BRT in China: A brief review


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By Xiaomei Duan, Chief Engineer, Guangzhou Municipal Technology Development Corp and (Guangzhou, China) and Karl Fjellstrom, Deputy Director, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (Washington, D.C., USA)

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  • a full-scale investigation of the problem. thank you and congratulations!
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BRT in China: A brief review

  1. 1. BRT in China: A brief review Duan Xiaomei, Chief Engineer, GMTDC Guangzhou Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute Project-In-Charge, Guangzhou BRT Project Karl Fjellstrom, Deputy Director, ITDP World Bank, Washington 14 January 2009
  2. 2. In operation research or in construction
  3. 3. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  4. 4. Kunming: • Opened 1999 • 5 corridors, 47km bus lanes • 63 stations • Peak capacity 8,600 pphpd
  5. 5. System Aspect classification See for latest figures
  6. 6. Kunming median bus lanes
  7. 7. Kunming. Many problems are concentrated at the intersection. But many intersections have been convert from 4 phase to 2 phase.
  8. 8. Daily experience in Kunming’s busway corridors
  9. 9. Kunming: unsafe access to a mid-block bus station
  10. 10. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  11. 11. Beijing: • Opened 2004 • 3 corridors, 37km bus lanes(55Km) • 61 stations • Peak capacity 8,000 pphpd
  12. 12. See for latest figures
  13. 13. A typical open-air corridor 1 station
  14. 14. Passengers wait for a non-BRT bus at a Beijing BRT station (this situation has since been greatly improved, and rarely do non-BRT buses now operate in the BRT corridor)
  15. 15. Runway degradation in corridor 1
  16. 16. Better stations in outer part of corridor 2; overtaking mixed traffic; right-side doors
  17. 17. Station in inner part of corridor 2, without shelter
  18. 18. Offset station in corridor 2
  19. 19. In all corridors the large majority of bus demand is outside the BRT, making an overall time saving benefit for bus passengers unlikely. Corr. 2&3 demand ~2,000 pphpd in BRT
  20. 20. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  21. 21. Hangzhou: • Opened 2006 • 2 corridors, 7km bus lanes(27.2Km) • 25 stations • Peak capacity 1,500 pphpd 7km dedicated bus lanes; 27.2km corridor, 2nd corridor recently opened
  22. 22. See for latest figures
  23. 23. Hangzhou station, with buses entering mixed traffic at the intersection
  24. 24. High quality station environment
  25. 25. More than 75% of public transport demand is outside BRT lane. Mixed traffic in the BRT lane in peak hours
  26. 26. Severe bus and mixed traffic congestion
  27. 27. Hangzhou's BRT is now open to 12m 'feeder' buses serving 4 routes in addition to the two trunk line 18m BRT bus routes. Flexible routing has been introduced to boost demand
  28. 28. Runway degradation
  29. 29. Where high volumes of bikes are forced onto the walkway, many instead use the BRT lane
  30. 30. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside bus bay-style stops and very poor results for buses, bicycles and pedestrians
  31. 31. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside stops and very poor results
  32. 32. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  33. 33. Changzhou: • Opened 2008 • 26 stations • 1 corridor, 21km bus lanes(25Km) • Peak capacity 4,500 pphpd
  34. 34. See for latest figures
  35. 35. Most stations are offset across intersections. Some are facing
  36. 36. Even with current low demand, some stations are already experiencing overcrowding
  37. 37. In city centre, critical 500m section of BRT corridor is open to mixed traffic and is congested during peak periods
  38. 38. Significant time savings are possible in the city centre, though BRT peak hour city centre speeds are low
  39. 39. Stations located at the intersection already sometimes result in queues blocking the intersection and the pedestrian crossing, even with current relatively low bus volumes
  40. 40. None of the BRT systems so far have incorporated bike parking into any of the BRT designs, despite very high bicycle volumes in Beijing, Changzhou, Kunming and Hangzhou
  41. 41. Changzhou's BRT stations are too narrow
  42. 42. Narrow stations mean that just a few people reading the information board is enough to block passage
  43. 43. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  44. 44. Dalian: • Opened 2008 • 1 corridor, 9km bus lanes (13.7km) • 14 stations • Peak capacity 6,500 pphpd
  45. 45. See for latest figures
  46. 46. Median aligned busway; minimal cover at stations; low demand along the corridor
  47. 47. 3 door 12m BRT buses
  48. 48. 4 door 18m BRT buses
  49. 49. Flexible routing
  50. 50. Route 405 is a feeder (non-BRT) buses, a large fleet, frequency roughly the same as the two BRT routes (12m blue and 18m red) combined
  51. 51. Regular buses in the BRT corridor outnumber BRT buses by roughly 3:1
  52. 52. Morning peak into the city: bus demand outside far exceeds inside the corridor
  53. 53. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  54. 54. Dalian: • Opened 2008 • 1 corridor, 6km bus lanes(11.5km) • 9 stations • Peak capacity 200 pphpd
