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A.S.Arul Lawrence
                  Principal,
       St.Joseph College of Education,
     Kadamboduvalvu, Nanguneri-627108


COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
PIAGET’S THEORY


              Prepared by

     A.S.Arul Lawrence
                 Principal,
      St.Joseph College of Education,
   Kadamboduvalvu, Nanguneri-627108
         arullawrence@gmail.com

                Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   2
Introduction
   Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the 20th century‘s most influential
    researchers in the area of developmental psychology.
   He originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and
    considered     himself     a   ―genetic   epistemologist.‖ (genetic=
    development, epistemology = study of knowledge)
   Piaget wanted to know how children learned through their development
    in the study of knowledge.
   He administered Binet‘s IQ test in Paris and observed that children‘s
    answers were qualitatively different.
   Piaget‘s theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds
    cognitive structures (schemes used to understand and respond to
    physical environment).
   He believed the child‘s cognitive structure increased with development.
   Piaget‘s theories of infant development were based on his observations
    of his own three children.

    Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence                                             3
Jean Piaget (1896-1980): History
                   Born:           August        9,      1896
                    Neuchâtel, Switzerland
                   Died: Sept. 16, 1980          ( Age 84)
                    Geneva, Switzerland.
                   Parents: Eldest son of Arthur Piaget and
                    Rebecca Jackson.
                   Education:     Received      Ph.D.,   from
                    University of Neuchatel in 1918.
                   Wife: Married to Valentine Chatenay in
                    1923
                   Children:       3    children     namely
                    Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent whose
                    intellectual development from infancy to
                    language was studied by Piaget.




                  Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence              4
What is Cognition?
o   The term cognition is derived from the
    Latin word “cognoscere” which means
    “to know” or “to recognise” or “to
    conceptualise”.
o   It refers to the mental processes an
    organism        learns,      remembers,
    understands,       perceives,     solves
    problems and thinks about a body of
    information.
o   Experts      argue      that    cognition
    progresses in stages with increasing
    levels of complexity and hence the
    phrase ―cognitive development‖ which
    is the stages a child goes through
    conceptualising the world at different
    age levels.

                                  Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   5
What is Cognitive Development?
 Cognitive Development describes how these mental
  processes develop from birth until adulthood. In other words,
  what kind of cognitive skills is a 4 year old child capable of
  compared to a 6 year old.
 The acquisition of the ability to think, reason, and problem
  solve.
 It is the process by which people's thinking changes across
  the life span.
 Piaget studied cognitive development by observing children
  in particular, to examine how their thought processes
  change with age.
 He pioneered a way of thinking about how children grow
  psychologically.
 It is the growing apprehension and adaptation to the
  physical and social environment.

                                Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence      6
How Cognitive Development Occurs?

 Cognitive Development is gradual,orderly, changes by which
  mental process become more complex and sophisticated.
 The essential development of cognition is the establishment of
  new schemes.
 Assimilation and accommodation are both processing of the
  ways of cognitive development.
 The equilibration is the symbol of a new stage of the cognitive
  development.




                             Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence     7
Key Concepts:
1.Schema : an internal representation of the world. A schema
  describes both the mental and physical actions involved in
  understanding and knowing. Schemas are mental or cognitive
  structures which enables a person to adapt and to organise the
  environment. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help
  us to interpret and understand the world.
          Piaget called the schema the basic building block of
  intelligent behavior – a way of organizing knowledge (includes
  both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that
  knowledge). Indeed, it is useful to think of schemas as ―units‖ of
  knowledge, each relating to one aspect of the world, including
  objects, actions and abstract (i.e. theoretical) concepts. As
  experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add
  to, or change previously existing schemas.




