Piaget Theory

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Piaget Theory

  1. 1. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Stages Cognitive Processes Overview Implications for teachers <ul><li>The Sensorimotor Stage </li></ul><ul><li>The Preoperational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>The Concrete Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>The Formal Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibration </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Processes that children use to construct their knowledge of the world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cognitive Processes <ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibration </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cognitive Processes <ul><li>1. Schema – As child seeks to construct an understanding of the world the developing brain creates schemas (actions or mental representations that organize knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Classifying object by size, shape and color, how to drive a car and how to balance a budget. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cognitive Processes <ul><li>2. Assimilation - Process of integrating new perceptual, conceptual materials or experiences into an existing schemata </li></ul><ul><li>3. Accommodation - When existing schemas is not possible, new schemas will have to be developed in order to adapt to new and unique experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Both processes are used simultaneously and alternately throughout life. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive Processes <ul><li>4. Organization – The g rouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order system; children organizing their experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Equilibration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of balance between accommodation and assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of cognitive conflict (child trying to understand the world) being resolved and reaching an balance/equilibrium of thought </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Piaget’s 4 stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>The Sensorimotor stage(Birth-2yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>The Preoperational Stage(2-7yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>The Concrete Operational Stage(7-11yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>The Formal Operational Stage(>11yrs) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1.The Sensorimotor stage <ul><li>Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (seeing, hearing) with motor actions (reaching, touching) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop object permanence ( memory ) - Realize that objects exist even if they are out of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Infants progress from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of problem solving ( intellectual ) & symbolic abilities ( language ) towards the end of the stage. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2.The Preoperational Stage <ul><li>Development of Symbolic function - Ability to represent objects and events using words and images </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Intuitive thought - Children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answer to all sorts if questions </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentrism – Inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and some one else’s perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Centration - Focusing attention on one characteristic in exclusion of others. Lack of conservation. E.g. volume of liquid in different shapes of containers </li></ul><ul><li>Animism – Belief that inanimate objects have ‘lifelike’ qualities </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3.The Concrete Operational Stage <ul><li>Children’s ability to think logically but only about concrete problems and objects, able to reverse thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Seriation - Ability to reason relationships between classes; to arrange objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight or volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitivity - Ability to reason and logically combine relationships. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 4.The Formal Operational Stage <ul><li>Thought is more abstract, idealistic and logical in this stage – Ability to solve abstract problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetical-deductive reasoning - Ability to formulate many alternate hypotheses in dealing with a problem deductive. Deduce by drawing conclusions through applying rules or principles </li></ul><ul><li>Possess reflective abilities to systematically generate all possible solutions to problems </li></ul><ul><li>Use of analogical reasoning in which one limits the search for solutions to solutions that are similar to the one on hand </li></ul>
  12. 12. Implications for teachers <ul><li>Depending on the abilities of children, provide opportunities for students to engage in state of cognitive disequilibrium to motivate students to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a learning environment that is customized to the abilities of children to facilitate them to move through the stages of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching strategies should be built on students’ own experiences due to the fact that formal operational thinking is developed gradually and is task dependent </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Source; </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ </li></ul>

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