Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
award of the degree
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
YOGESH SHARMA: 10EGJCS066
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SITAPURA
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
award of the degree
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
YOGESH SHARMA: 10EGJCS066
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SITAPURA
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SITAPURA
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE &ENGINEERING
Certified that seminar work entitled “NANOROBOTICS” is a bona fide work carried
out in the eighth semester by “YOGESH SHARMA” in partial fulfilment for the
award of Bachelor of Technology in “COMPUTER SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING” from Global Institute of Technology, RTU during the academic
year 2013-2014, who carried out the seminar work under the guidance and no part of
this work has been submitted earlier for the award of any degree.
SEMINAR CO-ORDINATOR HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
Mr. Kavit Kumar Tanvangiriya Mr. Prakash Ramani
Asst. Professor Professor
Department of CSE Department of CSE
GIT Jaipur GIT Jaipur
I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to all my
guides for their exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement
throughout the course of this project. The blessing, help and guidance given by them
time to time have been a constant source of inspiration.
Firstly, I would like to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Prakash
Ramani, HOD, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GIT for his
guidance. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Kavit Kumar
Tanvangiriya, Mr. Nitin Jain, Mr. Sumit Sharma and Mrs. Ruchi Kulsherstha
for their cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in
completion of the study of the seminar through various stages.
Lastly, I thank Almighty, my family and friends for their constant
encouragement and their valuable support, without which this project would not have
been possible. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my project.
B.Tech. VIII Semester
Computer Science and Engineering
Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose
components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometre (10−9
More specifically, Nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline
of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.1-10
micrometer & constructed of nano scale or molecular component. The
names nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines or nanomites have also been used to
describe these devices currently under research and development.
Nano machines are largely in the research-and-development phase, but some
primitive molecular machines have been tested. An example is a sensor having a
switch approximately 1.5 nano meters across, capable of counting specific molecules
in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nano machines might be in
medical technology, which could be used to identify and destroy cancer cells. Another
potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their
concentrations, in the environment.
Since nano robots would be microscopic in size, it would probably be necessary for
very large numbers of them to work together to perform microscopic and macroscopic
tasks. These nano robot swarms, both those incapable of replication and those
capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES vii
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO.
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. LITERATURE SURVEY 3
3. ROBOTICS 5
4. NANO TECHNOLOGY 6
5 WHAT ARE NANOROBOTS? 7
6. METHODOLOGY 8
6.1 The Basic Terminology 8
6.2 Hardware 9
6.2.1 Nanosensor 9
6.2.2 Molecular Sorting Rotor 10
6.2.3 Fins 10
6.3 Nanorobot Navigation 10
6.3.1 External Navigation System 10
6.3.2 Onboard System 10
6.4 Power Sources 11
6.4.1 Internal Power Sources 11
6.4.2 External Power Sources 11
6.5 Procedure 11
7 BIOCHIPS 13
7.1 The Idea Behind Biochip 13
7.2 Components Of Biochip 14
7.2.1 Transponder 14
7.2.2 Scanner Or Reader 15
7.3 Working 16
7.4 Application 16
7.4.1 Geomics 16
7.4.2 Proteomics 16
7.4.3 Bio-diagnosis 16
8 FRACTAL ROBOTS 17
8.1 Overview 17
8.2 Inspiration And Motivation 18
8.3 Construction Of Fractal Robots 19
8.4 Applications 20
8.4.1 Space Exploration 20
8.4.2 Medical 20
8.4.3 Electronics 20
9 NANOROBOTICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE 21
9.1 Space Technology 21
9.1.1 Swarms 21
9.1.2 Space Colonization 21
9.2 Electronics 22
9.3 Medical 22
9.3.1 Treating Arteriosclerosis 22
9.3.2 Breaking Up Blood Clots 22
9.3.3 Fighting Cancer 23
9.3.4 Helping The Body Clot 23
9.3.5 Parasite Removal 23
9.3.6 Gout 23
9.3.7 Cleaning Wounds 23
9.3.8 Removing Kidney Stones 24
10 CHALLANGES 25
10.1 Technological Limitations 25
10.2 Security Threats 25
10.3 Manufacturing Cost 25
11 CONCLUSION 26
12 SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK 27
13 REFERENCES 28
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO.
1.1 Block Diagram of Nanorobot 1
5.1 Primitive Nanorobot 7
6.1 Nanorobot Design 9
7.1 Components Of Biochip 14
7.2 Biochip Scanner 15
8.1 Self Construction of Fractal Robot 19
9.1 Nanorobot in Kidney Treatment 24
“Nanorobotics” is best described as an emerging frontier, a realm in which robots
operate at scales of billionths of a metre. It is the creation of functional materials,
devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometre scale. Viz. we can
continue the revolution in computer hardware right down to the level of molecular
gates, switches and wires that are unimaginable.