                               Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence           8
For example, at birth the schema of a baby
is reflexive in nature such as sucking and
grasping. The sucking reflex is a schema
and the infant will suck on whatever is put
in its mouth such as a nipple or a finger.
The infant is unable to differentiate
because it has only a single sucking
schema. Slowly, the infant learns to
differentiate where milk-producing objects
are accepted while non-milk objects are
rejected. At this point, the infant has two
sucking schemas, one for milk-producing
objects and one for non-milk producing
objects.




                               Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   9
2.   Assimilation : is using an existing schema
     to deal with a new object or situation. The
     process of taking in new information into
     our previously existing schema‘s is known
     as assimilation.
          A child sees a Zebra for the first time
     and immediately calls it a Donkey. Thus, the
     child has assimilated into his schema that
     this animal is a Donkey.
          Why do you think this happened? The
     child seeing the object (Zebra), sifted
     through his collection of schemas, until he
     found one that seemed appropriate. To the
     child, the object (Zebra) has all the
     characteristics of a Donkey– it fits in his
     Donkey schema – so the child concludes
     that the object is a Donkey. The child has
     integrated the object (Zebra) into his
     Donkey schema.


                                   Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   10
Key Concepts…
3.   Accommodation : Another part of
     adaptation involves changing or altering
     our existing schemas in light of new
     information, a process known as
     accommodation.               Accommodation
     involves altering existing schemas, or
     ideas, as a result of new information or
     new experiences. New schemas may also
     be developed during this process.
            The boy who had assimilated the
     Zebra as a Donkey will eventually
     accommodate more information and thus
     realize     the    different  characteristics
     between a Zebra and a Donkey. The child
     will learn that the Donkey is not a Donkey
     but a Zebra, an accommodated ability.


                                     Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   11
Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   12
4. Equilibration : Piaget believed that cognitive
   development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather
   in leaps and bounds.       Equilibrium is occurs when a
   child's schemas can deal with most new information
   through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of
   disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be
   fitted into existing schemas (assimilation). Equilibration is
   a balance between assimilation and accommodation.
   Disequilibrium is an imbalance between assimilation and
   accommodation
        As children progress through the stages of cognitive
   development, it is important to maintain a balance
   between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and
   changing behavior to account for new knowledge
   (accommodation). Equilibration helps explain how
   children are able to move from one stage of thought into
   the next.
                            Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence      13
Assimilation




Disequilibriu
                Equilibration               Equilibrium
     m




                Accommoda
                    tion

                    Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence         14
5. Adaptation:
Assimilation and accommodation
are     the       two     sides of
adaptation, Piaget‘s term for what
most of us would call learning
through which awareness of the
outside world is internalized.
Although one may predominate at
any one moment, they are two
sides and inseparable and exist in
a dialectical relationship.



                         Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   15
Cognitive Structure


              Organisation
  Cognitive
                                                Assimilation
  Structure
              Adaptation

                                               Accommodation




               Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence                   16
Stages:
1.Sensorimotor Stage

2.Preoperational Stage

3.Concrete Operational Stage

4.Formal Operational Stage




                 Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   17
1. The Sensorimotor Stage
(birth to 2 yrs) (Infancy)


 The first stage of Piaget‘s theory starts from birth to
  approximately age 2 and is centered on the infant
  trying to make sense of the world. During this stage,
  the child's      knowledge is limited to sensory
  perceptions and simple motor activities. e.g. looking,
  sucking, grasping.
 Sub-stages of the Sensorimotor Stage: It can be
  divided into 6 separate sub-stages.




                             Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   18
1. Reflexes (0-1 month): In the first month of life, infants‘ behaviors reflect
   innate reflexes—automatic responses to particular stimuli. The child
   understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as
   suckling, grasping, knee-jerking. These are the reactive functions that infants
   essentially exit the womb with. These behaviors are typically, quickly
   reinforced to provide food when hungry, grab things in the environment, and
   pull away from potentially threatening sensations.
           For instance, if you put a nipple or pacifier in or near a newborn‘s
   mouth, she will automatically suck on it. If you put something against the palm
   of a newborn‘s hand, his fingers will automatically close around it. Many of
   these inborn reflexes are designed to keep the infant alive. The infant soon
   begins to modify some reflexes to better accommodate to the environment—
   for instance, by learning to distinguish between a nipple and the surrounding
   areas of a breast or bottle. And other reflexes, such as the tendency to grab
   onto something placed in the hand, fade away over time.




