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Bus Rapid Transit System :
Case Studies
By
Mr. Apparao Gandi
Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
GITAM Uni...
Issues in planning for public transport
systems in India
2
Cities in India are getting Choked
3
•
4
5
6
Urban population projections
The next one generation in India will add as many urban
residents as has been added since the...
Efforts so far…
• Road widening for vehicles - often
compromising footpaths
• Flyovers
• A few cities have opted for metro...
Need to shift people from
personal motor vehicles to
public transport & non-
motorized modes.
9
10
Therefore:
11
The thrust of our efforts has to be on
shifting 2-wheeler users and old car users to
public transport and no...
Why will people shift???
• Standard Logit model for mode shift
– Travel time
– Waiting time
– Price
• If this is the basis...
Is it:
• Safety
• Comfort
• Pollution
• Hassles of driving on congested roads
• Weather
• Opportunity for social inter-act...
Issues in planning for public
transport
14
 Coverage – accessibility
 Technology – cost Vs. capacity
 Pricing /fares – ...
To Overcome all these issues BRTS is
coming into the Picture
15
BUS RAPID TRANSIT
SYSTEM (BRTS)
BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (BRTS)
WHAT IS BRTS …???
• Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) or High Capacity Bus
System (HCBS) is a high quality, ultra modern,
customer o...
Cont..
• This highly effective and economical mass transit
option is now a way of life in many developing as
well as devel...
Introduction:-
• BRT is a suite of elements that
create a high quality rapid
transit experience using rubber
tired vehicle...
WHY BRTS….?
• Urgent need for efficient mass transport
system.
• Scope for both low density and high density
passenger mov...
WHY BRTS….?
• Vital component of overall transport plan for
the city.
• Can be operated according to the city ethos
(cultu...
BRTS TERMINAL
MAIN FEATURES OF BRTS
• Dedicated (bus-only) running ways (preferably,
physically separated from other traffic)
• Accessib...
MAIN FEATURES OF BRTS
25
• At-grade bus lanes preferred for increasing
commuter access, operational flexibility and
reduci...
PRINCIPLES OF BRTS
• Move people as effectively as rail at a potentially lower
initial capital cost
• Fully utilize existi...
COMPONENTS OF BRTS
A BRT system combines flexible service and new
technologies to improve customer convenience
and reduce ...
TYPES OF RUNNING WAYS
• Running way types vary in the degree of grade separation &
lateral segregation from general purpos...
Separate Running way
• A Separate running way is
the most developed form
of a busway & consists of a
road or guideway to b...
• A separate running way
developed with a guided
track using curb or
another low barrier on
the outside of the track
to he...
FREE WAY
• A free way running way is built with in the limits of the
cross-section of free way, either as a part of new
co...
A Median Bus way
• A dedicated bus facility
in the median area
usually separated
physically from other
forms of traffic an...
HOV lanes
• A running way
shared with high
occupancy vehicles
on either sides or the
outer lanes of the
freeway. the figur...
Shoulder
• Permitted use of the
outside shoulder of the
general traffic lanes by
BRT vehicles.
• Some times limited to
pea...
URBAN STREETS
• An urban street BRT running way is developed with in
the limits of the roadway cross section either as par...
Median bus way :-
• A dedicated bus facility is a
median area sometimes
shared with other high
occupancy vehicles and
some...
Bus lane
• Similarly to a median
busway but tipically located
on the out side of the
arterial roadway and
sometimes shared...
Mixed use lane
• Mixed use of a lane by both transit general traffic.
Geometry:-
• The geometry of a separate busway facility can be
considered for two types of corridors
a. Green field bus wa...
• Constrained corridors:-
Uses routes that are limited in width, located along
routes that are not entirely & are construc...
VEHICLES
Modern, low-
floor, high capacity
rubber-tired
vehicles that
accommodate high
volumes of riders
and fast boarding...
STATIONS
Ranging from
protected shelters
to large transit
centres, BRT
stations are located
within the
communities they
se...
51
• Route Structure and Schedule
• Established to maximize direct, no-transfer rides
to multiple destinations and to create ...
Fare Collection
• Designed to make it fast and easy to pay, often
before boarding the vehicle, BRT fare collection
systems...
Advanced Technology
• The use of advanced technologies (or Intelligent
Transportation Systems) to improve customer
conveni...
GLANCE OF ALL COMPONENTS OF
BRTS
ADVANTAGES
• Grade separated will provide highest travel time
saving, level of safety, and reliability of all types
of run...
