current status. Behaviours are constantly
changed and the results are continuously
monitored, by moving towards the desired
state. This motive moves people to prefer
certain patterns like good guys winning, hero
and heroine getting together, etc. in mass
media like movies, books, television serials
etc. Marketers make use of these motives by
designing their ad campaigns suitably.
• Utilitarian Need (Passive, external): In
this need, consumer is vied as a problem
solver who always approaches situations or
opportunities to acquire useful information
and skills. For example, a consumer may
learn new fashions and clothing styles,
etiquette, lifestyles, etc. while watching a
movie or a TV serial. Consumers may also
approach advertising campaigns and store
displays as a source of learning for future
or current purchase decisions.
• Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs:
Murray identified six psychogenic needs of individuals
resulting in certain marketplace behaviours. These are:
• Autonomy need-results in impulse buying, wearing
unconventional clothes, etc.
– Dominance need- results in aggressively demanding attention in
service organisations
– Nurturance need – results in donating to humanitarian causes
–
– Exhibition need- results in wearing high fashion clothing
–
– Cognizance need- results in visiting museums, learning about
new technology, etc.
– Exposition need- results in playing opinion leaders.
9-19
Customer vs. Consumer Behavior
• Customer behaviorCustomer behavior
• Consumer behaviorConsumer behavior
9-20
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer
Behavior
• Cultural InfluencesCultural Influences
– Culture
– ethnocentrism
9-21
• Core Values inCore Values in
the U.S. Culturethe U.S. Culture
– While some cultural
values change over
time, basic core
values do not
9-22
• International Perspective onInternational Perspective on
Cultural InfluencesCultural Influences
– Cultural differences are particularly
important for international marketers
9-23
• Subcultures:Subcultures: subgroup of culture
with its own, distinct modes of
behavior
• Subcultures can differ by:
– Ethnicity
– Nationality
– Age
– Religion
– Geographic
distribution
9-24
0.40%
12.10%
12.50%
1.80%
0.70%
3.10%
Hispanic American
African Americans
Asian American
Native American
Two or More Races
Other
Note: Percentages have been rounded.
SOURCE: Data from Roger Simon and Angie Cannon, “An Amazing Journey,” U.S. News & World Report,
August 6. 2001, p. 12.
 Ethnic and Racial MinoritiesEthnic and Racial Minorities
9-25
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer
Behavior
• Social InfluencesSocial Influences
Group membership influences an
individual’s purchase decisions and
behavior in both overt and subtle
ways.
– Norms
– Status
– Roles
9-26
• Jordache
– Advertisement
Illustrating the
Influence of
Friendship
Groups on
Purchase
Decisions
9-27
• The Asch Phenomenon:The Asch Phenomenon: the
effect of a reference group on
individual decision-making
• Reference groupsReference groups
• The purchased product must
be one that others can see
and identify.
• The purchased item must be
conspicuous
9-28
• Social classes:Social classes: groups whose
rankings are determined by
occupation, income, education,
family background, and residence
location W. Lloyd Warner
identified
six classes:
1. Upper-upper
2. Lower-upper
3. Upper-middle
4. Lower-middle
5. Working class
6. Lower class
9-29
• Opinion leaders:Opinion leaders: individuals
likely to purchase new products
before others and then share the
resulting experiences and opinions
by word-of-mouth
Alternative Channels for Communications
Flow
9-30
• Family InfluencesFamily Influences
– Autonomic
– Husband-dominant
– Wife-dominant
– Syncratic
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer
Behavior
9-31
• Children andChildren and
teenagers inteenagers in
family purchasesfamily purchases
– Growing numbers
are assuming
responsibility for
family shopping
– They also
influence what
parents buy
– They represent
over 50 million
consumers in their
own right
9-32
Personal Determinants of Consumer
Behavior
9-33
Why do you see so many people wearing
football clothing?
What drives that kind of consumer behavior?
9-34
• Needs and MotivesNeeds and Motives
– Need
– Motives
9-35
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Self-Actualization
9-36
• Lindblad Special
Expeditions
– Service Aimed
at Satisfying a
Self-
actualization
Need
9-37
• PerceptualPerceptual
screens:screens: the
filtering
processes
through which
all inputs must
pass
• Sony
– Breaking Through
Perceptual Screens
9-38
• Subliminal Perception:Subliminal Perception:
subconscious receipt of information
– Almost 50 years ago, a New Jersey
movie theater tried to boost concession
sales by flashing the words Eat Popcorn
and Drink Coca-Cola.
