Very political decision to push the envelope for clean technology. Financial ramifications but courageous. First time Euro IV in country. Can they maintain? Is fuel ready?
“expands the reach of the system before the system has been built” –AGInner city circulator and “trunk lite”
Social equity aims, not as clear-cut as a technical project.1970’s gov’t stopped providing public transit; these guys started on the gray market, few entrepeneurships to operate in the townships (black and color-owned); today seen as a black african business – pride; formed with the idea of protection – protect routes, mafia mentality. Chance to revolutionize industryPoliticians promised that “No taxi operator will be worse off”Weak internal governance of taxi associations responsible for hold-up, “no mechanism for making a decision on behalf of the whole “Interim operations mean some taxi routes are being affected already
Worldwide Developments in BRT
Worldwide Developments in BRT<br />Walter Hook, Executive Director, ITDP<br />Transforming Transportation, World Bank, <br />January 2011<br />
Guangzhou: “Hybrid full featured direct service” BRT. Over 800,000 daily passengers. Three consortiums under QOS contracts compete. Revenue collected by metro company and divided by formula <br />
Gangding, off-peak traffic into the city centre<br />
Problems with CNG<br />Corridor are Euro 0 diesel. Sulfur in fuel still too high.<br />Corridor 2-8 (and beyond) buses run on CNG. <br />No GHG CO2 advantage because inefficiencies with refueling <br />Major operating costs and service delays.<br />National government recently settled the price and agreed to add fueling stations<br />
<ul><li>Non-standardized approach to contracting
Because 40% of the total system costs are government, (rest is bus procurement) tendered 40%, and lowest bidder will set the price for the remaining.
Contracts are different. Existing operators consortium took to the courts. Operations stalled for months.
Independence of TransJakarta agency still not legalized but improved.
Ticketing system still paper tickets and ‘non-transparency’…</li></ul>Legal and institutional problems are key<br />
Aesthetically pleasing</li></li></ul><li>Vehicles are World Class: Low-Emission Engines, High Quality<br /><ul><li>Euro IV diesel engine with particulate traps
(Bogota is Euro II, so Rea Vaya is much cleaner!) </li></li></ul><li>Best Practice: Passing lanes and multiple stopping bays at stations ensures high capacity and allows for integrated express services<br />
The Taxi Transition: <br />Competitive tender abandoned for ‘negotiated settlement’ with ‘affected operators’ to avoid violence, but…<br /> Who represents the ‘affected operators?’<br />4 levels of associations (national, province, city, district) from 2 warring associations, members don’t recognize leaders<br />8 vehicles per legal operating license.<br />
Where are we now…<br />38<br />Yes<br />Almost<br />Yes<br />
10 local associations affected. City defined the affected routes, the number of routes/association, certified the operators, and decided on 1 share for every vehicle and license upon turning over vehicle <br />39<br />
Issues<br />Non competitive tender drove up operating costs by at least 30% - 40% and undermined transition timetable by years<br />Some routes more lucrative than others (from R2000 to R9000 per month) so 1 share one vehicle + license caused problems<br />Monthly share dividend had to be +/- the highest route value for all to agree driving up fee/km<br />