                                      Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence                  19
2. Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months): It involves
   coordinating sensation and new schemas. In the first few
   months of life, infants‘ behaviors are focused almost
   exclusively on their own bodies (in Piaget‘s terminology, the
   behaviors are primary) and are repeated over and over
   again (i.e., they are circular). Infants also begin to refine
   their reflexes and combine them into more complex
   actions.
         For example: A child may such his or her thumb by
   accident and then later intentionally repeat the action.
   These actions are repeated because the infant finds them
   pleasurable.




                                 Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence     20
3. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8
   months): In this stage the child
   become more aware of and more
   responsive to the outside world (their
   behaviors become secondary), and
   they begin to notice that their
   behaviors can have interesting effects
   on the objects around them. The child
   becomes more focused on the world
   and begins to intentionally repeat an
   action in order to trigger a response in
   the environment.
          For example: A child will
   purposefully pick up a toy in order to
   put it in his or her mouth.




                                  Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   21
4.   Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months): The child
     starts to show clearly intentional actions. The child may
     also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired
     effect. After repeatedly observing that certain actions lead
     to certain consequences, infants gradually acquire
     knowledge of cause-effect relationships.
           For example: 1. A child might realize that a rattle will
     make a sound when shaken. 2. When an infant sees the
     twine of a pull-toy near her, rather than crawling over to
     the toy she might instead reach out and grab the twine
     and then purposely pull the twine in order to acquire the
     toy.
           Another acquisition at this sub-stage is object
     permanence, means knowing that an object still
     exists, even if it is hidden. According to Piaget, Object
     Permanence is a child's awareness or understanding that
     objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen
     or heard.
           For example, when a caregiver hides an attractive toy
     beneath a pillow, the infant knows that the toy still
     exists, also knows where it exists, and will attempt to
     retrieve it. Before this stage, the child behaves as if the
     toy had simply disappeared.
                                        Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   22
5. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18
   months): Piaget believed this marks the
   developmental starting point for curiosity
   and interest in novelty. Beginning sometime
   around their first birthday, infants show
   increasing flexibility and creativity in their
   behaviors, and their experimentation with
   objects often leads to new outcomes (the
   term tertiary reflects this new versatility in
   previously acquired responses).
          For example: A child may try out
   different sounds or actions as a way of
   getting attention from a caregiver.




                                    Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   23
6.   Early Representational Thought (18-24 months):
     Piaget proposed that in the latter half of the second
     year, young children develop symbolic thought, the
     ability to represent and think about objects and
     events in terms of internal, mental entities, or
     symbols. They may “experiment” with objects in their
     minds, first predicting what will happen if they do
     something to an object, then transforming their plans
     into action. To some degree, mental prediction and
     planning replace overt trial-and-error as growing
     toddlers experiment and attempt to solve problems.
           The capacity for mental representation is seen in
     the emergence of deferred imitation, the ability to
     recall and copy another person’s behaviors and
     infants show some ability to imitate others’
     actions. Their newly acquired ability to recall and
     imitate other people‘s past actions enables them to
     engage in make-believe and pretend play—for
     instance, by ―talking‖ on a toy telephone or ―driving‖
     with the toy steering wheel attached to their car seats.