• Converted HOV lanes allow buses to operate
faster, more reliably and more safely than
buses in mixed flow lanes.
• Impro...
Disadvantage
• Grade separated transit way have the highest
capital cost of any BRT option.
• An appropriate right-of-way ...
• Since buses share a lane with HOV’s
automobiles may impede bus operations, which
make HOV lanes less efficient than bus ...
BRTS IN MARYLAND
CASE STUDY ON Ahmedabad BUS
RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM
Ahmedabad’s most efficient
‘Bus Rapid Transit Service’
Buses move in the dedicated lanes at high speed without the obstruc...
• Janmarg also known as Ahmedabad BRTS, is
a bus rapid transit in Ahmedabad, India. It is
operated by Ahmedabad Janmarg Li...
BACKGROUND
• Ahmedabad has a population
of 72 lakhs(7.2 million), which
is likely to be 11 million by the
year 2035.
• Thi...
BACKGROUND
• It has system designs quite similar to Curitiba's Rede
Integrada de Transporte and Bogota's TransMilenio.
By ...
Detailed System Design and
Implementation Support (2006):
• BRTS- Ahmedabad is under implementation.
Detailed system desig...
SELECTION OF CORRIDORS
• Based on an analysis of the socio-economic
factors, travel demand patterns, road network
characte...
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• How are the objectives and priorities of Janmarg
BRTS decided?
• What is the level of citizen partici...
TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
• WITH RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH COMES...
 Rising incomes $$$
 Growing urban p...
71
TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
There will be a five-fold increase in the total
vehicle moving very fast ...
• Strained infrastructures and air pollution
• Road fatalities and injuries
• Reduced accessibility for non-drivers
• Road...
A POTENTIAL SOLUTION OF BRTS
73
It is one of the most cost-effective options to provide
high-capacity public transit3.
• The motor vehicle fleet has been doubling
every four years the last three decades.
• Many Indian cities are experiencing...
• In response, many transit users have switched
to cheap to-wheeled motor vehicles
75
Typical traffic in Ahmedabad
Statist...
Best Practices BRTS in South Asia
76
Janmarg System Map in Ahemadabad
Phase I
Phase II
In contrast, Pune and Delhi BRTS re...
• MEDIA:
– Close media attention to BRTS
– Regular press releases by the city
– BRTS branding and hype among citizens.
• P...
• OPENNESS
– Commissioner’s office open to inquiries,
concerns, questions via phone or e-mail
• DEMONSTRATION
– Prototype ...
SOCIAL IMPACTS: THE GOOD AND THE BAD
79
PROJECT EVALUATION
FINANCIAL
• Operation costs recovered by fares
• Maintenance costs are still an issue
• Potential for r...
ENVIRONMENTAL
• Modal switch detected (34% of BRTS riders
used cars, motorbikes or rickshaws before
Janmarg)
• Reduced tra...
82
TRANSPORTATION
• Safer, faster and more reliable than AMTS
• Cheap fares (Rs. 2–16) but the average monthly
expenditure...
• Pedestrian and bike infrastructure present
but inadequately designed:
– 55% of the city bikes or walks
– Bike lanes and ...
• Cars parked on the sidewalk and a hawker setting up shop
along a BRTS corridor
84
Car parked inside in a bike lane
along s BRTS corridor
85
LESSONS LEARNT
• Janmarg has greatly improved public transit and
should be taken with pride by local Indians
• Tells the r...
• Research and explore case studies before
tackling planning problems
• • Janmarg would have had the same
shortcomings see...
01. As the bus arrives at the Platform of
the station. the door of the platform
and of the bus open up, and thereafter
clo...
Another good feature of the stations
is that they have provided ramps for
physically challenged people to use
Wheel chairs...
The platforms have good seating arrangement especially for ladies waiting for the
arrival of the bus. My wife among others...
When the bus leaves the dedicated lanes
to cross a junction, red signal stops other
vehicles
Stations are well-lit at nigh...
Gujarat Chief Minister: Sri Narendra Modi
is seen travelling in a BRT bus on the
day on its inauguration on 15th Aug 2009....
• BRTS Ahmedabad has
installed this machine at
the exit at every station.
• Ticket is to be ‘shown’to
it while exiting.
• ...
VIDEO
94
VISAKHAPATNAM BUS RAPID
TRANSIT SYSTEM
Visakhapatnam:
 2nd Largest city of A.P. with an area of 550 sq. Km.