We've gotten better at it: we can make more things at lower cost and greater
precision than ever before. But at the molecular scale we're still very crude, that‟s
where “nanotechnology” comes in, at the molecular level.
Nanorobots are the next generation of nanomachines. Advanced nanorobots
will be able to sense and adapt to environmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds,
Fig 1.1: Block Diagram of Nanorobot
Control System of
Driller and arm Propeller Sensor
surface textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations; move, communicate,
and work together conduct molecular assembly; and, to some extent, repair or even
replicate themselves. Nanotechnology is the science and application of creating
objects on a level smaller than 100 nanometres. The extreme concept of
nanotechnology is the "bottom up" creation of virtually any material or object by
assembling one atom at a time. Although nanotech processes occur at the scale of
nanometres, the materials and objects that result from these processes can be much
larger. Large-scale results happen when nanotechnology involves massive parallelism
in which many simultaneous and synergistic nanoscale processes combine to produce
a large-scale result.
Many of the nano robots have very limited processing power with no artificial
intelligence as feared by most of us! They have onboard processor which is capable of
only up to 1000 operations per second. Therefore, they possess no threat whatsoever
regarding Artificial Intelligence.
Most cellular repair nanorobots do not need more than 106
of onboard computing capacity to do their work. This is a full 4-7 order of magnitude
below true human-equivalent computing at 10 teraflops (~1013
faster computing capacity is simply not required for most medical nanorobots.
There are various ways by which this technology can be implemented in the
field of medicine. Particularly robotics, since the use of robots can enhance the way
we handle the treatment of ailments or diseases to a level where the life expectancy of
our race can be increased.
Research began in nano robotics in late 1980„s.Around this time Drexler published his
research on nanosystem in which he discussed a field that derives largely from the
field of macroscopic robots. From there researched developed along two paths :
design and simulation of nano robots and manipulation/assembly of nano scale
components with macroscopic components.
Richard Feynman, US physicist and Nobel Prize winner, presented a talk to
the American Physical Society annual meeting entitled There‟s Plenty of Room at the
Bottom. In his talk, Feynman presented ideas for creating nanoscale machines to
manipulate, control and image matter at the atomic scale. Prof. Feynman described
such atomic scale fabrication as a bottom-up approach, as opposed to the top-down
approach that we are accustomed to. Top-down manufacturing it involves the
construction of parts through methods such as cutting, carving and moulding. Using
these methods, we have been able to fabricate a remarkable variety of machinery and
electronics devices. Bottom-up manufacturing would provide components made of
single molecules, which are held together by covalent forces that are far stronger than
the forces that hold together macro-scale components. Furthermore, the amount of
information that could be stored in devices build from the bottom up would be
The first nano device design technical paper was published in 1998 in which
all the molecular and medical implications of nanotechnology were collected in one
source which is commonly referenced in medicinal applications of nano robots. While
Robotics had been used in medical field for a while nano aspect of this recently
surfaced in this area.
As research progressed, the mechanical components such as nano sized gears
made of carbon atoms were constructed. Year 1991 marked the invention AFM
(Atomic force microscope) which is a foremost tool for measuring and manipulating
the materials on nano scale. Since AFM allowed precision interaction with materials
on nano scale it was considered as robot.
In year 2000 United States National Nanotechnology Initiative was founded to
coordinate federal research and development in nanotechnology. It marked the start of
a serious effort in nanotechnology research. In 2000 The company Nano factory
Collaboration was founded. Aim of this was to Develop a research agenda for a nano
factory capable of building nano robots for medical purposes.
Currently, DNA machines(nucleic acid robots) are being developed. It
performs mechanical-like movements, such as switching, in response to certain
Molecular size robots and machines paved the way for nanotechnology by
creating smaller and smaller machine nano robots.
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction,
operation, and application of robots, well as computer systems for their control,
sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with
automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or
manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behaviour, and/or
cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of
The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to
classical, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow
substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, robotics has been often seen
to mimic human behaviour, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today,
robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue research,
design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes,
whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are
hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines and exploring shipwrecks.
At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source. Many
different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots. They range from
lead acid batteries which are safe and have relatively long shelf lives but are rather
heavy to silver cadmium batteries that are much smaller in volume and are currently
much more expensive. Designing a battery powered robot needs to take into account
factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and weight. Generators, often some type of
internal combustion engine, can also be used.
Nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the
collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the
manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nm2).The nanotechnology
provides better future for human life in various fields. In future nanotechnology
provides economy, eco friendly and efficient technology which removes all difficult
predicaments which is faced by us in today life scenario. Nanotechnology is the
technology of preference to make things small, light and cheap, nanotechnology based
manufacturing is a method conceived for processing and rearranging of atoms to
fabricate custom products.
The nanotechnology applications have three different categories nanosystems,
nano materials and nano electronics. The impact of the nanotechnology occurred on
computing and data storage, materials and manufacturing, health and medicine,
energy and environment, transportation, national security and space exploration.
