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China’s brt development in the last decade


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Webinar Session presented by Xumei Chen (CRUSTeC), on April 19th, 2016.
BRT Centre

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China’s brt development in the last decade

  1. 1. Xumei CHEN Associate Professor China Urban Sustainable Transport Research Center (CUSTReC) China Academy of Transportation Science 19 April, 2016 China’s BRT Development in the Last Decade
  2. 2. Outline Overview of BRT development in China BRT System in typical cities Lessons learned
  3. 3. National Policies for Promoting BRT Development in China To scientifically identify the public transport mode based on the practical development and planning of the city, which include BRT and modern trolley-bus etc. ——”Guideline of promoting public transport priority development “ issued by the State Council in Dec. 2012 Promoting BRT development…….. ——”Guideline of promoting Urban infrastructure Construction “ issued by the State Council in Sep. 2013
  4. 4. 1 2 3 15 21 26 44 52 64 70 1 2 3 9 10 13 13 17 22 23 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 NumberofCity year Operating Lines Operating Cities
  5. 5. Source: National Report on Urban Passenger Transport Development 2014 Multiple Modes to Develop BRT Beijing Xiamen Guangzhou Kunming
  6. 6. 快速公交系统功能定位和标准选择的差异 Differences in function and standard of BRT 系统运行效率和外部效能千差万别( Operation efficiency and external benefit) Peak throughput (passengers/hr/direction) City Centre peak hour speed(km/hr) Data: (high capacity, high speed) (high capacity, medium speed)(medium capacity, medium speed) (medium capacity, high speed) 9000 20 km/hr
  7. 7. •第一代系统 1st generation systems •第二代系统 2nd generation systems •第三代系统 3rd generation systems
  8. 8. Kunming: • Opened 1999 • 5 corridors, 47km bus lanes • 63 stations • Peak demand 8,600 pphpd
  9. 9. Kunming. Many problems are concentrated at the intersection.
  10. 10. Kunming in Beijing Rd – peak volume 8,600 Passengers Per Hour Per Direction (pphpd), ~10km/hr
  11. 11. Daily experience in Kunming’s busway corridors
  12. 12. Kunming: unsafe access to a mid-block bus station
  13. 13. Beijing: • Opened 2005 • 4 corridors, 35km bus lanes • 60 stations • Peak demand 4,100 pphpd
  14. 14. Pedestrian access tunnel to BRT station (with flash)
  15. 15. Pedestrian access tunnel to BRT station (without flash)
  16. 16. Passengers wait for a regular bus at a Beijing BRT station (this situation has been greatly improved, and regular buses also operate in the BRT corridor)
  17. 17. Crush loading during peak hours
  18. 18. Runway degradation in corridor 1
  19. 19. Damaged station in the BRT Corridor (BRT line2)
  20. 20. Better stations in outer part of corridor 2; overtaking mixed traffic; right-side doors
  21. 21. Offset station in corridor 2
  22. 22. In all corridors the large majority of bus demand is outside the BRT, making an overall time saving benefit for bus passengers unlikely. Corr. 2&3 demand ~2,000 pphpd in BRT
  23. 23. 19km dedicated bus lanes; 27.2km corridor, 3rd corridor recently opened Hangzhou: • Opened 2006 • 2 corridors, 19km bus lanes • 50 stations • Peak capacity 6,600 pphpd
  24. 24. Hangzhou’s BRT features impressive station architecture and BRT buses
  25. 25. Severe bus and mixed traffic congestion
  26. 26. Hangzhou's BRT is now open to 12m 'feeder' buses serving 4 routes in addition to the two trunk line 18m BRT bus routes.
  27. 27. Flexible routing has been introduced to boost demand
  28. 28. High quality station environment
  29. 29. Runway degradation
  30. 30. Only one bus can open doors at the station at one time. The others have to queue
  31. 31. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside bus bay-style stops and very poor results for buses, bicycles and pedestrians
  32. 32. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside stops and very poor results
  33. 33. •第一代系统 1st generation systems •第二代系统 2nd generation systems •第三代系统 3rd generation systems
  34. 34. Changzhou: • Opened 2008 • 51 stations • 2 corridors, 41km bus lanes • Peak demand 6,200 pphpd
  35. 35. Operation Mode:Combination line Line 1:1 branch, 3 regional lines; branch-5;regional-13. Line 2:1 branch, 2 regional, 1 loop line; branch-4;regional-32. System Exchange: Same station,same direction exchange for free (36) Fare: the same as regular bus. Ticket:RMB 1Yuan; Discount:IC card, 60% discount;student IC card, 30% discount;elder IC card, 20% discount.(Since 1 Oct.,2009, free of charge for those elder more than 70 years old, 50% discount for those elder during 60-69 years old.)
  36. 36. Most stations are offset across intersections. Some are facing with each other.
  37. 37. A critical 500m section of the city centre BRT corridor is open to mixed traffic and is congested during peak periods