– Research has shown that subliminal
messages cannot force receivers to
purchase goods that they would not
consciously want.
9-39
• AttitudesAttitudes
–Attitudes: enduring evaluations,
emotional feelings, or action
tendencies toward some object or
data
–Attitude components:
• cognitive
• affective
• behavioral
9-40
This advertisement deals with feelings or
emotional reactions many of us have felt at one
time or another.
9-41
• ChangingChanging
ConsumerConsumer
AttitudesAttitudes
– Marketers have
two choices to
lead prospective
buyers to adopt a
favorable attitude
toward their
product:
9-42
• Modifying theModifying the
Components ofComponents of
AttitudeAttitude
– Marketers can
work to modify
attitudes by
providing evidence
of product benefits
and by correcting
misconceptions
9-43
• Learning:Learning: an immediate or
expected change in behavior as a
result of experience
– Drive
– Cue
– Response
– Reinforcement
9-44
• Self-Concept:Self-Concept: person’s
multifaceted picture of himself or
herself, composed of the real self,
self-image, looking-glass self, and
ideal self
9-45
The Consumer Decision Process
• Consumers complete a
step-by-step process
when making purchase
decisions
– High-involvement
– Low-involvement
SearchSearch
AlternativAlternativ
ee
EvaluationEvaluation
PurchasePurchase
DecisionDecision
PurchasePurchase
ActAct
Post-Post-
purchasepurchase
EvaluationEvaluation
ProblemProblem
OpportuniOpportuni
tyty
RecognitioRecognitio
nn
9-46
This advertisement shows how the customer is
helped through the buying decision making
process…a little unusual but effective none the
less.
9-47
• Problem or OpportunityProblem or Opportunity
RecognitionRecognition
– Consumer becomes aware of a
significant discrepancy between the
existing situation and the desired
situation
– Motivates the individual to achieve
the desired state of affairs
9-48
Evoked Set ModelEvoked Set Model
AllAll
BrandsBrands
AllAll
BrandsBrands
UnknownUnknown
BrandsBrands
UnknownUnknown
BrandsBrands
KnownKnown
BrandsBrands
KnownKnown
BrandsBrands
OverlookedOverlooked
BrandsBrands
OverlookedOverlooked
BrandsBrands
UnacceptableUnacceptable
BrandsBrands
UnacceptableUnacceptable
BrandsBrands
AcceptableAcceptable
BrandsBrands
AcceptableAcceptable
BrandsBrands
RejectedRejected
BrandsBrands
RejectedRejected
BrandsBrands
PurchasedPurchased
BrandBrand
PurchasedPurchased
BrandBrand
EvokedEvoked
SetSet
InertInert
SetSet
9-49
• Evaluation of AlternativesEvaluation of Alternatives
– Consumer evaluates the evoked set
– Outcome of the evaluation stage is
the choice of a brand or product
– Evaluative criteria: features that a
consumer considers in choosing a
model alternatives
9-50
• Progresso
– An Attempt to
Influence
Evaluative
Criteria
9-51
• Purchase DecisionPurchase Decision
– Consumer narrows the alternatives down
to one
– Next, the purchase location is decided
• Purchase ActPurchase Act
– Consumers tend to choose outlets by
considering such characteristics as
location, price, assortment, personnel,
store image, physical design, and services
– Some choose the convenience of in-home
shopping
9-52
• Post-purchasePost-purchase
EvaluationEvaluation
– After the
purchase,
consumers are
either satisfied or
experience
cognitive
dissonance (CD)
– Michelin relieving
CD
9-53
• Classifying Consumer Problem-Classifying Consumer Problem-
Solving ProcessesSolving Processes
• Routinized Response BehaviorRoutinized Response Behavior
– Purchases made routinely by
choosing a preferred brand or one of
a limited group of acceptable brands
9-54
• Limited Problem SolvingLimited Problem Solving
– Situation where the consumer has
previously set evaluative criteria for a
particular kind of purchase but then
encounters a new, unknown brand or
item
9-55
• Extended Problem SolvingExtended Problem Solving
– Results when brands are difficult to
categorize or evaluate
– High-involvement purchase
decisions usually require extended
problem solving
ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:
LOW CONSUMER EFFORT
How are Attitudes formed through
Affect (Emotion)?