                                       Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   24
2. Preoperational Stage
(2 to 7 yrs) (Toddler and Early Childhood)

Pre-operational stage (two to seven years):
          This stage begins when the child starts to use symbols and
language. This is a period of developing language and concepts.
So, the child is capable of more complex mental representations
(i.e. words and images). He is still unable to use ‗operations‘, i.e.
logical mental rules, such as the rules of arithmetic. It is divided into
two sub-stages:
1. Preconceptual stage (2 to 4 years): Here, cognitive
    development becomes increasingly dominated by symbolic
    activity. The child can use symbols to stand for actions; a toy
    doll stands for a real baby or the child role-plays mummy or
    daddy. Language also develops during this stage.
2. Intuitive stage (5 to 7 years): This stage is characterized by the
    way in which children base their knowledge on what they feel
    or sense to be true, yet they cannot explain the underlying
    principles behind what they feel or sense.



                                        Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence       25
The following are the key features of this stage:
1.   Egocentrism: The child‘s thoughts and communications are typically
     egocentric (i.e. about themselves or his/her point of view) E.g.:” If I
     can’t see you, you can’t see me!”. It is the inability to see the world
     through anyone else‘s eyes except on his own. It is well explained by
     Piaget as Three Mountain Task.
2.   Animism: Treating inanimate objects as living ones. E.g.: Children
     bathing, dressing and feeding their dolls as if they are alive.
3.   Centration: It refers to the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a
     situation, problem or object, and so cannot see the big picture.
     Centration is noticed in conservation: the awareness that altering a
     substance's appearance does not change its basic properties.
     Children at this stage are unaware of conservation. They are unable
     to grasp the concept that a certain liquid be the same volume
     regardless of the container shape. For example, equal amounts of
     liquid are poured into two identical containers. The liquid in one
     container is then poured into a different shaped cup, such as a tall
     and thin cup, or a short and wide cup. Then the child is asked, Which
     one has more water, the tall glass or the short glass.




                                               Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   26
3. Concrete Operational Stage
(7 to 12 yrs of age) (Childhood and early Adolescence)


     The Concrete Operational stage is characterized by the appropriate use of logic.
Important processes during this stage are:
1. Seriation: the ability to sort objects in an order according to size, shape or any other
   characteristic. Eg.: if given different-shaded objects, they may make a colour gradient.
2. Transitivity: the ability to recognize logical relationships among elements in a serial
   order. Eg.: if A is taller than B and B is taller than C, then A must be taller than C.
3. Classification: the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to
   appearance, size or other characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can
   include another
4. Decentering: where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to
   solve it. For example, the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short
   cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup.
5. Reversibility: the child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then
   returned to their original state. For this reason, a child will be able to rapidly determine
   that if 4+4 = t, t−4 will equal 4, the original quantity.
6. Conservation: understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to
   the arrangement or appearance of the object or items.
7. Elimination of Egocentrism: the ability to view things from another's perspective.
           However, in this stage child can solve problems that apply to actual (concrete)
   objects or events only, and not abstract concepts or hypothetical tasks.
                                             Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence                        27
Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   28
Stage 3…




           Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   29
Stage 3…




           Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   30
4. Formal Operational Stage
(from 12 yrs and up) (Adolescence and Adulthood)


            This is the most complete stage of development. In this stage,
       the individual‘s
  1.   thought becomes increasingly flexible and abstract, i.e., can carry
       out systematic experiments.
  2.   ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical
       way.
  3.   Understand that nothing is absolute; everything is relative.
  4.   Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic
       planning develop inductive as well as deductive logic.
  5.   Understand that the rules of any games or social system are
       developed by man by mutual agreement and hence could be
       changed or modified.
  6.   The child‘s way of thinking is at its most advanced, although the
       knowledge it has to work with will change.

                                            Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence      31
Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   32
General Characteristics of this Stages:
         These four stages have been found to have the following
     characteristics:
1.    Each stage is a structured whole and in a state of
      equilibrium.
2.    Each stage derives from the previous stage and incorporate
      and transform to prepare for the next and no going back.
3.    The stages follow an invariant sequence. There is no
      skipping stages.
4.    The stages are universal. Culture does not impact the
      stages. Children everywhere go through the same stages
      no matter what their cultural background is.
5.    Each stage is a coming into being. There is a gradual
      progression from stage to stage.