 City is home to several industries, steel plant, a...
Need of Rapid Transport at V.S.P
 As per National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP), cities with
one million-plus population ...
Reason for adoption of BRTS at V.S.P
 Cost – Implementation of MRTS costs around 200 crores per km,
where as BRTS costs a...
Before Implementation of Project:
 As of 2011, about 4.5 lakh registered vehicles ply on the city - 90%
of Motorized Two-...
Project Description
 Project was approved in the year 2008, started in the year 2010
GVMC, appraised a BRTS network of 1...
Goals of Project
 Not to compromise with space requirements for dedicated buses,
Motor Vehicles, Non- Motor Vehicle lanes...
Project design features
 Min 30m width at mid- block section;
 36m width at stations/ junctions;
 Dedicated bus lane, 7...
Fig: Typical Cross section at 36.0 M row (with Bus Bay)
Fig: Typical Cross Section at 30.0 M Row
Fig: Typical Cross Section at 60.0 M Row
Flyover:
Fig: Typical Cross Section of flyover, Pier Location
Development under Public Private
Partnership (PPP)
Methodology:
 Implementing (financing, designing and executing) the pr...
 ‘Public’ is represented by a Special Purpose Vehicles (SPV) named
‘ Visakhapatnam Urban Transport Company Limited ( VUTC...
Budget
I. Total cost of project:
 For Civil and electrical infrastructure is estimate at : 339 Cr. ( with
contingencies o...
Financial Partners Involved
By GOVT. of India (JNNURM) – 50%
GOVT. of A.P. – 20%
GVMC – 20%
Others – 10%
2. Sustainability...
Challenges encountered
 Availability of ROW to achieve segregation of traffic on the
corridors.
 Issues to be reckoned a...
112
Conclusions
• India is witnessing a rapid growth in urban populations.
Consequently, the demand on transport infrastru...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND REFERENCES
113
I would like to thank members of Mr. K.RamGopal, Dr.MCRHRDI,A.P and
Dr. Sravana (JNTUC...
114
“Buses,
More Buses,
Better Buses”
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION
115
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario
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Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario

Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario

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Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) - Case Studies in Indian Scenario

  1. 1. Bus Rapid Transit System : Case Studies By Mr. Apparao Gandi Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering GITAM University- Hyderabad Guest Faculty, Center for Transportation Engineering, JNTU-Hyderabad Talk delivered at Training program on Multi Model Transport System for Environmental and Social Co – Benefits At Dr. MCR HRDI , Hyderabad 1
  2. 2. Issues in planning for public transport systems in India 2
  3. 3. Cities in India are getting Choked 3
  4. 4. • 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Urban population projections The next one generation in India will add as many urban residents as has been added since the beginning of mankind 7
  8. 8. Efforts so far… • Road widening for vehicles - often compromising footpaths • Flyovers • A few cities have opted for metro rail • Some others now opting for BRTS 8
  9. 9. Need to shift people from personal motor vehicles to public transport & non- motorized modes. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Therefore: 11 The thrust of our efforts has to be on shifting 2-wheeler users and old car users to public transport and non-motorized modes.
  12. 12. Why will people shift??? • Standard Logit model for mode shift – Travel time – Waiting time – Price • If this is the basis for mode split, no one will shift from 2-wheelers to public transport • Yet people are willing to shift • What makes them do that? 12
  13. 13. Is it: • Safety • Comfort • Pollution • Hassles of driving on congested roads • Weather • Opportunity for social inter-action • What else? • Subject of research 13
  14. 14. Issues in planning for public transport 14  Coverage – accessibility  Technology – cost Vs. capacity  Pricing /fares – who should pay  Regulation and management – role of the private sector
  15. 15. To Overcome all these issues BRTS is coming into the Picture 15
  16. 16. BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (BRTS)
  17. 17. BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (BRTS)
  18. 18. WHAT IS BRTS …??? • Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) or High Capacity Bus System (HCBS) is a high quality, ultra modern, customer oriented transit option that could deliver fast, comfortable and cost-effective urban mobility, quite similar to metro rail.
  19. 19. Cont.. • This highly effective and economical mass transit option is now a way of life in many developing as well as developed countries such as China, Taiwan, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Japan, United States of America, Australia, New Zealand, England, France and so on. 19
  20. 20. Introduction:- • BRT is a suite of elements that create a high quality rapid transit experience using rubber tired vehicles. • This experience often includes a high degree of performance ( especially speed & reliability), ease of use, careful attention to aesthetics.
