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Consumer Attitude Formation and Changes 1784

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complete chapter 8 of consumer behavior by shifman

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Consumer Attitude Formation and Changes 1784

  1. 1. A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Each of us has a vast number of attitudes towards product, services, advertisement, direct mail, the internet and a retail store. For example, (Movado Watches, Kingfisher Airlines, British Airways, big bazar, opoo, www.amzon.com)
  2. 2. • Attitude and behavior are closely related in some sense though they are two different concepts. One of the most important differences between behavior and attitude is that attitude is internal whereas behavior is external in sense. In other words it can be said that behavior can very well be seen by others as it is external whereas attitude is shelled within the mind of the individual and hence cannot be seen by
  3. 3. Any targets of judgment, including people, places, and things, that have an attitude or opinion associated with it. For Example, If we were interested in learning consumer attitude towards the three major brands of washing machines our object might include LG, whirlpool, Haier, Samsung.
  4. 4. A learned predisposition means attitude have a motivational quality: that is, they might propel a consumer towards a particular behavior or repel the consumer away from a particular behavior. For example, This mean that attitude relevant to the purchase behavior are formed as a result of direct experience with the product, W.O.M information acquired from others, or exposure to mass media advertising, the internet, and various forms of direct marketing.
  5. 5. Its means that they are relatively consistent with behavior they reflect. For example, If a Mexican consumer reported preferring Japanese (Toyota) over Korean (Kia) automobiles, we would expect that the individual would be more likely to buy a Japanese brand when his current vehicle needed to be replaced.
  6. 6. It means event or circumstances that at particular point in time, influence he relationship between an attitude and behavior. For example, If Mani stays at a Hampton inn each time out of the town for business. On the country, Mani find Hampton inn to be “just okay” however because he owns his own business and travel at his own expense, he may feel that Hampton Inn is a “good enough” , gives that less than he would be paying if he stayed at a Sheraton or Oberoi hotel.
  7. 7. 1 • Tricomponent Attitude Model 2 • Multiattribute Attitude Model 3 • Theory of trying to consume model 4 • Attitude toward the ad model
  8. 8. Attitudes are generally considered to be made up of three elements. 1. Cognitive Component Knowledge + Perception+ Direct Experience = Beliefs For Example, Amit’s beliefs system for both types of HDTV sets (e.g., LCD and Plasma). This table show the composition of a consumer’s belief system about these two alternatives.
  9. 9. 2. The Affective Component Emotions or feelings ( Happiness, Anger etc) Mood affects the purchase For example, In the table 8.3 a 5 point scale that measure the effective response. 3. The Conative Component Likelihood or tendency. Consumer Intention to buy. For example, “I will buy it”.
  10. 10. Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. Attitude Towards Object Model Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations. For example, HDTV sets (e.g., LCD and Plasma) Attitude Towards Behavior Model A model that proposes that a consumer’s attitude toward a specific behavior is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable).
  11. 11. For Example, Purchased a BMW.  Theory of Reasoned Action Model A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes, intentions, and behavior. A simplified version of theory of reasoned action. Favorable (Positive) Unfavorable (Negative) • High speed • Safe and strong body • Expensive
  12. 12. • An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase). • In this we discuses personal and environmental Impediments as shown in figure.
  13. 13. • A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.
  14. 14. How people form their initial general towards thing. For example, Young people their general attitude towards clothing they wear under wear, casual wears, business atrive.
  15. 15. Attitude formation divided into three areas. • How attitude are learned • Sources of influence on attitude function • Impact of personality on attitude
  16. 16. The shift from no attitude to an attitude. For example, • Noise canceling headphones are great when listing music or watching movie on an airplane. • After shower hair cream (Marico ltd)
  17. 17. • Personal Experience • Influence of family • Influence of friends • Direct marketing • Mass media • Internet
  18. 18. • Its play an important role in attitude formation • For example, It really isn't the world's best kept secret any more. Sachin Tendulkar, virender Sehwag, and Kapil dev before them, have time and again boasted that Boost is the secret of their energy.
  19. 19. • Know a days marketer interested in product categories especially when new product categories come into the marketer For example, In 1970’s Digital watches when introduce not many consumer are familiar to them new digital are well accepted and consumer are familiar to the product categories.
  20. 20. • Attitude changes are learned, they are influenced by personal experience and other sources of information and personality • Altering consumer attitudes is key strategy consideration for most marketers • Marketers introduce special offers and other inducement for consumer, so that they don’t switch to competitors • Example Nike and tide
  21. 21. • Changing consumer’s basic motivational function • Associating product with an admired group or event • Resolving two conflicting attitudes • Altering components of multiattribute model • Changing consumer beliefs about competitor’s brands Changing basic motivational function An effective strategy is to make particular needs prominent. Functional approach • Utilitarian function • Ego-defensive function • Value-expressive function
  22. 22. • We hold certain brand attitudes partly because of brands utility. • When a product has been useful or helped us in past, our attitude towards it tends to be favorable. Example of Nokia mobile phones. • High priced brands need to make consumers aware of application of product whenever possible. For example brand of dish washing. Ego-defensive function Most people want to protect their self-image from inner feelings of doubt. • They want to replace their uncertainty with a sense of security and personal confidence. For example Ads for cosmetics and fashion clothing. • During 1980’s, Colgate & double action lifebuoy plus used this approach.
  23. 23. • If consumer segment generally holds a positive attitude toward owning the latest designer jeans, then their attitudes towards new brands of designer jeans are likely to reflect that orientation. • Charms cigarettes, launched during early 1980’s,created an attitude based on “freedom and rebellion” Knowledge function • The consumer’s “need to know” a cognitive need is important to marketers concerned with product positioning. • Many products and brands are attempts to satisfy the need to know consumer’s attitude. For example The vaccumizer was a new concept product used to preserve food.