• The mere
exposure effect
• Classical
conditioning
• Attitude toward
the ad
• Mood
The Mere Exposure Effect
• Tendency to prefer
known over unknown
objects
• Not dependent on
reasoning or active
consideration
• W
Classical Conditioning
• Originally
developed by
physiologist
(Pavlov)
• “Linking” between
two objects
causes association
– e.g., a beautiful
woman and a car
Terms
• Unconditioned
response
• Unconditioned
stimulus
• Conditioned
stimulus
• Conditioned
response
Making Classical Conditioning Work
• Appropriate
symbols (for the
population in
question) to elicit
emotion
• NOTE: Test
stimuli for desired
effect!
• Repetition is
critical!
Classical Conditioning Group Exercise
• In groups of 3-5, describe one
specific example of how classical
conditioning could be used by
marketers.
• Create scenario with UR, US, CS
and CR.
– Can be “real example” or one you
make up.
• Be prepared to share your idea
with the class
Attitude Toward the Ad (Aad)
• Transfer of affect
from ad to
product
• Dual Mediation
Hypothesis
The Dual Mediation Hypothesis
Attitude
toward
the ad
Credibility of
message
Attitude
toward
the brand
Mood
• Biasing effect on
attitudes
• Congruence with
product
• Effect of
colors/lighting
on mood
Influencing Affectively Based Low-
Elaboration Attitudes
• Source factors
– attractiveness
– likability
– celebrity status
• Message factors
– Pleasant pictures
– Music
– Humor
– Sex
– Emotional
involvement
• Contextual
factors
– Repetition
– Program/editorial
context
How are Attitudes formed through
Cognition?
• Simple inferences
• Heuristics
– frequency heuristic
Influencing Cognitively Based Low-
Elaboration Attitudes
• Source factors
– Expert/credibility
• Message factors
– Number of
arguments
– Message simplicity
– Involving
• Repetition

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Individual determinants of consumer behaviour

  • 2. Introduction • Consumer Behaviour is influenced by many factors like, individual, group, social, economical cultural determinants. • Among them individual determinants like, motivation, personality, attitude and self- concept play a very important role. This chapter takes you through the details of the said variables in individual determinants.
  • 3. Motivation • Motivation is what makes people move and act. Motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior. • Motivation is having the desire and willingness to do something. It is the driving force of all human behavior.
  • 4. • Motivation is formally defined as the state of drive or arousal, which impels behaviour towards a goal object. • Thus motivation is comprised of two components – – Drive or arousal, and – Goal Object.
  • 5. Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: • Maslow's theory contended that as humans meet 'basic needs', they seek to satisfy successively 'higher needs' that occupy a set hierarchy. • Higher level needs are dormant till the lower levels are satisfied. In effect, according to this theory, dissatisfaction and not satisfaction motivates behaviour.
  • 6. This theory is based on four assumptions: 1. All human beings acquire a similar set of motives through genetic factors as also social influences. 2. Some motives among these are more basic than others. 3. First the more basic motives are to be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated. 4. As more and more basic motives are satisfied, more advanced motives come into effect.
  • 7.
  • 8. McGuire’s Psychological Motives • McGuire proposed a system of classification, by which marketers could isolate motives likely to be involved in various consumption situations.
  • 9. • In this system, motivation is first divided into four categories based on two criteria: – Cognitive motivation or affective motivation: Cognitive motives deal with a consumer’s need for adapting to the environment and achieving a sense of meaning while satisfying the need. Affective motive is the one wherein the individual gets a feeling of satisfaction while attaining personal goals. – Preservation of status quo or growth focus: Status- quo goal emphasizes on maintaining equilibrium while the growth-oriented motive emphasizes development.
  • 10. • These four categories are further divided into 16 categories, based on the source and objective of the motive as under: • Whether the behaviour is actively initiated or whether it is in response to the environment. • Whether the behaviour helps the consumer to achieve a new internal state or whether it creates new external relationship to the environment.