  21. 21. WHY BRTS….? • Urgent need for efficient mass transport system. • Scope for both low density and high density passenger movement. • Low cost transit solution. • Less time for planning and construction, more flexibility. • Higher speed with little delay for buses.
  22. 22. WHY BRTS….? • Vital component of overall transport plan for the city. • Can be operated according to the city ethos (culture). • Scope for public private synergy. • Environment friendly. 22
  23. 23. BRTS TERMINAL
  24. 24. MAIN FEATURES OF BRTS • Dedicated (bus-only) running ways (preferably, physically separated from other traffic) • Accessible, safe, secure and attractive stations. • Easy-to-board, attractive and environmentally friendly vehicles. • Efficient (preferably off-board) fare collection. • Its applications to provide real-time passenger information, signal priority and service command/control. • Frequent, all-day service.
  25. 25. MAIN FEATURES OF BRTS 25 • At-grade bus lanes preferred for increasing commuter access, operational flexibility and reducing costs. • Priority for buses at intersections. • Urban / low floor buses. • Properly designed bus shelters for efficient and safe boarding / alighting • Pedestrian facilities for ‘along' and ‘across' movements. • Inter-modal integration through single ticketing for seamless travel.
  26. 26. PRINCIPLES OF BRTS • Move people as effectively as rail at a potentially lower initial capital cost • Fully utilize existing roadways, rights-of-way, and station sites • Take advantage of available technology (e.g., automatic vehicle location, passenger information, signal priority, and “Smart Card” type fare collection) • Apply incremental system development, based on demand and funding • Maximize operating flexibility • Change the mindset for bus transit – from conventional bus fleet operations to state-of-the-art transit systems that are convenient, reliable, attractive, and comfortable
  27. 27. COMPONENTS OF BRTS A BRT system combines flexible service and new technologies to improve customer convenience and reduce delays. While specific BRT applications vary, the components may include: – Running ways – Vehicles – Stations – Route structure and schedule – Fare collection – Advanced Technology
  28. 28. TYPES OF RUNNING WAYS • Running way types vary in the degree of grade separation & lateral segregation from general purpose traffic. • Running ways can be classified into three types a. Separate b. Freeway c. Urban street
  29. 29. Separate Running way • A Separate running way is the most developed form of a busway & consists of a road or guideway to built on its own alignment. • It can include both at grade & grade separated intersections with cross- streets
  30. 30. • A separate running way developed with a guided track using curb or another low barrier on the outside of the track to help steer vehicles is referred to as a guide way, the figure illustrates a guide way.
  31. 31. FREE WAY • A free way running way is built with in the limits of the cross-section of free way, either as a part of new construction or existing. • The running ways geometry is controlled by geometry of freeways general traffic lanes. • The running ways can have one of three forms a. A median bus way b. HOV lanes c. Shoulder
  32. 32. A Median Bus way • A dedicated bus facility in the median area usually separated physically from other forms of traffic and other types of BRT. The figure illustrates a median bus way
  33. 33. HOV lanes • A running way shared with high occupancy vehicles on either sides or the outer lanes of the freeway. the figures illustrates a HOV lanes
  34. 34. Shoulder • Permitted use of the outside shoulder of the general traffic lanes by BRT vehicles. • Some times limited to peak hour periods or congested conditions.
  35. 35. URBAN STREETS • An urban street BRT running way is developed with in the limits of the roadway cross section either as part of new construction or existing facility. • The running way has one of three forms a. Median bus way b. Bus lane c. Mixed use lane
  36. 36. Median bus way :- • A dedicated bus facility is a median area sometimes shared with other high occupancy vehicles and sometimes physically separated from traffic. the figure illustrates the median bus way
  37. 37. Bus lane • Similarly to a median busway but tipically located on the out side of the arterial roadway and sometimes shared with other high occupancy vehicles.
  38. 38. Mixed use lane • Mixed use of a lane by both transit general traffic.
  39. 39. Geometry:- • The geometry of a separate busway facility can be considered for two types of corridors a. Green field bus ways b. Constrained corridors Green field bus ways:- which are busways constructed in areas that offer few limitations in terms of space, direct routes to the desired destinations.