  55. 55. See for latest figures
  56. 56. BRT bus exiting the central bus lanes
  57. 57. Access at the Jiu Keng Zi terminal station at Daping
  58. 58. Passengers alight at the BRT terminal
  59. 59. As well as the step to enter the bus, passengers have one additional step in bus doorway
  60. 60. Best thing you can say about Chongqing BRT is that for 1 RMB can get shoe polished outside the downtown terminal station
  61. 61. Produce from an adjacent field adorns a damaged BRT station sign on a pedestrian bridge
  62. 62. The corridor is only a 21 minute trip, but the Chongqing BRT bus has been designed like an intercity coach, with 39 large padded seats and little standing room
  63. 63. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  64. 64. Xiamen: • Opened 2008 • 2 corridors, 38km bus lanes • 30 stations • Peak capacity 3,600 pphpd
  65. 65. See for latest figures
  66. 66. BRT feeder route map
  67. 67. Most demand below the elevated busway; shortage of access ramps
  68. 68. Severe overcrowding, even during off peak, has led to consideration of using 18m buses
  69. 69. Queuing for exit fare validation scanning (for distance-based fare application) delays station exit at busy stations by several minutes
  70. 70. Narrow station access combined with the exit fare verification and few turnstiles further limits system capacity
  71. 71. Queuing at the Railway Station BRT station
  72. 72. Bicycles are banned along Xiahe Lu, Xiamen's main BRT corridor
  73. 73. Lots of stairs
  74. 74. On street parking
  75. 75. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  76. 76. Jinan: • Opened 2008 • 2 corridors, 10km bus lanes (14.2) • 22 stations • Peak capacity 4500 pphpd
  77. 77. BRT under a massive elevated road: dead at birth?
  78. 78. Wide stations and ample turnstiles, but extremely low passenger demand
  79. 79. Oppressive environment, but generally good pedestrian and bicycle facilities and access, elevated road minimizes development potential
  80. 80. Spacious, well-protected stations
  81. 81. Flexible 18m buses; 3 doors in both sides
  82. 82. Doors in both sides
  83. 83. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  84. 84. Steps in the Guangzhou BRT planning process • 2003-2004 preliminary BRT planning • ITDP MOU with Late 2009: Construction BRT Commission of operation Guangzhou , Apr. 2005 • GMTDC / GMEDRI work with ITDP since that time 2007-2008: Implementation planning & design. 2006: Phase II Final station & planning; further operational design, BRT traffic, operational authority, architecture, and design engineering planning & 2005: Conceptual design, metro demand analysis plan, demand integration, NMT for phase I analysis & corridor integration, demand comparison analysis
  85. 85. Ceremony to launch BRT construction in Guangzhou
  86. 86. News coverage of start of construction, 30-Nov-08
  87. 87. China BRT systems peak passenger flows (actual ridership except Guangzhou, projected) 25000 20000 paek passegerns / hour / direction (pphpd) 15000 10000 5000 0 Chongqing Hangzhou Xiamen Jinan Changzhou Dalian Beijing Kunming Guangzhou Peak pphpd 200 1,500 3,600 4,500 4,500 6,500 8,000 8,600 23,000 Count date 29-Mar-08 06-Dec-07 05-Sep-08 08-Jan-09 17-Apr-08 14-Apr-08 15-May-07 05-Mar-08 2010
  88. 88. 23 Phase I BRT routes
  89. 89. Zhongshan Avenue bus speeds (morning peak, Tangxia to Tiyu Zhongxin) Km/hr 14 13 12 11 10 Source: ITDP/GMEDRI surveys
  90. 90. 70,000 passenger hours time saving per day Passenger-hours saved per hour with BRT (east to west, morning peak), between BRT stations. Comparison between the alternative BRT corridors shows greatest time savings on Zhongshan Avenue – this analysis convinced the city to choose Zhongshan Avenue
  91. 91. BRT Station layout One of the 1-module configurations (offset, at grade) One of the 1-module configurations (offset, footbridge) One of the 2-module configurations (facing, at grade crossing)
  92. 92. Tianhe Gongyuan BRT station (After & Before): Currently 350 buses and 23,000 buses/hr/dir in the morning peak
  93. 93. 4840辆
  94. 94. Integration with the Guangzhou metro 地铁出口通道 换乘 通道 T石石桥石 BR 换乘乘乘 电梯梯 付费付 右 左 线 中 心 线
  95. 95. BRT in China Kunming Chongqing Xiamen Beijing Hangzhou Jinan Changzhou Guangzhou Dalian Conclusion
  96. 96. Hefei BRT, under construction
  97. 97. Hefei BRT, under construction
  98. 98. Concluding remarks • All have low capacity • Hefei BRT, under station design, limiting construction, seems to have a capacity and expansion higher capacity design • Most do not provide an • Guangzhou BRT is projected to be overall time saving benefit Asia’s first high capacity BRT, with for bus passengers or more than double the one-direction mixed traffic in the corridor capacity of any other BRT system in China. The system will also feature • All tend to design stations tunnels connecting metro and BRT of the same size, regardless at 3 stations, bike parking at BRT of passenger demand stations, a high quality enclosed • All have only one operator station design, and good pedestrian • There is a trend toward access ‘flexible’ operation modes • Several key issues, however, remain rather than ‘closed’ to be resolved during 2009 systems
  99. 99. • (all photos) • (BRT data) • (Guangzhou BRT