A learned predisposition to behave in
a consistently favorable or
unfavorable manner with respect to a
given object. Each of us has a vast
number of attitudes towards product,
services, advertisement, direct mail,
the internet and a retail store.
(Movado Watches, Kingfisher
Airlines, British Airways, big bazar,
• Attitude and behavior are
closely related in some sense
though they are two different
concepts. One of the most
important differences between
behavior and attitude is that
attitude is internal whereas
behavior is external in sense.
In other words it can be said
that behavior can very well be
seen by others as it is external
whereas attitude is shelled
within the mind of the individual
and hence cannot be seen by
Any targets of judgment, including people, places, and
things, that have an attitude or opinion associated with it.
If we were interested in learning consumer attitude towards
the three major brands of washing machines our object
LG, whirlpool, Haier, Samsung.
A learned predisposition means attitude
have a motivational quality: that is, they
might propel a consumer towards a
particular behavior or repel the
consumer away from a particular
This mean that attitude relevant to the
purchase behavior are formed as a
result of direct experience with the
product, W.O.M information acquired
from others, or exposure to mass
media advertising, the internet, and
various forms of direct marketing.
Its means that they are relatively
consistent with behavior they reflect.
If a Mexican consumer reported
preferring Japanese (Toyota) over
Korean (Kia) automobiles, we would
expect that the individual would be more
likely to buy a Japanese brand when his
current vehicle needed to be replaced.
It means event or circumstances
that at particular point in time,
influence he relationship between
an attitude and behavior.
If Mani stays at a Hampton inn each
time out of the town for business.
On the country, Mani find Hampton
inn to be “just okay” however
because he owns his own business
and travel at his own expense, he
may feel that Hampton Inn is a
“good enough” , gives that less than
he would be paying if he stayed at a
Sheraton or Oberoi hotel.
1 • Tricomponent Attitude Model
• Multiattribute Attitude Model
• Theory of trying to consume model
• Attitude toward the ad model
Attitudes are generally considered to be
made up of three elements.
1. Cognitive Component
Knowledge + Perception+ Direct Experience =
Amit’s beliefs system for both types of HDTV
sets (e.g., LCD and Plasma). This table show
the composition of a consumer’s belief system
about these two alternatives.
2. The Affective Component
Emotions or feelings ( Happiness, Anger etc)
Mood affects the purchase
In the table 8.3 a 5 point scale that measure the effective
3. The Conative Component
Likelihood or tendency. Consumer Intention to buy.
“I will buy it”.
Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer
attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.
Attitude Towards Object Model
Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs
HDTV sets (e.g., LCD and Plasma)
Attitude Towards Behavior Model
A model that proposes that a consumer’s attitude toward a
specific behavior is a function of how strongly he or she
believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome
(either favorable or unfavorable).
Purchased a BMW.
Theory of Reasoned Action Model
A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among
attitudes, intentions, and behavior.
A simplified version of theory of reasoned action.
• High speed
• Safe and
• An attitude theory designed to account for the many
cases where the action or outcome is not certain but
instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or
• In this we discuses personal and environmental
Impediments as shown in figure.
• A model that proposes that a consumer forms various
feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result
of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the
consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the
How people form their initial general towards thing.
Young people their general attitude towards clothing they
wear under wear, casual wears, business atrive.
Attitude formation divided into three areas.
• How attitude are learned
• Sources of influence on attitude function
• Impact of personality on attitude
The shift from no attitude to an attitude.
• Noise canceling headphones are great when listing
music or watching movie on an airplane.
• After shower hair cream (Marico ltd)
• Personal Experience
• Influence of family
• Influence of friends
• Direct marketing
• Mass media
• Its play an important role in attitude formation
• For example,
It really isn't the world's best kept secret any more. Sachin
Tendulkar, virender Sehwag, and Kapil dev before them,
have time and again boasted that Boost is the secret of
• Know a days marketer interested in product categories
especially when new product categories come into the
In 1970’s Digital watches when introduce not many
consumer are familiar to them new digital are well
accepted and consumer are familiar to the product
• Attitude changes are learned, they are influenced by
personal experience and other sources of information
• Altering consumer attitudes is key strategy consideration
for most marketers
• Marketers introduce special offers and other inducement
for consumer, so that they don’t switch to competitors
• Example Nike and tide
• Changing consumer’s basic motivational function
• Associating product with an admired group or event
• Resolving two conflicting attitudes
• Altering components of multiattribute model
• Changing consumer beliefs about competitor’s brands
Changing basic motivational
An effective strategy is to make particular needs
• Utilitarian function
• Ego-defensive function
• Value-expressive function
• We hold certain brand attitudes partly because of brands
• When a product has been useful or helped us in past, our
attitude towards it tends to be favorable. Example of Nokia
• High priced brands need to make consumers aware of
application of product whenever possible. For example brand
of dish washing.
Most people want to protect their self-image from inner
feelings of doubt.
• They want to replace their uncertainty with a sense of security
and personal confidence.
Ads for cosmetics and fashion clothing.
• During 1980’s, Colgate & double action lifebuoy plus used this
• If consumer segment generally holds a positive attitude toward
owning the latest designer jeans, then their attitudes towards
new brands of designer jeans are likely to reflect that
• Charms cigarettes, launched during early 1980’s,created an
attitude based on “freedom and rebellion”
• The consumer’s “need to know” a cognitive need is important
to marketers concerned with product positioning.