                              Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence        33
Applications of Theory in the
                   Classroom
 Jean Piaget’s theories are   imbedded into the
  school system in the sense that the curriculum is
  based on his stage theory.
 The curriculum is designed to teach students at
  the first stage and progressively teach new
  learning to change the schemas in order to move
  students through each stage.
 The teacher starts at the basics introducing a
  new subject and once the knowledge of that
  subject is mastered, they would create a schema.
                       Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   34
 To transition to the next stage, or a new learning method,
  the teacher would demonstrate how the student will
  change, modify or adapt their schema to the new method
  in order for new learning to take place.
 When children enter the school they are generally at the
  preoperational stage. Teachers must recognize that they
  cannot learn concrete-operational strategies until the
  students have mastered the preoperational schemas
 In other words, students must start at the basic first stage
  and master it before they can progress well to higher
  stages.




                           Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   35
Educational Implications:
1. Emphasis on discovery approach in learning.
2. Curriculum should provide specific educational experience
   based on children‘s developmental level.
3. Arrange classroom activities so that they assist and
   encourage self-learning.
4. Do not treat children as miniature adults; they think and learn
   differently from adults.
5. Practical learning situations.
6. Simple to Complex and Project method of teaching.
7. Co-curricular activities have equal importance as that of
   curricular experiences in the cognitive development of
   children.
8. Major goals of education are equal to the creative and critical
   thinking.

                               Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence         36
Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence   37

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Piaget's Cognitive Development

