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Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.
The technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters).

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  2. 2. Presentation Overview • • • • • • • Nanotechnology Introduction to Robotics Nanorobotics Approaches Applications of Nanorobots Fractal Robots Conclusion
  3. 3. Nanotechnology • Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. • More simply, building things one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic robot arms. • A nanometer is one billionth of a meter (3 - 4 atoms wide).
  4. 4. Introduction to robotics • Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, development and application of robots and computer systems for their control, and information processing. • These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans
  5. 5. What is a Robot? • A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electromechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry. • They range from small, miniature machines, to large crane size constructions.
  6. 6. Introduction to Nanorobotics • The technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). • A robot that allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution.
  7. 7. Researches done • Largely in the research-and-development phase (Target year 2050). • Some primitive molecular machines have been tested.
  8. 8. Theory behind Nanobots • As robots can perform certain functions that humans cannot, thus why not have a microscopic robot performing microscopic tasks? • Necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform microscopic and macroscopic tasks.
  9. 9. Features of Nanorobots • Nanorobots can be categorized into two groups called autonomous & insect robots. • A major asset of nanorobots is that they require very little energy to operate. • Durability is another potential asset, may remain operational for years. • High speed is also a significant consideration.
  10. 10. Approaches • • • • • Biochip Nubot Bacteria based Organic Inorganic
  11. 11. Biochip • Microarray, the dense, twodimensional grid of biosensors, is the critical component of a biochip platform • Microarrays can be used for DNA, protein, chemical compound and antibody analysis
  12. 12. Nubot • Also known as “DNA machine”. • A DNA machine is a molecular machine constructed from DNA. • Similar double helix structure like the DNA strands.
  13. 13. Bacteria based • Uses a flagellum for propulsion purposes. • Use similar mechanisms as the biological microorganisms.
  14. 14. Application of Nanobots • Medical technology, where they might be used to identify cancer cells and destroy them. • Detection of toxic chemicals and the measurement of concentrations in the environment. • For Space Application.
  15. 15. Nanorobots in medicine • It’s structure will have two spaces consisting of interior and exterior. • They will communicate with doctor by encoding messages to acoustic signals. • Technological advancements such as bionic motors, DNA as computer, & nano robotics arms. • Leonard Adleman confirmed that DNA is programmable in computers.
  16. 16. Nanorobots can be used in blood cell to detect pathogens.
  17. 17. Nanobot in medicine • Early diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer, biomedical instrumentation, surgery, etc. • Employ nanobots injected into the patient to perform treatment on a cellular level. • Improve the presence of drug molecules where they are needed in the body.
  18. 18. Removal of Cancer
  19. 19. Fractal Robots • Fractal robot is a new kind of robot made from motorized cubic bricks that move under computer control. • These cubic motorized bricks can be programmed to move and shuffle themselves to change shape to make objects likes a house potentially in a few seconds because of their motorized internal mechanisms.
  20. 20. Fractal Robot Example • Example of a Dog shaped fractal robot changing into a couch.
  21. 21. SELF-REPAIR IN FRACTAL ROBOTS. • Self repair is an important breakthrough for realizing micro and nanotechnology related end goals. • Three different kinds of self repair -Cube replacement -Usage of plates to construct the cubes. -Using smaller fractal machines to affect self repair inside large cubes.
  22. 22. Walking fractal robot performing self repair
  23. 23. Advantages of inorganic nanobots • Well-understood component behavior. • Easy to program. • Ease of external control. • Unlimited chemistry (with enough energy).
  24. 24. Disadvantages of inorganic nanobots • Difficult and expensive to make selfreproducing. • Difficulty of communicating with organic systems must carry own (limited) payload.
  25. 25. Advantages of organic nanobots • Easy to make using genetic engineering. • Self-reproducing (cheap). • Easily communicate with other organic systems. • Protein factories manufacture payload.
  26. 26. Disadvantages of organic nanobots • Poorly understood component behavior (proteins). • Hard to program. • Limited external control mechanisms. • Limited to CHON chemistry and needs water.
  27. 27. Conclusions • All of the current developments in technology directs human a step closer to nanorobots production. • Nanorobots can theoretically destroy all common diseases of the 20th century, thereby ending much of the pain and suffering. • Although research into nanorobots is in its preliminary stages, the promise of such technology is endless.
  28. 28. Any Questions?