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Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwakatare


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On 2018 the BRT+ CoE hosted the Workshop Innovation in Africa, on Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These are the slides of the main sessions of the event.

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Workshop Innovation in Africa - BRT Lessons from Dar es Salaam by Ronald Lwakatare

  1. 1. BRT LESSONS FROM DAR ES SALAAM Presented at Workshop on BRT Innovation in Africa 29 JUNE 2018 PRESENTED BY ENG. RONALD LWAKATARE, CE DART
  2. 2. • One of the fastest growing cities in the world. Average annual growth from 2002 to 2012 was 7.7%. • City’s population is currently nearly 5 million. • Dar es Salaam metropolitan area covers a large part of the city with a total area of 1,391 square kilometres and a population density of 3,133 per square kilometre. • Economic growth in Dar es Salaam is estimated at 10% per annum, above the country average. • Average Annual Vehicular Growth is around 19% per annum (2002-2015). Introduction: Dar es Salaam City Profile
  3. 3. 3 • Public Transport in Dar es Salaam is dated back in 1949 with Dar es Salaam Motor Transport Company (DMT). • DMT nationalized and UDA established in 1967. • Private sector involved from 1983. • Urban PT Challenges: – Poor roads and Insufficient infrastructure – Air quality and health issues. – Low capacity buses and no schedule services – Congestion Introduction: The history of Public Transport in DSM
  4. 4. 4 Current PT in DSM
  5. 5. 4.MASS TRANSIT OPTIONS Bus Rapid Transit Light Rail Transit Underground metro Urban rail $5-15 M/KM $80-175 M/KM $12-25 M/KM Modernisation of the PT in DSM
  6. 6. Public Transport System Visualized i. Metro System o High Cost and Operational Challenges o Too Big to Fail ii. Improved Bus System o Low Cost o No Operational Risk o Availability of Affordable Technology; and o Encourages Participation of Locals Selection of BRT for DSM
  7. 7. DART Agency: Established through Government Notice (GN) No. 120 of 25th May, 2007 under the Executive Agencies Act No. 30 of 1997. DART inaugurated on 16th June 2008. DART Mandate: To establish and operate a bus rapid transit system in Dar es Salaam. DART VISION: To have a modern public transport system at reasonable cost to users and yet profitable to the operators using high capacity buses which meet International Standards, environmentally friendly, operating on exclusive lanes, at less travelling time. DART MISSION: To provide quality, accessible and affordable mass transport system for the residents of Dar es Salaam which will subsequently: − enable poverty reduction, − improve standard of living, − lead to sustainable economic growth, and − act as a pioneer of private and public investment partnership in the transport sector DART Agency
  8. 8. DART Agency - Structure 8
  9. 9. BRT Characteristics CHARACTERISTICSFully dedicated right of way (buses avoid traffic congestion) Alignment in the center of the road (to avoid typical curb-side delays - turnings, parking, slow moving vehicles) Stations with off-board fare collection (to reduce boarding and alighting delay related to paying the driver) Station platforms level with the bus floor (to reduce boarding and alighting delay caused by steps) Redesigned intersections (to avoid intersection delays)
  10. 10. DART Project – Initialisation • Year 2002 Dar es Salaam City Council initiated an idea of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). Supported by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Institute of Transport and Development Policy (ITDP) and the then Prime Minister’s Office Regional Administration and Local Government. • Global Environmental Facility (GEF) National Focal Point endorsed proposal to establish a BRT Project in Dar es Salaam - Multistakeholder Working Group established. • DCC endorsed project in April 2003 - Technical team and Steering Committee established. • Study tours conducted to cities with BRT around the world. • Project Management Unit (PMU) established 2004 - World Bank supported. 10
  11. 11. DART System Corridors • Concept was Visualized in 2002 and 6 Corridors with 140.1 km were Selected and Construction Proposed in 6 Phases • Detailed Study was for Phase 1 was carried out in 2007 and construction works started in 2010 to 2015. • Detailed design for Phases 2 and 3 was completed in 2015. • Phase 4 increased from 16.1 (Tanki bovu) to 25.9 km (Tegeta)
  12. 12. DART System Development - Phase-1  Length of 20.9 km; dedicated concrete road  Infarstructures: 1 Depot, 27 BRT Stations (4 Categories), 5 Terminals, 7 Feeder Stations and connects 11 feeder Routes to Main Corridors  Station Spacing 500-600m with dedicated pathways for Pedestrians & NMV Users  The cost of the Phase 1 infrastructure is about USD 170 million.  The contract works – 7 Packages.  Period of implementation – between 2010 – 2016.