  • 1. A.S.Arul Lawrence Principal, St.Joseph College of Education, Kadamboduvalvu, Nanguneri-627108 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • 2. PIAGET’S THEORY Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence Principal, St.Joseph College of Education, Kadamboduvalvu, Nanguneri-627108 arullawrence@gmail.com Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 2
  • 3. Introduction  Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the 20th century‘s most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology.  He originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a ―genetic epistemologist.‖ (genetic= development, epistemology = study of knowledge)  Piaget wanted to know how children learned through their development in the study of knowledge.  He administered Binet‘s IQ test in Paris and observed that children‘s answers were qualitatively different.  Piaget‘s theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures (schemes used to understand and respond to physical environment).  He believed the child‘s cognitive structure increased with development.  Piaget‘s theories of infant development were based on his observations of his own three children. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 3
  • 4. Jean Piaget (1896-1980): History  Born: August 9, 1896 Neuchâtel, Switzerland  Died: Sept. 16, 1980 ( Age 84) Geneva, Switzerland.  Parents: Eldest son of Arthur Piaget and Rebecca Jackson.  Education: Received Ph.D., from University of Neuchatel in 1918.  Wife: Married to Valentine Chatenay in 1923  Children: 3 children namely Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent whose intellectual development from infancy to language was studied by Piaget. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 4
  • 5. What is Cognition? o The term cognition is derived from the Latin word “cognoscere” which means “to know” or “to recognise” or “to conceptualise”. o It refers to the mental processes an organism learns, remembers, understands, perceives, solves problems and thinks about a body of information. o Experts argue that cognition progresses in stages with increasing levels of complexity and hence the phrase ―cognitive development‖ which is the stages a child goes through conceptualising the world at different age levels. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 5
  • 6. What is Cognitive Development?  Cognitive Development describes how these mental processes develop from birth until adulthood. In other words, what kind of cognitive skills is a 4 year old child capable of compared to a 6 year old.  The acquisition of the ability to think, reason, and problem solve.  It is the process by which people's thinking changes across the life span.  Piaget studied cognitive development by observing children in particular, to examine how their thought processes change with age.  He pioneered a way of thinking about how children grow psychologically.  It is the growing apprehension and adaptation to the physical and social environment. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 6
  • 7. How Cognitive Development Occurs?  Cognitive Development is gradual,orderly, changes by which mental process become more complex and sophisticated.  The essential development of cognition is the establishment of new schemes.  Assimilation and accommodation are both processing of the ways of cognitive development.  The equilibration is the symbol of a new stage of the cognitive development. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 7
  • 8. Key Concepts: 1.Schema : an internal representation of the world. A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are mental or cognitive structures which enables a person to adapt and to organise the environment. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. Piaget called the schema the basic building block of intelligent behavior – a way of organizing knowledge (includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge). Indeed, it is useful to think of schemas as ―units‖ of knowledge, each relating to one aspect of the world, including objects, actions and abstract (i.e. theoretical) concepts. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 8
  • 9. For example, at birth the schema of a baby is reflexive in nature such as sucking and grasping. The sucking reflex is a schema and the infant will suck on whatever is put in its mouth such as a nipple or a finger. The infant is unable to differentiate because it has only a single sucking schema. Slowly, the infant learns to differentiate where milk-producing objects are accepted while non-milk objects are rejected. At this point, the infant has two sucking schemas, one for milk-producing objects and one for non-milk producing objects. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 9
  • 10. 2. Assimilation : is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation. The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schema‘s is known as assimilation. A child sees a Zebra for the first time and immediately calls it a Donkey. Thus, the child has assimilated into his schema that this animal is a Donkey. Why do you think this happened? The child seeing the object (Zebra), sifted through his collection of schemas, until he found one that seemed appropriate. To the child, the object (Zebra) has all the characteristics of a Donkey– it fits in his Donkey schema – so the child concludes that the object is a Donkey. The child has integrated the object (Zebra) into his Donkey schema. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 10
  • 11. Key Concepts… 3. Accommodation : Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation. Accommodation involves altering existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process. The boy who had assimilated the Zebra as a Donkey will eventually accommodate more information and thus realize the different characteristics between a Zebra and a Donkey. The child will learn that the Donkey is not a Donkey but a Zebra, an accommodated ability. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 11
  • 12. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 12
  • 13. 4. Equilibration : Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather in leaps and bounds. Equilibrium is occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation). Equilibration is a balance between assimilation and accommodation. Disequilibrium is an imbalance between assimilation and accommodation As children progress through the stages of cognitive development, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibration helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 13
  • 14. Assimilation Disequilibriu Equilibration Equilibrium m Accommoda tion Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 14