  40. 40. • Constrained corridors:- Uses routes that are limited in width, located along routes that are not entirely & are constructed adjacent to or with in developed area. Designation Description Dimension (feet) A BRT/Bus lane Preferred (12) Constrained (11) B SHOULDER Preferred (4) Constrained (2)
  41. 41. VEHICLES Modern, low- floor, high capacity rubber-tired vehicles that accommodate high volumes of riders and fast boarding and exiting. BRT vehicles often use clean fuels or alternative power.
  42. 42. STATIONS Ranging from protected shelters to large transit centres, BRT stations are located within the communities they serve and provide easy access to the system.
  43. 43. 51
  44. 44. • Route Structure and Schedule • Established to maximize direct, no-transfer rides to multiple destinations and to create more flexible and continuous service (reducing the need for a schedule) for local and express bus service. •
  45. 45. Fare Collection • Designed to make it fast and easy to pay, often before boarding the vehicle, BRT fare collection systems include the use of self-service proof-of- payment systems or pre-paid stored-value fare cards, such as a "Smart Card" system. 53
  46. 46. Advanced Technology • The use of advanced technologies (or Intelligent Transportation Systems) to improve customer convenience, speed, reliability, and safety. Examples include systems that provide traffic signal preference for buses at intersections and cross streets, as well as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to provide passenger information such as real-time bus arrival information. 54
  47. 47. GLANCE OF ALL COMPONENTS OF BRTS
  48. 48. ADVANTAGES • Grade separated will provide highest travel time saving, level of safety, and reliability of all types of running ways. • Bus traffic doesn't interfere with mixed traffic at all. • Mixed flow traffic lanes have minimal capital costs since major physical modification are not necessary
  49. 49. • Converted HOV lanes allow buses to operate faster, more reliably and more safely than buses in mixed flow lanes. • Improvement BRT travel times can be attained in designated curbside bus- only lanes, making buses in these lanes more compe- titive with the automobile.
  50. 50. Disadvantage • Grade separated transit way have the highest capital cost of any BRT option. • An appropriate right-of-way throughout the corridor may be unattainable. • Bus operations are impacted by traffic conditions.
  51. 51. • Since buses share a lane with HOV’s automobiles may impede bus operations, which make HOV lanes less efficient than bus only lanes. • Median HOV lanes can be more difficult to access. • Implementation of new curbside bus lanes and street widening may displace parking, pedestrian and bicycle paths.
  52. 52. BRTS IN MARYLAND
  53. 53. CASE STUDY ON Ahmedabad BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM
  54. 54. Ahmedabad’s most efficient ‘Bus Rapid Transit Service’ Buses move in the dedicated lanes at high speed without the obstruction from vehicles crossing or jay walkers forcing the drivers to apply brakes .
  55. 55. • Janmarg also known as Ahmedabad BRTS, is a bus rapid transit in Ahmedabad, India. It is operated by Ahmedabad Janmarg Limited, a subsidiary of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. • It is designed by Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) University. • Janmarg means the people's way in Gujarati language.
  56. 56. BACKGROUND • Ahmedabad has a population of 72 lakhs(7.2 million), which is likely to be 11 million by the year 2035. • This would lead to agglomeration of surrounding settlements like Naroda and other smaller villages, which ultimately increases the area of the city, which may become 1,000 km2 in the year 2035. • Ahmedabad has limited public transport options
  57. 57. BACKGROUND • It has system designs quite similar to Curitiba's Rede Integrada de Transporte and Bogota's TransMilenio. By following this system Chennai BRTS and Bangalore BRTS are also under implementation. • Technical procedures was started in 2006. • A part of the first corridor connecting Pirana to RTO Junction was opened to public on October 14, 2009 by Chief Minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi. • Second half of the first phase of the BRTS was inaugurated on December 25, 2009. • It was stretched up to Kankaria Lake later to cater eastern part of the city.
  58. 58. Detailed System Design and Implementation Support (2006): • BRTS- Ahmedabad is under implementation. Detailed system design and support during construction is being provided by CEPT team. The team had already made some 100 minor design changes to avoid difficulties faced by Delhi and Pune in implementation.