  • 11. Cognitive Preservation Motives: • Need for consistency (active, internal): A consumer always desires to have consistency in attitudes, behaviours, opinions, self-image, etc. If there is any inconsistency, the consumer will try to reduce such inconsistency. One of the examples is that of “Cognitive Dissonance” wherein the consumer tries to resolve the conflict in his mind of a wrong decision on a purchase by actively supporting decision in his own mind by selective exposure and search. This will be dealt with more detail later. It is important for marketers to design their advertising campaigns so that the consumer beliefs are consistent with the information provided in the advertisement. If the objective of the marketer is to change the consumer’s attitude, different strategies have to be used which will be discussed later. • .
  • 12. • Need for attribution (active, external): This motive attributes the reason for a favourable or unfavourable outcome of a decision to self or to some outside element. This is based an area of research called as “ Attribution Theory” When a consumer feels that the salesman who is describing the product features is doing so for getting his commission, • • he/she will discount the advice by attributing sales motive to the salesman. A similar advice given by a friend or relative may be accepted more readily since the consumer feels that this person is trying to be helpful. Since the consumers always attribute motives to the messages received by them from advertisements or sales people, many of these messages may not have the intended impact. One approach to overcome this is to use a credible spokes person in the ads
  • 13. • Need to categorise (passive, internal): Consumers always organize the information received by them in meaningful and manageable categories. This will help them to process the vast amount of information in a proper way. For example, the consumer may categorise the price parameter of a product while taking a purchase decision. Hence Bata’s pricing strategy of prices for their footwear such as Rs. 99.95 instead of Rs. 100 will elicit better response since the consumer will categorise this product as being below Rs.100 level. • Need for objectification (passive, external): Feelings, impressions and attitudes of consumers are established by observing and comparing cues and symbols from outside. An individual always compares own behaviour with that of others and comes to conclusions as to these impressions. Clothing companies like Raymonds make use of this need to promote their products by presenting a subtle meaning of the desired image and lifestyle to the consumer.
  • 14. Cognitive Growth Motives: • Need for autonomy (active, internal): This is the need for individuality and independence. This is characteristic of some cultures like that of USA. All cultures have this need at different levels, depending on the social acceptance of this need. While in America this need is actively encouraged from childhood, in Japan, this need is discouraged. Marketers respond to this need by designing their products with unique features or by offering a wide variety of products. Many go for customisation of options as per the individualistic needs. Many products are advertised as unique, independent and individualistic to cater to this need.
  • 15. • Need for stimulation (active, external): This is a variety seeking behaviour of a consumer just for self-stimulation. This behaviour results in brand switching and also impulse purchases. • This need for stimulation keeps changing over time. Some consumers who in their early years want rapid changes become more stable over a period of time desiring stability. Some consumers who prefer stable environments may start getting bored & then look for stimulation by desiring change.
  • 16. • Teleological Need (passive, internal): Consumers have certain images of desired outcomes and they try to compare that to their current status. Behaviours are constantly changed and the results are continuously monitored, by moving towards the desired state. This motive moves people to prefer certain patterns like good guys winning, hero and heroine getting together, etc. in mass media like movies, books, television serials etc. Marketers make use of these motives by designing their ad campaigns suitably.
  • 17. • Utilitarian Need (Passive, external): In this need, consumer is vied as a problem solver who always approaches situations or opportunities to acquire useful information and skills. For example, a consumer may learn new fashions and clothing styles, etiquette, lifestyles, etc. while watching a movie or a TV serial. Consumers may also approach advertising campaigns and store displays as a source of learning for future or current purchase decisions.
  • 18. • Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs: Murray identified six psychogenic needs of individuals resulting in certain marketplace behaviours. These are: • Autonomy need-results in impulse buying, wearing unconventional clothes, etc. – Dominance need- results in aggressively demanding attention in service organisations – Nurturance need – results in donating to humanitarian causes – – Exhibition need- results in wearing high fashion clothing – – Cognizance need- results in visiting museums, learning about new technology, etc. – Exposition need- results in playing opinion leaders.