  38. 38. Stations located at the intersection sometimes result in queues which block the intersection and the pedestrians crossing, even the traffic flow is not so high at present.
  39. 39. Xiamen: • Opened 2008 • 2 corridors, 38km bus lanes • 31 stations • Peak demand 7,400 pphpd
  40. 40. BRT tunnel under the airport
  41. 41. BRT feeder route map
  42. 42. 7 June,2013, a fire occured in Xiamen BRT , 47 death.
  43. 43. Hefei: • Opened 2010 • 2 corridors, 13km bus lanes • 14 stations • Peak demand 2,900 pphpd
  44. 44. BRT platform and vehicles in Hefei
  45. 45. Delays at 4-phase intersections
  46. 46. •第一代系统 1st generation systems •第二代系统 2nd generation systems •第三代系统 3rd generation systems
  47. 47. 31 BRT routes, express lines during peak hours, short lines; ‘Direct service’ BRT system, BRT bus can run outside the corridor
  48. 48. Some key statistics for Guangzhou BRT Peak passenger flows : 26,900 passengers per hour per direction. More than any metro line in mainland China, except for the Beijing subway Line 2. Daily ridership :around 800,000 passenger-trips per day. More than any metro line in Guangzhou. Passenger boardings:8,500 passengers per hour (not including transfers) at the biggest station during morning and evening peak hour; world records for the busiest BRT system. Passenger boardings :more than 55,000 passengers per day at a single station (not including transfers), also a world record. The world's longest BRT stations – around 260m including bridges, at the largest stations.
  49. 49. Some key statistics for Guangzhou BRT The world’s highest BRT bus volumes: 350 per hour in a single direction, or roughly 1 bus every 10 seconds. The first BRT system in China to include bike parking and bike sharing in the BRT station design. The first BRT system in the world to include direct connecting tunnels between metro and BRT stations. The first BRT system in China with BRT station bridges connecting to adjacent buildings. The first BRT system in China with more than one BRT operator: three corporate groups consisting of seven different bus operating companies all operate BRT routes. The first BRT system in Asia to determine station size based on passenger demand, for all stations in the BRT system. This results in a range of station lengths from 55m to 260m.
  50. 50. Bus stop congestion
  51. 51. A typical scene at Gangding BRT station before the BRT implementation.
  52. 52. Gangding BRT station, after the BRT implementation
  53. 53. Gangding BRT station
  54. 54. V V 机 动 车 道 人 行 道 自 行 车 道 BRT 车 道 BRT 车 道 人 行 道 自 行 车 道 机 动 车 道 西段道路标准横断面图 Two lanes for BRT between stations, 4 lanes at stations
  55. 55. Integration of BRT station bridge & building, with double-tier bike parking under the bridge.
  56. 56. Shipaiqiao Gangding chebe i Xiayua n Shuanggan g Miaoto u Guangzhou BRT integrated with Metro
  57. 57. 换乘 通道 线 左 心 中 线 付费区电梯井 右 BRT石牌桥站 换乘通道 BRT-metro connection at Shipaiqiao station
  58. 58. BRT-metro-mall connection at Shipaiqiao
  59. 59. •Along Zhongshan Dadao, there are 18 stations, 1000 buses. •On 2 Aug. the BRT system has extended to 113 station, 5000 bikes, distributed along Huajingxincheng Station to Xiayuan Station, Surrounding residential, commercial , to meet the ‘last kilometer’ travel demand and a short trip in the corridor .
  60. 60. Public bikes at Huajing Xincheng BRT station. The bike lane is paved with asphalt and separated by a line of trees
  61. 61. Bike sharing station in Tianhe Park Station
  62. 62. Lessons learned (1) Many critical aspects to BRT project success: corridor selection, data collection & analysis, operational design, institutions & regulation, communications and outreach control centre & ITS stations (placement relative to intersections, configuration, length, width, spacing, and architecture), fare collection, vehicles, traffic engineering & management, intersection design & signal phases, modal integration (metro, bicycle, pedestrians), ancillary measures such as parking & urban design.
  63. 63. Lessons learned (2) The first BRT corridor should serve high demand, congested locations, including the city centre. The infrastructure has to be correctly planned and designed together with an operation plan that meets passenger demand BRT stations should be designed to meet passenger demand levels and accommodate growth
  64. 64. Lessons learned (2) There are many advantages to involve multiple BRT operators Intermodal integration is often neglected during BRT planning A successful BRT corridor should also be a beautiful urban landscape.
  65. 65. 谢 谢!Xumei CHEN Associate Professor Director for Policy and Standard Division China Urban Sustainable Transport Research Center China Academy of Transportation Sciences Add.Room502,No.240, Huixinli, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China Tel:+86 10 58278584, Fax:+86 10 59278599. THANK YOU!