  59. 59. SELECTION OF CORRIDORS • Based on an analysis of the socio-economic factors, travel demand patterns, road network characteristics, proposed metro plan and existing Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service (AMTS) route network as the criteria, a network of roads covering about 155 kilometers in length have been identified for developing the Bus Rapid Transit System within Ahmedabad
  60. 60. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • How are the objectives and priorities of Janmarg BRTS decided? • What is the level of citizen participation in the planning of Janmarg BRTS? • How do stakeholders and planners interact and what are the consequences in achieving goals? • What is the social impact of Janmarg BRTS on marginalized groups? • Is Janmarg BRTS successful and can it be replicated in other regions? 69
  61. 61. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES • WITH RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH COMES...  Rising incomes $$$  Growing urban population  Increasing vehicle ownership 70
  62. 62. 71 TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES There will be a five-fold increase in the total vehicle moving very fast in non-OECD countries from 2002–2030; two billion vehicles in total.
  63. 63. • Strained infrastructures and air pollution • Road fatalities and injuries • Reduced accessibility for non-drivers • Road traffic accidents are the third-most leading cause of death and disability in developing countries 72 What are the effects..??
  64. 64. A POTENTIAL SOLUTION OF BRTS 73 It is one of the most cost-effective options to provide high-capacity public transit3.
  65. 65. • The motor vehicle fleet has been doubling every four years the last three decades. • Many Indian cities are experiencing a cycle of decreasing bus ridership and reduced transit services. 74 TRANSPORT IN INDIA: MORE MOTORBIKES, LESS BUSES Family using a motorcycle at a crossing
  66. 66. • In response, many transit users have switched to cheap to-wheeled motor vehicles 75 Typical traffic in Ahmedabad Statistics:1995 to 2005 44% 68%82% road crashes persons injured traffic fatalities
  67. 67. Best Practices BRTS in South Asia 76 Janmarg System Map in Ahemadabad Phase I Phase II In contrast, Pune and Delhi BRTS received negative press and little public support…..
  68. 68. • MEDIA: – Close media attention to BRTS – Regular press releases by the city – BRTS branding and hype among citizens. • PUBLIC EVENTS : – Workshops for experts, international community and public officials – Open displays at CEPT University and other venues 77 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: WHICH PUBLIC AND HOW??
  69. 69. • OPENNESS – Commissioner’s office open to inquiries, concerns, questions via phone or e-mail • DEMONSTRATION – Prototype bus station – 12km demonstration corridor – Free transit first month of operation – City and CEPT University took visitor comments and feedback; also helpful for user education 78 Cont..
  70. 70. SOCIAL IMPACTS: THE GOOD AND THE BAD 79
  71. 71. PROJECT EVALUATION FINANCIAL • Operation costs recovered by fares • Maintenance costs are still an issue • Potential for revenues from advertising space • Are flyovers necessary? • They are considerable costs to the project • Buses do not even use the flyovers 80
  72. 72. ENVIRONMENTAL • Modal switch detected (34% of BRTS riders used cars, motorbikes or rickshaws before Janmarg) • Reduced traffic (esp. Sunday nights) 81
  73. 73. 82 TRANSPORTATION • Safer, faster and more reliable than AMTS • Cheap fares (Rs. 2–16) but the average monthly expenditure on transport is Rs. 103 • Flyovers used for project encourage fast driving and unfriendly pedestrian environments • System does not address the majority of trips that go to the center of the city
  74. 74. • Pedestrian and bike infrastructure present but inadequately designed: – 55% of the city bikes or walks – Bike lanes and sidewalks can be too narrow – Motorcyclists use bike lanes as service lanes – Cars/hawkers park on sidewalks and bike lanes – Infrastructure located only along corridor 83
  75. 75. • Cars parked on the sidewalk and a hawker setting up shop along a BRTS corridor 84
  76. 76. Car parked inside in a bike lane along s BRTS corridor 85
  77. 77. LESSONS LEARNT • Janmarg has greatly improved public transit and should be taken with pride by local Indians • Tells the rest of India that BRTS can work despite previous shortcomings in Pune and Delhi. • Fair compensation needed for impacted communities or avoidance of slum clearance altogether. • Lessons learnt from international examples can be adapted to the local context and culture 86
  78. 78. • Research and explore case studies before tackling planning problems • • Janmarg would have had the same shortcomings seen in Pune and Delhi if ITDP was not there • to provide technical support, international BRTS experience and information • • 87
  79. 79. 01. As the bus arrives at the Platform of the station. the door of the platform and of the bus open up, and thereafter close, simultaneously before the bus leaves. The buses are fully air- conditioned. 02. Stations are in the median. 03. Ticket issuing clerk is sitting in the middle in a cage covered by a glass. BRTS is operational on 18.7 kms. from RTO to Pushpakunj at Kankaria 01 02 03
  80. 80. Another good feature of the stations is that they have provided ramps for physically challenged people to use Wheel chairs. With walls in the ramp (pathway), there will be no spillage of people in the path of the bus.