  • 19. 9-19 Customer vs. Consumer Behavior • Customer behaviorCustomer behavior • Consumer behaviorConsumer behavior
  • 20. 9-20 Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior • Cultural InfluencesCultural Influences – Culture – ethnocentrism
  • 21. 9-21 • Core Values inCore Values in the U.S. Culturethe U.S. Culture – While some cultural values change over time, basic core values do not
  • 22. 9-22 • International Perspective onInternational Perspective on Cultural InfluencesCultural Influences – Cultural differences are particularly important for international marketers
  • 23. 9-23 • Subcultures:Subcultures: subgroup of culture with its own, distinct modes of behavior • Subcultures can differ by: – Ethnicity – Nationality – Age – Religion – Geographic distribution
  • 24. 9-24 0.40% 12.10% 12.50% 1.80% 0.70% 3.10% Hispanic American African Americans Asian American Native American Two or More Races Other Note: Percentages have been rounded. SOURCE: Data from Roger Simon and Angie Cannon, “An Amazing Journey,” U.S. News & World Report, August 6. 2001, p. 12.  Ethnic and Racial MinoritiesEthnic and Racial Minorities
  • 25. 9-25 Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior • Social InfluencesSocial Influences Group membership influences an individual’s purchase decisions and behavior in both overt and subtle ways. – Norms – Status – Roles
  • 26. 9-26 • Jordache – Advertisement Illustrating the Influence of Friendship Groups on Purchase Decisions
  • 27. 9-27 • The Asch Phenomenon:The Asch Phenomenon: the effect of a reference group on individual decision-making • Reference groupsReference groups • The purchased product must be one that others can see and identify. • The purchased item must be conspicuous
  • 28. 9-28 • Social classes:Social classes: groups whose rankings are determined by occupation, income, education, family background, and residence location W. Lloyd Warner identified six classes: 1. Upper-upper 2. Lower-upper 3. Upper-middle 4. Lower-middle 5. Working class 6. Lower class
  • 29. 9-29 • Opinion leaders:Opinion leaders: individuals likely to purchase new products before others and then share the resulting experiences and opinions by word-of-mouth Alternative Channels for Communications Flow
  • 30. 9-30 • Family InfluencesFamily Influences – Autonomic – Husband-dominant – Wife-dominant – Syncratic Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • 31. 9-31 • Children andChildren and teenagers inteenagers in family purchasesfamily purchases – Growing numbers are assuming responsibility for family shopping – They also influence what parents buy – They represent over 50 million consumers in their own right
  • 32. 9-32 Personal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • 33. 9-33 Why do you see so many people wearing football clothing? What drives that kind of consumer behavior?
  • 34. 9-34 • Needs and MotivesNeeds and Motives – Need – Motives
  • 35. 9-35 • Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Self-Actualization
  • 36. 9-36 • Lindblad Special Expeditions – Service Aimed at Satisfying a Self- actualization Need
  • 37. 9-37 • PerceptualPerceptual screens:screens: the filtering processes through which all inputs must pass • Sony – Breaking Through Perceptual Screens
  • 38. 9-38 • Subliminal Perception:Subliminal Perception: subconscious receipt of information – Almost 50 years ago, a New Jersey movie theater tried to boost concession sales by flashing the words Eat Popcorn and Drink Coca-Cola. – Research has shown that subliminal messages cannot force receivers to purchase goods that they would not consciously want.
  • 39. 9-39 • AttitudesAttitudes –Attitudes: enduring evaluations, emotional feelings, or action tendencies toward some object or data –Attitude components: • cognitive • affective • behavioral
  • 40. 9-40 This advertisement deals with feelings or emotional reactions many of us have felt at one time or another.
  • 41. 9-41 • ChangingChanging ConsumerConsumer AttitudesAttitudes – Marketers have two choices to lead prospective buyers to adopt a favorable attitude toward their product:
  • 42. 9-42 • Modifying theModifying the Components ofComponents of AttitudeAttitude – Marketers can work to modify attitudes by providing evidence of product benefits and by correcting misconceptions
  • 43. 9-43 • Learning:Learning: an immediate or expected change in behavior as a result of experience – Drive – Cue – Response – Reinforcement
  • 44. 9-44 • Self-Concept:Self-Concept: person’s multifaceted picture of himself or herself, composed of the real self, self-image, looking-glass self, and ideal self
  • 45. 9-45 The Consumer Decision Process • Consumers complete a step-by-step process when making purchase decisions – High-involvement – Low-involvement SearchSearch AlternativAlternativ ee EvaluationEvaluation PurchasePurchase DecisionDecision PurchasePurchase ActAct Post-Post- purchasepurchase EvaluationEvaluation ProblemProblem OpportuniOpportuni tyty RecognitioRecognitio nn
  • 46. 9-46 This advertisement shows how the customer is helped through the buying decision making process…a little unusual but effective none the less.