• Many products and brands are attempts to satisfy the need to
know consumer’s attitude.
The vaccumizer was a new concept product used to preserve
• Because different consumers may like
and dislike the same product or
service for different reasons.
• Google for instance seems to have
created attitudes using several
• Google wave can be used for official
• To share videos with friends to
enhance his/her self concept(ego-
• To have a strong sense of
• Have a search process to satisfy
• Attitudes are related, at least in part to certain groups,
social events, or causes.
• It is possible to alter attitudes toward companies and their
products by pointing out their relationships to particular
• For example: Aircel has partnered with world wildlife fund
India to create “save our tigers” initiative.
• Attitude-change strategies can sometimes resolve actual
or potential conflict between two attitudes.
Jaison is amateur
has been thinking of moving from his point-and shoot
digital camera to DSLR.
• Changing the relative evaluation of attributes.
• Changing brand beliefs.
• Adding an attributes.
• Changing the overall brand rating.
Changing the relative evaluation of attributes
• The overall market for many product categories is often set out so that
different consumer segments are offered different brands with different
For example coffee, the market can be divided
into regular coffee, flavored coffee and decaffeinated coffee.
• A second cognitive-oriented strategy for
changing attitudes concentrates on
changing beliefs or perception about the
• This is by far the most common form of
Adding an attribute
• This can be accomplished either by adding
an attribute that previously has been
• Enhancing the product.
• Still another cognitive-oriented strategy consists of
attempting to alter consumer’s overall assessment of
brand directly, without change their evaluation of any
• Relies on some form of global statement “this is largest
To another approach to attitude change strategy
Involves consumer beliefs about the attributes
Competitive brands and product categories.
Advertising for eclipse chewing gum makes a dramatic
assertions of product superiority over other gum by
claiming that most just mask makes bad breath, we kill
the germs that cause it.
A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement
during ,message processing is a critical factor in
determining which route to persuasion is likely to be
effective.(see also central and peripheral routes to
Central Route & peripheral route
The central route is particularly relevant to attitude change
when consumer’s motivation or ability to assess the
attitude object is high(high involvement products)
consumer less motivated to think, learning through
repetition, visual cues, holistic perception.
• A attitude toward the brand
• W importance of attitude I
• L The ideal performance on
• X Beliefs about a brand’s actual
performance on attitude I
• N the number of salient features
• A model that captures consumer perception on the Ideal
brand(with ideal feature) and compares with consumer
perception on existing Brands.(associated with
demographic and Psychographic)
E.g If the model is applied to a brand of TV say ‘A’ the
following attributes can be identified.
• 1 picture Quality
• 2 audio quality
• 3 usefulness of special features
• 4 handling ease
• 5 esthetic appeal
• 6 compactness
• A brand can find out how close it is to the ‘Ideal’ brand.
IF the shampoo brand wants to shift the importance of
attributes by introducing a new benefit ‘spreading action
to make the roots stronger’ the perception of the
consumer needs to be captured before the brand uses
• Learning Objective
• To Understand how Consumers Attitudes can lead to
behavior and how behavior can lead to Attitude
• Attitude formation and attitude change has stressed that
consumers develop their attitudes before taking action
‘know what you doing before you do it’
• For analytical and Logical analysis we have Cognitive
Dissonance theory and Attribution Theory each provide
different explanation why behavior might precede attitude
A Cognitive Dissonance Theory or dissonance or discomfort when a
consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude
Consider someone who buys an expensive car but discovers that it is
not comfortable on long drives. Dissonance exists between their
beliefs that they have bought a good car and that a good car should
be comfortable. Dissonance could be eliminated by deciding that it
does not matter since the car is mainly used for short trips (reducing
the importance of the dissonant belief) or focusing on the cars
strengths such as safety, appearance, handling (thereby adding
more consonant beliefs). The dissonance could also be eliminated by
getting rid of the car, but this behavior is a lot harder to achieve than
When a cognitive dissonance occurs after purchase it is called as
Post-purchase Dissonance. Because purchase decision often
require some amount of compromise, post purchase dissonance is
quite normal. The greatest dissonance is created when the two
• As a group of loosely interrelated social psychological
principles ,Attribution theory attempts to explain how people
assigns causality e.g blame or credit to events on the basis of
either their own behavior or the behavior of others. How do we
attach meaning to other's behavior, or our own? This is called
attribution theory. For example, if someone angry because
they are bad-tempered or because something bad happened ?
This process of making inferences about one’s own or another
behavior is a major component of attitude formation and
• Attribution Theory is certainly part of our everyday life as
companies continue to have their name in football stadiums
and sponsor of all types of charitable events Research
indicates that the better the match between a sponsor and
event the more positive outcome is likely to be. There is an
evidence to suggest that consumers are willing to reward high
efforts firms. Appreciates the efforts of firms
Self-perception theory posits that people determine their
attitudes and preferences by interpreting the meaning of their
1. internal and external attribution consist on locus of control
2. The defensive attribution hypothesis (or defensive
attribution bias) is a social psychological term from the
attribution approach referring to a set of beliefs about who is
culpable in a given situation.
3. Foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique is a compliance tactic
that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by
first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest
request. The foot-in-the-door technique succeeds owing to a
basic human reality that social scientists call "successive
• What are attitude
• Structural model of attitude
• Attitude Formation
• Strategies of attitude change
• Theory of attitude formation