  81. 81. The platforms have good seating arrangement especially for ladies waiting for the arrival of the bus. My wife among others, can be seen here Our people are exiting on reaching Kankaria lake
  82. 82. When the bus leaves the dedicated lanes to cross a junction, red signal stops other vehicles Stations are well-lit at night Ahmedabad BRTS is a bus-based high quality, high capacity rapid transit system In a BRT system, the buses travel in exclusive lanes, thus avoiding congestion. This is a system of segregated right-of-way infrastructure, rapid and frequent bus Operation, easy boarding and alighting facilities for the passengers and excellence In marketing and customer service.
  83. 83. Gujarat Chief Minister: Sri Narendra Modi is seen travelling in a BRT bus on the day on its inauguration on 15th Aug 2009. It is Modi’s personal interest that Ahmedabad’s BRTS became a reality and today the most efficient too. It is now getting International attention as per Times of India (24-02-2009). In fact the delegates from some 17 countries were a 2-day tour of Ahmedabad on 22 / 23-2-2009 to study its working and probably to copy. BRTS has been long seen by Urban Planners as an answer to traffic chaos in Big Cities International Award: BRTS Ahmedabad was conferred the award for Sustainable Transport for the year 2010 on Jan.12, 2010 in WASHINGTON D.C. U.S. A team led by the Standing Panel Head: Ashit Voha flew to Washington receive the said award for visionary achievement in mass transport from the U.S. backed Institute for Transportation & Development Policy.
  84. 84. • BRTS Ahmedabad has installed this machine at the exit at every station. • Ticket is to be ‘shown’to it while exiting. • The machine will catch If the person who has taken ticket for a shorter distance, has travelled longer.
  85. 85. VIDEO 94
  86. 86. VISAKHAPATNAM BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM
  87. 87. Visakhapatnam:  2nd Largest city of A.P. with an area of 550 sq. Km.  City is home to several industries, steel plant, apart from being port city.  It is also home to Eastern Naval Command.  As per 2011 India census, It had a population of 4,288,113.
  88. 88. Need of Rapid Transport at V.S.P  As per National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP), cities with one million-plus population must target to a minimum public transport mode split of 50% .  By giving impetus to public transport to arrest the trend of personal modes.  Increase modal split in favour of public transport.  To have smooth flow, safety and to minimize travel time, cost.
  89. 89. Reason for adoption of BRTS at V.S.P  Cost – Implementation of MRTS costs around 200 crores per km, where as BRTS costs around 20 crores per km.  Implementation can be done with in a less span ( 1- 3 years after conception) – a significant advantage when compared to rail based project.
  90. 90. Before Implementation of Project:  As of 2011, about 4.5 lakh registered vehicles ply on the city - 90% of Motorized Two-Wheel Vehicles (MTWVs).  Travel demand of 12 lakh trips per day – 65% private basis & only 20% favour public transport. Target: Situation:  Minimum public transport mode split of 50% (as per NUTP).  Travel demand has to grow to 16 and 28 lakh trips per day by 2011 and 2021 respectively.
  91. 91. Project Description  Project was approved in the year 2008, started in the year 2010 GVMC, appraised a BRTS network of 100 Km consisting of 6 BRTS corridors.  In phase I, 2 corridors were proposed:  RTC complex – Pendurthi (20 Km)  RTC complex – Simhachalem (18.5 Km)  The study was approved by MoUD and aid was granted through JNNURM programme.  For development of foot over bridges, bus shelters etc. Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode was chosen.
  92. 92. Goals of Project  Not to compromise with space requirements for dedicated buses, Motor Vehicles, Non- Motor Vehicle lanes and safety.  To augment transport supply at an affordable cost to the citizens.  To prepare a comprehensive parking plan and will be implemented with control on demand and fiscal measures.
  93. 93. Project design features  Min 30m width at mid- block section;  36m width at stations/ junctions;  Dedicated bus lane, 7.0 m (2 x 3.5 m);  3.4 m wide passenger platform with shelter;  2 x 3.25 m motorised vehicle lane (MV), 2 x 2.5 m non- motorised vehicle lane (NMV), minimum 2.0 m wide sidewalk on both sides;  Placement of stations- based on demand ( 500 to 700 m);  Additional right turn to MV lane at junctions;  Provision of bus passing lane at some stations;  Adequate depot and terminal facilities; and  Safe dispersal and integration measures.