  • 47. 9-47 • Problem or OpportunityProblem or Opportunity RecognitionRecognition – Consumer becomes aware of a significant discrepancy between the existing situation and the desired situation – Motivates the individual to achieve the desired state of affairs
  • 48. 9-48 Evoked Set ModelEvoked Set Model AllAll BrandsBrands AllAll BrandsBrands UnknownUnknown BrandsBrands UnknownUnknown BrandsBrands KnownKnown BrandsBrands KnownKnown BrandsBrands OverlookedOverlooked BrandsBrands OverlookedOverlooked BrandsBrands UnacceptableUnacceptable BrandsBrands UnacceptableUnacceptable BrandsBrands AcceptableAcceptable BrandsBrands AcceptableAcceptable BrandsBrands RejectedRejected BrandsBrands RejectedRejected BrandsBrands PurchasedPurchased BrandBrand PurchasedPurchased BrandBrand EvokedEvoked SetSet InertInert SetSet
  • 49. 9-49 • Evaluation of AlternativesEvaluation of Alternatives – Consumer evaluates the evoked set – Outcome of the evaluation stage is the choice of a brand or product – Evaluative criteria: features that a consumer considers in choosing a model alternatives
  • 50. 9-50 • Progresso – An Attempt to Influence Evaluative Criteria
  • 51. 9-51 • Purchase DecisionPurchase Decision – Consumer narrows the alternatives down to one – Next, the purchase location is decided • Purchase ActPurchase Act – Consumers tend to choose outlets by considering such characteristics as location, price, assortment, personnel, store image, physical design, and services – Some choose the convenience of in-home shopping
  • 52. 9-52 • Post-purchasePost-purchase EvaluationEvaluation – After the purchase, consumers are either satisfied or experience cognitive dissonance (CD) – Michelin relieving CD
  • 53. 9-53 • Classifying Consumer Problem-Classifying Consumer Problem- Solving ProcessesSolving Processes • Routinized Response BehaviorRoutinized Response Behavior – Purchases made routinely by choosing a preferred brand or one of a limited group of acceptable brands
  • 54. 9-54 • Limited Problem SolvingLimited Problem Solving – Situation where the consumer has previously set evaluative criteria for a particular kind of purchase but then encounters a new, unknown brand or item
  • 55. 9-55 • Extended Problem SolvingExtended Problem Solving – Results when brands are difficult to categorize or evaluate – High-involvement purchase decisions usually require extended problem solving
  • 56. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE: LOW CONSUMER EFFORT
  • 57. How are Attitudes formed through Affect (Emotion)? • The mere exposure effect • Classical conditioning • Attitude toward the ad • Mood
  • 58. The Mere Exposure Effect • Tendency to prefer known over unknown objects • Not dependent on reasoning or active consideration • W
  • 59. Classical Conditioning • Originally developed by physiologist (Pavlov) • “Linking” between two objects causes association – e.g., a beautiful woman and a car
  • 60. Terms • Unconditioned response • Unconditioned stimulus • Conditioned stimulus • Conditioned response
  • 61. Making Classical Conditioning Work • Appropriate symbols (for the population in question) to elicit emotion • NOTE: Test stimuli for desired effect! • Repetition is critical!
  • 62. Classical Conditioning Group Exercise • In groups of 3-5, describe one specific example of how classical conditioning could be used by marketers. • Create scenario with UR, US, CS and CR. – Can be “real example” or one you make up. • Be prepared to share your idea with the class
  • 63. Attitude Toward the Ad (Aad) • Transfer of affect from ad to product • Dual Mediation Hypothesis
  • 64. The Dual Mediation Hypothesis Attitude toward the ad Credibility of message Attitude toward the brand
  • 65. Mood • Biasing effect on attitudes • Congruence with product • Effect of colors/lighting on mood
  • 66. Influencing Affectively Based Low- Elaboration Attitudes • Source factors – attractiveness – likability – celebrity status • Message factors – Pleasant pictures – Music – Humor – Sex – Emotional involvement • Contextual factors – Repetition – Program/editorial context
  • 67. How are Attitudes formed through Cognition? • Simple inferences • Heuristics – frequency heuristic
  • 68. Influencing Cognitively Based Low- Elaboration Attitudes • Source factors – Expert/credibility • Message factors – Number of arguments – Message simplicity – Involving • Repetition