  24. 24. • Because different consumers may like and dislike the same product or service for different reasons. • Google for instance seems to have created attitudes using several functions. • Google wave can be used for official communication (utilitarian approach) • To share videos with friends to enhance his/her self concept(ego- defensive function) • To have a strong sense of belonging(value-expressive function ) • Have a search process to satisfy
  25. 25. • Attitudes are related, at least in part to certain groups, social events, or causes. • It is possible to alter attitudes toward companies and their products by pointing out their relationships to particular groups, events. • For example: Aircel has partnered with world wildlife fund India to create “save our tigers” initiative.
  26. 26. • Attitude-change strategies can sometimes resolve actual or potential conflict between two attitudes. For example Jaison is amateur photographer who has been thinking of moving from his point-and shoot digital camera to DSLR.
  27. 27. • Changing the relative evaluation of attributes. • Changing brand beliefs. • Adding an attributes. • Changing the overall brand rating. Changing the relative evaluation of attributes • The overall market for many product categories is often set out so that different consumer segments are offered different brands with different benefits. For example coffee, the market can be divided into regular coffee, flavored coffee and decaffeinated coffee.
  28. 28. • A second cognitive-oriented strategy for changing attitudes concentrates on changing beliefs or perception about the brand itself. • This is by far the most common form of advertising appeal. Adding an attribute • This can be accomplished either by adding an attribute that previously has been ignored. • Enhancing the product. For example
  29. 29. • Still another cognitive-oriented strategy consists of attempting to alter consumer’s overall assessment of brand directly, without change their evaluation of any single brand. • Relies on some form of global statement “this is largest selling brand”.
  30. 30. To another approach to attitude change strategy Involves consumer beliefs about the attributes Competitive brands and product categories. For example, Advertising for eclipse chewing gum makes a dramatic assertions of product superiority over other gum by claiming that most just mask makes bad breath, we kill the germs that cause it.
  31. 31. A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during ,message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.(see also central and peripheral routes to persuasion. Central Route & peripheral route The central route is particularly relevant to attitude change when consumer’s motivation or ability to assess the attitude object is high(high involvement products) Peripheral Route consumer less motivated to think, learning through repetition, visual cues, holistic perception.
  32. 32. • A attitude toward the brand • W importance of attitude I • L The ideal performance on attitude I • X Beliefs about a brand’s actual performance on attitude I • N the number of salient features
  33. 33. • A model that captures consumer perception on the Ideal brand(with ideal feature) and compares with consumer perception on existing Brands.(associated with demographic and Psychographic) E.g If the model is applied to a brand of TV say ‘A’ the following attributes can be identified. • 1 picture Quality • 2 audio quality • 3 usefulness of special features • 4 handling ease • 5 esthetic appeal • 6 compactness
  34. 34. • A brand can find out how close it is to the ‘Ideal’ brand. For example IF the shampoo brand wants to shift the importance of attributes by introducing a new benefit ‘spreading action to make the roots stronger’ the perception of the consumer needs to be captured before the brand uses this attributes.
  35. 35. • Learning Objective • To Understand how Consumers Attitudes can lead to behavior and how behavior can lead to Attitude • Attitude formation and attitude change has stressed that consumers develop their attitudes before taking action ‘know what you doing before you do it’ • For analytical and Logical analysis we have Cognitive Dissonance theory and Attribution Theory each provide different explanation why behavior might precede attitude formation
  36. 36. A Cognitive Dissonance Theory or dissonance or discomfort when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. For example Consider someone who buys an expensive car but discovers that it is not comfortable on long drives. Dissonance exists between their beliefs that they have bought a good car and that a good car should be comfortable. Dissonance could be eliminated by deciding that it does not matter since the car is mainly used for short trips (reducing the importance of the dissonant belief) or focusing on the cars strengths such as safety, appearance, handling (thereby adding more consonant beliefs). The dissonance could also be eliminated by getting rid of the car, but this behavior is a lot harder to achieve than changing beliefs When a cognitive dissonance occurs after purchase it is called as Post-purchase Dissonance. Because purchase decision often require some amount of compromise, post purchase dissonance is quite normal. The greatest dissonance is created when the two
  37. 37. • As a group of loosely interrelated social psychological principles ,Attribution theory attempts to explain how people assigns causality e.g blame or credit to events on the basis of either their own behavior or the behavior of others. How do we attach meaning to other's behavior, or our own? This is called attribution theory. For example, if someone angry because they are bad-tempered or because something bad happened ? This process of making inferences about one’s own or another behavior is a major component of attitude formation and change . • Attribution Theory is certainly part of our everyday life as companies continue to have their name in football stadiums and sponsor of all types of charitable events Research indicates that the better the match between a sponsor and event the more positive outcome is likely to be. There is an evidence to suggest that consumers are willing to reward high efforts firms. Appreciates the efforts of firms
  38. 38. Self-perception theory posits that people determine their attitudes and preferences by interpreting the meaning of their own behavior. 1. internal and external attribution consist on locus of control etc. 2. The defensive attribution hypothesis (or defensive attribution bias) is a social psychological term from the attribution approach referring to a set of beliefs about who is culpable in a given situation. 3. Foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique is a compliance tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request. The foot-in-the-door technique succeeds owing to a basic human reality that social scientists call "successive approximations"
  39. 39. • What are attitude • Structural model of attitude • Attitude Formation • Strategies of attitude change • Theory of attitude formation

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