Zhao emotional travel 20160920 p

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Webinar Session presented by Jinhua Zhao (MIT), on September 20th, 2016.
BRT Centre of Excellence (www.brt.cl)

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Zhao emotional travel 20160920 p

  1. 1. Jinhua Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emotional Travel Role of Social Psychology in Shaping Mobility Decisions BRT COE Webinar
  2. 2. How to change behavior? 2
  3. 3. 3 Laziness knows no boundaries…
  4. 4. Subconscious mind Conscious mind
  5. 5. homo econ vs. homo sapiens • Behavioral deviation – loss aversion – overweighing small probability – mental accounting – hyberbolic discounting – framing effects – altruism – price saliency 5
  6. 6. Behavioral Science Transportation Engineering~
  7. 7. Is Travel Social? Is Travel Emotional? Is Travel Time Absolute? 7
  8. 8. Is Travel Social? Is Travel Emotional? Is Travel Time Absolute? 8 On-demand service Shared mobility Autonomous vehicles What does this mean?
  9. 9. Is travel social? 9
  10. 10. 10 Why ants don’t run into traffic jam, while people do?
  11. 11. 1. Why ants don’t get into traffic jam? 2. Doing good or doing well 3. Do we make our own decision? 4. Mingle while traveling 11 Psychology of Cooperation Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations Social Norm and Peer Pressure Transportation as Social Space How is travel social?
  12. 12. Shared Mobility 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Physics
  15. 15. 15 Santi, Paolo, et al 2013, Taxi pooling in New York City: a network-based approach to social sharing problems Santi, Paolo, et al 2014 Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with share-ability networks.
  16. 16. Psychology
  17. 17. Two persons vs. two boxes
  18. 18. 18 modes of social interaction
  19. 19. Meeting Room Bathroom Intensity Spontaneity
  20. 20. 20 Norman Foster + Steve Jobs, Apple Headquarter, 13,000 people
  21. 21. “serendipitous encounters”
  22. 22. Meeting Room Bathroom Intensity Spontaneity
  23. 23. 23 Impromptuness + Intensity Ride sharing
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26 Impromptuness + Intensity + Intimacy Ride sharing
  27. 27. 27 a new mode of social interaction
  28. 28. 28 Network Efficiency + Preference for Social Interaction Q1: Matching Algorithm
  29. 29. 29 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Number of shareable trips 10 0 10 1 102 103 Rankofpairedpassengerinpreferencelist 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 Frequency Max. card. 5-95%tile Pref.-based 5-95%tile Max. weight 5-95%tile Degree dist. Hongmou Zhang and Jinhua Zhao (2016) Ridesharing with Preferences The Tradeoff Between Efficiency and Travel Experience 
  30. 30. 30 50 100 150 200 250 300 ∆t 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Frequency ×104 Maximum Cardinality Matching Maximum Weight Matching (approx.) Stable-preference Matching
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 100 extra seconds for a better conversation? 32
  33. 33. 33 Q2. Social Prejudice & Racial Biases Consumer Discrimination
  34. 34. Q3: Autonomous Vehicles 34 No-supervision of the driver
  35. 35. Is Travel Social? Social Mobility Sharing: Faceless Efficiency or Emerging Mode of Human Interaction
  36. 36. Is Travel Emotional?
  37. 37. 37 Beijing 2010
  38. 38. 38 Source: Wang Wenlan, Wen’s Lens, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/photo/wangwenlan/2009-12/07/ content_9128656.htm Beijing 1982
  39. 39. 3 0% 18% 35% 53% 70% 1986 2000 2005 2009 2010 16% 20% 30% 39% 63% Bicycle Mode Share in Beijing
  40. 40. Kingdom of Bicycles
  41. 41. Underlining Factors • built environment • income growth • policy and regulation • bicycle industry • social and attitudinal Bicycle Decline
  42. 42. “I would rather cry in a BMW than 
 smile on your bike.” – Ma Nuo 
 