  • 15. 5. Adaptation: Assimilation and accommodation are the two sides of adaptation, Piaget‘s term for what most of us would call learning through which awareness of the outside world is internalized. Although one may predominate at any one moment, they are two sides and inseparable and exist in a dialectical relationship. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 15
  • 16. Cognitive Structure Organisation Cognitive Assimilation Structure Adaptation Accommodation Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 16
  • 17. Stages: 1.Sensorimotor Stage 2.Preoperational Stage 3.Concrete Operational Stage 4.Formal Operational Stage Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 17
  • 18. 1. The Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 yrs) (Infancy)  The first stage of Piaget‘s theory starts from birth to approximately age 2 and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. During this stage, the child's knowledge is limited to sensory perceptions and simple motor activities. e.g. looking, sucking, grasping.  Sub-stages of the Sensorimotor Stage: It can be divided into 6 separate sub-stages. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 18
  • 19. 1. Reflexes (0-1 month): In the first month of life, infants‘ behaviors reflect innate reflexes—automatic responses to particular stimuli. The child understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as suckling, grasping, knee-jerking. These are the reactive functions that infants essentially exit the womb with. These behaviors are typically, quickly reinforced to provide food when hungry, grab things in the environment, and pull away from potentially threatening sensations. For instance, if you put a nipple or pacifier in or near a newborn‘s mouth, she will automatically suck on it. If you put something against the palm of a newborn‘s hand, his fingers will automatically close around it. Many of these inborn reflexes are designed to keep the infant alive. The infant soon begins to modify some reflexes to better accommodate to the environment— for instance, by learning to distinguish between a nipple and the surrounding areas of a breast or bottle. And other reflexes, such as the tendency to grab onto something placed in the hand, fade away over time. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 19
  • 20. 2. Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months): It involves coordinating sensation and new schemas. In the first few months of life, infants‘ behaviors are focused almost exclusively on their own bodies (in Piaget‘s terminology, the behaviors are primary) and are repeated over and over again (i.e., they are circular). Infants also begin to refine their reflexes and combine them into more complex actions. For example: A child may such his or her thumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasurable. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 20
  • 21. 3. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months): In this stage the child become more aware of and more responsive to the outside world (their behaviors become secondary), and they begin to notice that their behaviors can have interesting effects on the objects around them. The child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. For example: A child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 21
  • 22. 4. Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months): The child starts to show clearly intentional actions. The child may also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect. After repeatedly observing that certain actions lead to certain consequences, infants gradually acquire knowledge of cause-effect relationships. For example: 1. A child might realize that a rattle will make a sound when shaken. 2. When an infant sees the twine of a pull-toy near her, rather than crawling over to the toy she might instead reach out and grab the twine and then purposely pull the twine in order to acquire the toy. Another acquisition at this sub-stage is object permanence, means knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden. According to Piaget, Object Permanence is a child's awareness or understanding that objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen or heard. For example, when a caregiver hides an attractive toy beneath a pillow, the infant knows that the toy still exists, also knows where it exists, and will attempt to retrieve it. Before this stage, the child behaves as if the toy had simply disappeared. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 22
  • 23. 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months): Piaget believed this marks the developmental starting point for curiosity and interest in novelty. Beginning sometime around their first birthday, infants show increasing flexibility and creativity in their behaviors, and their experimentation with objects often leads to new outcomes (the term tertiary reflects this new versatility in previously acquired responses). For example: A child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 23
  • 24. 6. Early Representational Thought (18-24 months): Piaget proposed that in the latter half of the second year, young children develop symbolic thought, the ability to represent and think about objects and events in terms of internal, mental entities, or symbols. They may “experiment” with objects in their minds, first predicting what will happen if they do something to an object, then transforming their plans into action. To some degree, mental prediction and planning replace overt trial-and-error as growing toddlers experiment and attempt to solve problems. The capacity for mental representation is seen in the emergence of deferred imitation, the ability to recall and copy another person’s behaviors and infants show some ability to imitate others’ actions. Their newly acquired ability to recall and imitate other people‘s past actions enables them to engage in make-believe and pretend play—for instance, by ―talking‖ on a toy telephone or ―driving‖ with the toy steering wheel attached to their car seats. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 24
  • 25. 2. Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 yrs) (Toddler and Early Childhood) Pre-operational stage (two to seven years): This stage begins when the child starts to use symbols and language. This is a period of developing language and concepts. So, the child is capable of more complex mental representations (i.e. words and images). He is still unable to use ‗operations‘, i.e. logical mental rules, such as the rules of arithmetic. It is divided into two sub-stages: 1. Preconceptual stage (2 to 4 years): Here, cognitive development becomes increasingly dominated by symbolic activity. The child can use symbols to stand for actions; a toy doll stands for a real baby or the child role-plays mummy or daddy. Language also develops during this stage. 2. Intuitive stage (5 to 7 years): This stage is characterized by the way in which children base their knowledge on what they feel or sense to be true, yet they cannot explain the underlying principles behind what they feel or sense. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 25
