Worldwide Developments in BRT


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By Walter Hook, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. Transforming Transportation 2011. The World Bank. January 27, 2011.

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  • 广州市的系统是特别针对广州客流条件而提出的系统(专用走廊+灵活车辆),乘客既可以享有封闭式系统的优点,又免却多次换乘。
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  • Worldwide Developments in BRT

    1. 1.
    2. 2. Worldwide Developments in BRT<br />Walter Hook, Executive Director, ITDP<br />Transforming Transportation, World Bank, <br />January 2011<br />
    3. 3. Guangzhou: “Hybrid full featured direct service” BRT. Over 800,000 daily passengers. Three consortiums under QOS contracts compete. Revenue collected by metro company and divided by formula <br />
    4. 4. Gangding, off-peak traffic into the city centre<br />
    5. 5. Offset where road narrows<br />
    6. 6. Stations away from Junctions.<br />Turning buses pull into mixed traffic<br />Split stations decision: discuss<br />Bike parking<br />Bike sharing<br />
    7. 7. BRT route selection<br />Services to be included and excluded from BRT corridor<br />
    8. 8. Not a complete corridor. The original 23 Phase I BRT routes (40+ are operating)<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Route using corridor /route length more than 30%<br />296<br />560<br />561 242<br />210<br />BRT Vehicle,can leave corridor<br />Don’t need feeder<br />Flexible Operation<br />
    10. 10. The Bus Routes are similar to the old routes, but now they are “B” routes. <br />
    11. 11. Bike sharing along BRT corridor, Over 5000 bikes today, expanding to 20,000 by 2011<br />
    12. 12. Integrated with Metro at 4 stations.<br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14.
    15. 15. TransJakarta just opened routes 9 and 10, making it the longest BRT<br />
    16. 16. 5<br />10<br />9<br />15<br />3<br />2<br />16<br />1<br />4<br />A<br />B<br />14<br />11<br />12<br />8<br />6<br />7<br />13<br />Rasuna Said – Gatot Subroto – Sudirman – Senayan – Penjernihan <br />Kp. Melayu – Casablanca – DR Satrio – Mas Mansyur – Cideng <br />15 BuswayCorridors Planned, 10 are built<br />
    17. 17. Problems with CNG<br />Corridor are Euro 0 diesel. Sulfur in fuel still too high.<br />Corridor 2-8 (and beyond) buses run on CNG. <br />No GHG CO2 advantage because inefficiencies with refueling <br />Major operating costs and service delays.<br />National government recently settled the price and agreed to add fueling stations<br />
    18. 18. <ul><li>Non-standardized approach to contracting
    19. 19. Because 40% of the total system costs are government, (rest is bus procurement) tendered 40%, and lowest bidder will set the price for the remaining.
    20. 20. Contracts are different. Existing operators consortium took to the courts. Operations stalled for months.
    21. 21. Independence of TransJakarta agency still not legalized but improved.
    22. 22. Ticketing system still paper tickets and ‘non-transparency’…</li></ul>Legal and institutional problems are key<br />
    23. 23. Lane enforcement has been lax<br />
    24. 24. MC Escher was called in on the design<br />
    25. 25. At least Corridor I of TransJakarta still slips past the traffic.<br />
    26. 26. Ahmedabad<br />
    27. 27. Construction complete on 30 km of planned 90 km network<br /><ul><li>50,000 passengers / day
    28. 28. 27% of riders from private vehicles</li></ul>Competitive bidding for bus operations and fare collection<br />Quality of service contracting<br />
    29. 29. Segregated median bus lanes<br />
    30. 30. Level boarding 900 mm<br />
    31. 31. Two-phase junctions<br />
    32. 32. The “Square-about”<br />
    33. 33. Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya: Sub-Saharan Africa’s First Full Featured BRT System<br />
    34. 34. Johannesburg: Trunk, Feeder and Complimentary<br />Corridorlength: 63 km<br />Numberofstations: 78<br />
    35. 35. Successes: The Stations are World Class<br /><ul><li>Pre-paid, level boarding
    36. 36. Secure, weather-protected
    37. 37. Aesthetically pleasing</li></li></ul><li>Vehicles are World Class: Low-Emission Engines, High Quality<br /><ul><li>Euro IV diesel engine with particulate traps
    38. 38. (Bogota is Euro II, so Rea Vaya is much cleaner!) </li></li></ul><li>Best Practice: Passing lanes and multiple stopping bays at stations ensures high capacity and allows for integrated express services<br />
    39. 39. Innovative Complementary Routes<br /><ul><li> Trunk/feeder hybrid
    40. 40. Doors on both sides
    41. 41. Facilitates bigger service range while trunk infrastructure is being expanded.
    42. 42. Poorly implemented…</li></li></ul><li>One way streets have special problems. Central verge on a one way street is working well, but…<br />
    43. 43. ITDP issues to discuss<br />Network effects are a problem. <br />
    44. 44. Significant accountability issues<br />HR Company<br />Cashiers/<br />Ambassadors<br />
    45. 45. The Taxi Transition: <br />Competitive tender abandoned for ‘negotiated settlement’ with ‘affected operators’ to avoid violence, but…<br /> Who represents the ‘affected operators?’<br />4 levels of associations (national, province, city, district) from 2 warring associations, members don’t recognize leaders<br />8 vehicles per legal operating license.<br />
    46. 46. Where are we now…<br />38<br />Yes<br />Almost<br />Yes<br />
    47. 47. 10 local associations affected. City defined the affected routes, the number of routes/association, certified the operators, and decided on 1 share for every vehicle and license upon turning over vehicle <br />39<br />
    48. 48. Issues<br />Non competitive tender drove up operating costs by at least 30% - 40% and undermined transition timetable by years<br />Some routes more lucrative than others (from R2000 to R9000 per month) so 1 share one vehicle + license caused problems<br />Monthly share dividend had to be +/- the highest route value for all to agree driving up fee/km<br />