 Bicycle as Failure of Life Bike is perceived as for • the migrants • the delivery men • the students • the poor • …
  43. 43. Bicycle as a Symbol of Modernity • Urban Elite • Luxury • Open • Modern
  44. 44. Bicycle as a Symbol of Women Liberation • Freedom • Active • Fashionabl e
  45. 45. Mentality shift: what defines a successful life? Modernity Failure Active lifestyle
  46. 46. Historical Cycle of Attitudes Toward Bicycles Early Adoption Steady Growth Rapid Growth Rapid Decline 1910-1949 1949-1978 1978-1990s 1990s-Now Upper class fancies Upper middle class goal Average family necessities Failure of life Revival ? Active lifestyle Pro-environ Cool person Cars in China 15 years ago Cars in North America Cars in China now
  47. 47. "A man who, beyond the age of 26, finds himself on a bus can count himself a failure." – Lady Margaret Thatcher 1986
  48. 48. “No other man-made device since the shields and lances of ancient knights fulfills a man’s ego like an automobile.” —Lord Rootes 48
  49. 49. Car Pride: Psychological Structure and Behavioral Implications Zhan Zhao and Jinhua Zhao (2016) Car Pride: Psychological Structure and Behavioral Implications
  50. 50. I would own a car, even if I don't need it to travel. 50 Yes,%51%% No,%49%%
  51. 51. I feel proud of owning a car 51 0%# 10%# 20%# 30%# 40%# 50%# Strongly#agree# Partially#agree# Neutral# Partially#disagree# Strongly#disagree#
  52. 52. 52 No No Identity-Goal Congruence Having a Car (idea) Symbolization Identity-Goal Relevance Yes Yes Yes No Negative Self- Representation Positive Self- Representation Process of Self-Representation No Self- Representation (Car Neutral) (Car Shame) (Car Pride)
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. Is travel a mundane daily chore or does it have a higher meaning attached to it? 54 Food, clothing, sheltering, traveling: all have an element of utility and an element of vanity
  55. 55. Car Pride and AV • Car pride exalts private ownership • Hold back shared mode of AV deployment 55
  56. 56. Broader Impact on Policy • Higher pride reduces price elasticity –Undermining congestion charging • Car restriction policy —> more exclusive –Perverse behavioral response 56
  57. 57. Is Travel Time Absolute?
  58. 58. In Newtonian physics Time is linear, one-directional, and absolute. 58
  59. 59. In transportation Travel time is wasted, of negative utility, and to be reduced. 59
  60. 60. 60The Persistence of Memory, Salvador Dalí, 1931
  61. 61. 1.Artist’s view 2.Einstein’s view 3.Psychologist’s view 4.Transportation view 61 Re-interpreting Travel Time Dali Time Dilation Cognitive Time +/- Utility of Travel
  62. 62. Theory of Behavior Choice 62 Perceptions Preferences Process Choices Memory Information Reality Time and Money Constraints Experiences History (space and time) Behavior Affect Sources: McFadden, Simon, Khaneman, Thaler, Tversky, Ariely,…
  63. 63. Perception of travel time and Information manipulation 63
  64. 64. 1. How does that information affect travel decisions? 2. Could we use a metro map as a planning tool? London Case Washington DC Case Zhan Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Chris Whong, Prachee Mishra, Lance Wyman (2016) Redesigning Subway Map to Mitigate Bottleneck Congestion TR-A, under review Guo, Z. (2011). Mind the map! The impact of transit maps on path choice in public transit. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45(7), 625-639.
  65. 65. Re-design Subway Maps to Reduce Crowding in the D.C. Metro Zhan Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Chris Whong, Prachee Mishra, Lance Wyman (2016) Redesigning Subway Map to Mitigate Bottleneck Congestion TR-A, under review
  66. 66. Washington DC Metro Map Redesign
  67. 67. Map A (Current Map) vs. Map B 5.65 %
  68. 68. Map A vs. Map C 1.88 %
  69. 69. Map A vs. Map E 9.45 %
  70. 70. 53 B 3.6 C 3.6 D 3.6 E 4.2 F 3.41 G 2.68 Map A: Blue Line length = 0.5531, Ratio of Route Lengths = 3.0 0.6637 0.6637 0.6637 0.7738 0.5531 0.5406
  71. 71. Preliminary Results
  72. 72. Lance Wyman: Metro Map Designer Enlarged the ratio between Blue and Yellow Line by 4 percentage point
  73. 73. • Information affects behavior • We can manipulate information to influence behavior
  74. 74. Methods 74
  75. 75. Subconscious mind Conscious mind
  76. 76. 76 Implicit Association Car or Positive Social Status Bus or Negative Social Status
  77. 77. I feel proud of owning a car 77 0%# 10%# 20%# 30%# 40%# 50%# Strongly#agree# Partially#agree# Neutral# Partially#disagree# Strongly#disagree#
  78. 78. LatentVariables: Psychometric Measurement Indicator Statements Personal Pride Proud* I feel proud of owning a car Self_esteem* Driving meets my self-esteem to some extent. Achievement* I have a sense of accomplishment after buying a car Social Pride Image_fit* Using travel modes other than driving does not suit my personal image Status* Car is a status symbol Social_image* Having a car is connected with one’s social image
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. EEG Neuro-headset 80
  81. 81. Implicit Association Test (IAT): Congruent shorter response time Car or Positive Social Status Bus or Negative Social Status
  82. 82. Implicit Association Test (IAT): Incongruent longer response time Car or Negative Social Status Bus or Positive Social Status
  83. 83. IAT D-Score Lincongruent − Lcongruent stotal
  84. 84. Two-Part Design IAT + Survey Travel Attributes Sociodemographic Characteristics Social Status Bias Measures Likert {CarPos, CarNeg, BusPos, BusNeg}
  85. 85. 1. Is there a difference in the explicit and implicit measures for social status bias for mode choice? Implicit and explicit measures for social status bias are largely independent 2. Which measure influences actual behavior Mode choice model: implicit (IAT) > explicit (Likert)
  86. 86. 86 Social psychological factors • Environmental consciousness • Social equity • Racial bias • Gender • Car pride • Car dependence
  87. 87. 87 Implicit Association Car or Positive Social Status Bus or Negative Social Status
  88. 88. Closing remarks 88
  89. 89. Is Travel Social? Is Travel Emotional? Is Travel Time Absolute? 89
  90. 90. Is Travel Social? Is Travel Emotional? Is Travel Time Absolute? 90 On-demand service Shared mobility Autonomous vehicles What does this mean?
  91. 91. Emotional Travel • “sensing” behavior • “understanding” behavior • “nudging” behavior • “regulating” behavior 91
  92. 92. Jinhua Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emotional Travel Role of Social Psychology in Shaping Mobility Decisions MITEI Mobility of the Future Workshop

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