  94. 94. Fig: Typical Cross section at 36.0 M row (with Bus Bay)
  95. 95. Fig: Typical Cross Section at 30.0 M Row
  96. 96. Fig: Typical Cross Section at 60.0 M Row
  97. 97. Flyover: Fig: Typical Cross Section of flyover, Pier Location
  98. 98. Development under Public Private Partnership (PPP) Methodology:  Implementing (financing, designing and executing) the proposed Modern Bus Shelter and Foot Over Bridges dividing them into 3-4 packages.  Operating and maintaining for a given concession period.  Transferring the facilities to GVMC after concession period.
  99. 99.  ‘Public’ is represented by a Special Purpose Vehicles (SPV) named ‘ Visakhapatnam Urban Transport Company Limited ( VUTCL).  The project will be implemented by a SPV with equity stakes through GVMC ( 25% equity), APSRTC (51% equity) and VUDA (24% equity). Role of Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) Objective:  To provide BRTS by way of planning, designing, financing, developing and constructing etc.  To facilitate multi modal transport services including owing, licensing and operating bus routes.  To serve as a single agency to facilitate, coordinate control & monitor the activities of various public & private partners.
  100. 100. Budget I. Total cost of project:  For Civil and electrical infrastructure is estimate at : 339 Cr. ( with contingencies of 1.5 Cr.)  For shifting of utilities has been estimated as 26.53 Cr.  For producing ITS related facilities for 300 buses, 50 bus stops, 8 terminals, 3 depots and a control centre has been provisioned with 6 Cr.  The Operation & Maintenance cost shall be about 15% of capital cost
  101. 101. Financial Partners Involved By GOVT. of India (JNNURM) – 50% GOVT. of A.P. – 20% GVMC – 20% Others – 10% 2. Sustainability of the Project  The annual O&M per annum will be 39 Cr. by 2021.  Expected ridership on PTC and STC corridor will 3.15 Lac./day by 2031.  Estimated bare box revenue will increase to 125 Cr. by 2021.  5 Cr. per annum can be generated through advertisement rights.  Operation viability is expected to be sound as the project Internal Rate of Return (IRR) comes to healthy 41% .  All other( buses, fare collection system and ITS) can also financed from the fare box revenue and even enough to maintain fixed infrastructure efficiently.
  102. 102. Challenges encountered  Availability of ROW to achieve segregation of traffic on the corridors.  Issues to be reckoned are utility diversions and addressing the drainage.  Diversion of traffic during construction.  Difficulties in acquisition of land at various strategic locations.  Environment and social problems and prospects of resettlements et.
  103. 103. 112 Conclusions • India is witnessing a rapid growth in urban populations. Consequently, the demand on transport infrastructure is huge. • A planned response is needed to meet the challenge. • Some solutions include: • BRTS, • MRTS, • Mono-rail, • Optimization of transport network, • Development of feeder networks.
  104. 104. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND REFERENCES 113 I would like to thank members of Mr. K.RamGopal, Dr.MCRHRDI,A.P and Dr. Sravana (JNTUCEH). for giving this opportunity, as well as my Students, friends and family for their support. 1.Dargay et al. (2007). Vehicle ownership and income growth, worldwide: 1960-2030. The Energy Journal 28(4): 163-190. 2.Bener et al. (2003). Strategy to improve road safety in developing countries. Saudi Medical Journal 24: 603-608. 3.Hensher. (2007). Sustainable public transport systems: moving towards a value for money and network-based approach and away from blind commitment. Transport Policy 14(1): 98-102. 4.Zhang. (2009). Bus versus rail: meta-Analysis of cost characteristics, carrying capacities, and land use impacts. Transportation Research Record 2110: 87-95. 5.Badami and Haider. (2007) An analysis of public bus transit performance in Indian cities. Transportation Research Part A 41: 961–981. 6.Badami. (2005). Transport and urban air pollution in India. Environmental Management 36(2): 195-204. 7.Ponnaluri and Santhi. (2009). Road crash history and risk groups in India: need for new initiatives and safety policies. Transportation Research Record 2114: 64-71. 8.Arnstein. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Planning Association 35(4): 216-224.
  105. 105. 114 “Buses, More Buses, Better Buses”
  106. 106. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 115

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