  14. 14. DART AGENCY Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 No. of Buses Length Daily passengers Articulated 18m Feeder 12m Total buses Phase 1 20.9 400,000 177 128 305 Phase 2 20.3 495,000 102 111 213 Phase 3 23.6 395,000 123 94 217 Phase 4 25.9 168,000 80 60 140 Phase 5 22.8 Design not done Phase 6 27.6 TOTAL 141.1 1,458,000 875 DAILY PASSENGERS & NUMBER OF BUSES Note: Figures for new projects ie. Phases 2-6 to be reviewed and updated. Projections
  15. 15. Modern Transport System DART AGENCY Infrastructure (Public) Corridor (roadways, bicycle and pedestrian paths) Stations/Terminals Depot Pedestrian bridges Control room Fare Collection (Private) Fare collection system Equipment (Turnstiles, Ticket Office Machines) Smart Cards, mobile top ups Bar coded paper tickets Bus Operations (Private) Buses, articulated 18m, standard 12m, hybrid 12m Bus Operations Cleaner fuel, Euro III standard Intelligent Transportation System DART System Phase 1- Implementation Arrangement
  16. 16. Interim Services (for 2 Years) • Delay in Procurement Process for SP – UDART; Utilize the already Constructed Corridor; Test the System; and Relief to Congested Corridor • Interim Services become Operational on 10 May, 2016 covering 20.9km Trunk Routes and One Feeder Route with 115 Trunk and 25 feeder Buses • Average Daily Ridership, working Days, touched 200,000+ • Ticketing through AFCS • Fund Manager: NMB ; Fare Collector: UDART(Maxcom) DART System Phase 1 - Operations
  17. 17. With Full Operation Services:  305 buses: - 177 Articulated (18M) and 128 Feeder (12M) Buses  Estimated Peak Hour Load 18,000 Passengers  Estimated Daily Ridership 450,000-500,000 per day  Expected Annual Ridership 130 Millions 17 DART System Phase 1 - Operations
  18. 18. DART AGENCY DART Buses - Technology • DART Buses: General Specification – Trunk (18 m) and Feeder (12m)  Emission Class Euro III technology  Real mountable engine  Propulsion Fuel – diesel  Automatic gearbox- hydraulic retarder  Total pneumatic suspension  Pneumatic brake system  Fuel reserve of 300ltres  Minimum power of 260HP • DART Buses Future Technology  Use of Gas  Euro IV – VI technology
  19. 19. DART Technologies - ITS One Single Software Platform RTPI AFCS ITCS ITS -Systems Capability Real Time Visibility and Tracking of buses 1. automatic vehicle location 2.Various view, selection and search options 3. Monitoring of the performed services (status, deviations, etc.) Daily Planning 1.Route Planning 2.Bus Scheduling Operations Optimization as and when required
  20. 20. DART Technologies - ITCS Operation and control centre: • Real time visibility and tracking of buses. • Daily Planning and bus scheduling. • Operations optimization.