  • 26. The following are the key features of this stage: 1. Egocentrism: The child‘s thoughts and communications are typically egocentric (i.e. about themselves or his/her point of view) E.g.:” If I can’t see you, you can’t see me!”. It is the inability to see the world through anyone else‘s eyes except on his own. It is well explained by Piaget as Three Mountain Task. 2. Animism: Treating inanimate objects as living ones. E.g.: Children bathing, dressing and feeding their dolls as if they are alive. 3. Centration: It refers to the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation, problem or object, and so cannot see the big picture. Centration is noticed in conservation: the awareness that altering a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties. Children at this stage are unaware of conservation. They are unable to grasp the concept that a certain liquid be the same volume regardless of the container shape. For example, equal amounts of liquid are poured into two identical containers. The liquid in one container is then poured into a different shaped cup, such as a tall and thin cup, or a short and wide cup. Then the child is asked, Which one has more water, the tall glass or the short glass. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 26
  • 27. 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 12 yrs of age) (Childhood and early Adolescence) The Concrete Operational stage is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. Important processes during this stage are: 1. Seriation: the ability to sort objects in an order according to size, shape or any other characteristic. Eg.: if given different-shaded objects, they may make a colour gradient. 2. Transitivity: the ability to recognize logical relationships among elements in a serial order. Eg.: if A is taller than B and B is taller than C, then A must be taller than C. 3. Classification: the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, size or other characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can include another 4. Decentering: where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it. For example, the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup. 5. Reversibility: the child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original state. For this reason, a child will be able to rapidly determine that if 4+4 = t, t−4 will equal 4, the original quantity. 6. Conservation: understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the object or items. 7. Elimination of Egocentrism: the ability to view things from another's perspective. However, in this stage child can solve problems that apply to actual (concrete) objects or events only, and not abstract concepts or hypothetical tasks. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 27
  • 28. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 28
  • 29. Stage 3… Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 29
  • 30. Stage 3… Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 30
  • 31. 4. Formal Operational Stage (from 12 yrs and up) (Adolescence and Adulthood) This is the most complete stage of development. In this stage, the individual‘s 1. thought becomes increasingly flexible and abstract, i.e., can carry out systematic experiments. 2. ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way. 3. Understand that nothing is absolute; everything is relative. 4. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning develop inductive as well as deductive logic. 5. Understand that the rules of any games or social system are developed by man by mutual agreement and hence could be changed or modified. 6. The child‘s way of thinking is at its most advanced, although the knowledge it has to work with will change. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 31
  • 32. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 32
  • 33. General Characteristics of this Stages: These four stages have been found to have the following characteristics: 1. Each stage is a structured whole and in a state of equilibrium. 2. Each stage derives from the previous stage and incorporate and transform to prepare for the next and no going back. 3. The stages follow an invariant sequence. There is no skipping stages. 4. The stages are universal. Culture does not impact the stages. Children everywhere go through the same stages no matter what their cultural background is. 5. Each stage is a coming into being. There is a gradual progression from stage to stage. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 33
  • 34. Applications of Theory in the Classroom  Jean Piaget’s theories are imbedded into the school system in the sense that the curriculum is based on his stage theory.  The curriculum is designed to teach students at the first stage and progressively teach new learning to change the schemas in order to move students through each stage.  The teacher starts at the basics introducing a new subject and once the knowledge of that subject is mastered, they would create a schema. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 34
  • 35.  To transition to the next stage, or a new learning method, the teacher would demonstrate how the student will change, modify or adapt their schema to the new method in order for new learning to take place.  When children enter the school they are generally at the preoperational stage. Teachers must recognize that they cannot learn concrete-operational strategies until the students have mastered the preoperational schemas  In other words, students must start at the basic first stage and master it before they can progress well to higher stages. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 35
  • 36. Educational Implications: 1. Emphasis on discovery approach in learning. 2. Curriculum should provide specific educational experience based on children‘s developmental level. 3. Arrange classroom activities so that they assist and encourage self-learning. 4. Do not treat children as miniature adults; they think and learn differently from adults. 5. Practical learning situations. 6. Simple to Complex and Project method of teaching. 7. Co-curricular activities have equal importance as that of curricular experiences in the cognitive development of children. 8. Major goals of education are equal to the creative and critical thinking. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 36
  • 37. Prepared by A.S.Arul Lawrence 37

Editor's Notes

  1. 1.