  21. 21. Ubungo Gerezani Morocco Kivukoni Kimara Kimara Flat Fare Adult TShs 650 Student TShs 200 Trunk Service Feeder Service Flat Fare Adult TShs 400 Student TShs 200 AFCS Automatic Fare collection, clearing and settlement system Integrated Fare : Adult TShs 800 and Student TShs 200 Current Products Future Products 1. Intermodal Services i.e Use of one card for BRT and Ferries Ticketing Solution for Buses  Barcode Tickets  Contactless Cards DART System - Pre-boarding Ticketing
  22. 22. DART AGENCY Overwhelming public response Savings in time & money- 2-3 hours down to 45 min. More comfortable and larger Environmentally friendly engines – Euro III Modern technology (ITS/AFCS) Electronic Smart cards, Optic fibre 1,000+ employed Business opportunities - parking Consideration for Disabled, pregnant women, elderly Students travel comfortably Attracts Financiers- WB, AfDB, AFD (France) Security - Police ACHIEVEMENTS Impact evaluation – improved mobility & satisfaction
  23. 23. DART AGENCY Invasion of infrastructure -vehicles, motorcycles -petty traders Inadequate skills on modern technologies (ITS/AFCS Accidents New to Tanzania: Peak hour congestion Scheduling of buses - delays Delays due to traffic Intersections e.g. Ubungo Resettlements - daladalas High expections- Pilot vs. Full service Delays during construction Procurement (PPP) of Service Providers CHALLENGES
  24. 24. 24 Flooding at Jangwani Accidents Brt Invadors Birth a station Ubungo bus terminal >200 buses 6-6.30 am
  25. 25. Procurement of Service Providers commence early Public Awareness: - call centre Build capacity continuous training Resettlements be addressed early – dala dala Adjacent roads & Feeder roads be in good condition Have legislation for BRT Establish control room Maintain cooperation Increase Revenue sources -Transit Oriented Development Provide Park & Ride facilities early Use structure that ensures good quality of service Next phases learn from shortcomings of pilot Ph I LESSONS LEARNT
  26. 26. Demand Management Strategies 2 6 ResourceRequirement With the distribution of traffic, the deployment of resources will be rationalized at the operator level, compared to resource deployment as per peak hour demand. Time Peak Hour Demand Distributed Demand Rationalize and Optimize Resources
  27. 27. Demand Management Strategies 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Transport Share - Developing Cities Bus Walk/Cycle Metro Car Source: Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide, gTZ High Bus Use and Walkable City > Less Congestion
  28. 28. DART AGENCY Integrate all modes of Transport in Dar es Salaam: -establish an institution. -Master Plan (JICA) shows need for Metros from 2025/2030. Have one smart card/system for all modes- BRT, Ferry, Rail. • Convenient for passengers • Saves resources from having several payment systems. • Difficult to merge different systems later To provide full service for Phase I • Procurement of 2nd Operator on going. • Current operator to continue subject to performance. Implementation of next phases 2 to 6 continuing • Consultants finalising design review for Phase 2. Adverts on 12 Feb 2018 (buildings), 03 May 2018 (road works). • Procurement of Consultants for design & supervision of phases 3 (review) & 4 ongoing. Design of Phases 5 & 6 also to be done. • Procurement of Transaction Advisors, Service providers to commence before completion of construction. • Expect traffic disruptions during construction. • Dart building with state of art control room. • More involvement of dala dala operators. • Evaluate Impacts – Baseline before operations started. NEXT STEPS Institutional review of DART Agency
  29. 29. 29 Stakeholders engagement Public education
  30. 30. 30 Accessibility for all
  31. 31. 31 Enhanced Safety – Pedestrian
  32. 32. 32 Convenient to users
  33. 33. 33 Reliable
  35. 35.  DART Phase 1 interim operations are continuing and winning the global Sustainability Transport Award has been great for Tanzania considering the efforts put into this project.  Good coordination amongst key stakeholders is crucial for success of the project.  Cooperation with Development Partners such as the World Bank, African Development Bank and others is well appreciated.  Hopefully, public transport in Dar es Salaam will be further improved to all modes and be convenient to the majority of all classes of the public and thus reduce considerably use of private cars - be No.1 choice of means of transport. 35 CONCLUSION
  36. 36. Thank You