There are many applications of nanotechnology which are exciting in our life such as
nanopowder, nanotubes, membrane filter, quantum computers etc.
Nanotechnology is not confined to one industry, or market. Rather, it is an
enabling set of technologies that cross all industry sectors and scientific disciplines.
Probably uniquely, it is classified by the size of the materials being developed and
used, not by the processes being used or products being produced. Nanoscience is
inherently multidisciplinary: it transcends the conventional boundaries between
physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, information technology, and engineering.
Atoms and molecules stick together because they have complementary shapes
that lock together, or charges that attract. Just like with magnets, a positively charged
atom will stick to a negatively charged atom. As millions of these atoms are pieced
together by nanomachines, a specific product will begin to take shape. The goal of
molecular manufacturing is to manipulate atoms individually and place them in a
pattern to produce a desired structure.
WHAT ARE NANO ROBOTS?
Nano robots are the result of culmination of two technologies: robotics and Nano
technology. A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks
repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a
few manometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9
meter. Nanorobots have potential
applications in the assembly and maintenance of sophisticated systems. Nanorobots
might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices, machines, or circuits,
a process known as molecular manufacturing. Nanorobots might also produce copies
of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-replication.
Nanorobots are of special interest to researchers in the medical industry. This
has given rise to the field of nanomedicine. It has been suggested that a fleet of
nanorobots might serve as antibodies or antiviral agents in patients with compromised
immune systems, or in diseases that do not respond to more conventional measures.
There are numerous other potential medical applications, including repair of damaged
tissue, unblocking of arteries affected by plaques, and perhaps the construction of
complete replacement body organs.
A major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability. In theory,
they can remain operational for years, decades, or centuries. Nanoscale systems can
also operate much faster than their larger counterparts because displacements are
smaller; this allows mechanical and electrical events to occur in less time at a given
Fig 6.6: Nanorobot
6.1 THE BASIC TECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology as a whole is fairly simple to understand, but developing this
universal technology into a nanorobot has been slightly more complicated.
To date, scientists have made significant progress but have not officially
released a finished product in terms of a nanorobot that functions on an entirely
Many of the nanobot prototypes function quite well in certain respects but are
mostly or partly biological in nature, whereas the ultimate goal and quintessential
definition of a nanorobot is to have the microscopic entity made entirely out of
electromechanical components. Nanorobots are essentially an adapted machine
version of bacteria. They are designed to function on the same scale as both bacteria
and common viruses so that they can interact and repel them.
Ideal nanobot consist of a transporting mechanism, an internal processor and a
fuel unit of some kind that enables it to function. The main difficulty arises around
this fuel. The unit, since most conventional forms of robotic propulsion can‟t be
shrunk to nanoscale with current technology. Scientists have succeeded in reducing a
robot to five or six millimetres, but this size still technically qualifies it as a macro-
Since the best way to create a nanrobot is to use another nanobot, the problem
lies in getting started. Humans are able to perform one nano-function at a time, but the
thousands of varied applications required to construct an autonomous robot would be
exceedingly tedious for us to execute by hand, no matter how high-tech the
laboratory. So it becomes necessary to create a whole set of specialized machine-tools
in order to speed up the process of nanobots construction and designing.
The ideal nanobot consist of a transporting mechanism, an internal processor and a
fuel unit of some kind that enables it to function. The main difficulty arises around
this fuel unit, since most conventional forms of robotic propulsion can‟t be shrunk to
nanoscale with current technology. Scientists have succeeded in reducing a robot to
five or six millimetres, but this size still technically qualifies it as a macro-robot.
Nanosensors can be any biological, chemical, or surgical sensory points used to
convey information about nanoparticles to the macroscopic world. Their use mainly
includes various medicinal purposes and as gateways to building other nanoproducts,
such as computer chips that work at the nanoscale and nanorobots. Medicinal uses of
nanosensors mainly revolve around the potential of nanosensors to accurately identify
particular cells or places in the body in need. By measuring changes
in volume, concentration, displacement, speed, velocity, gravitational, electrical and
magnetic forces, pressure, or temperature of cells in a body, nanosensors may be able
to distinguish between and recognize certain cells.
Fig 6.1: Nanorobot Design
6.2.2 Molecular Sorting Rotor
A class of nano-mechanical devices capable of binding/releasing molecules from/to
solution and transporting these bound molecules against significant gradients.
A fin is a surface used for stability and/or to produce lift and thrust or to steer while
traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. Nanorobot can move with the help of
6.3 NANOROBOT NAVIGATION
There are three main considerations scientists need to focus on when looking at
nanorobots moving through the body -- navigation, power and how the nanorobots
will move through blood vessels. These can be divided into one of two categories:
external systems and onboard systems.
6.3.1 External Navigation Systems
External navigation systems are one of these methods is to use ultrasonic signals to
detect the nanorobot's location and direct it to the right destination. The signals would
either pass through the body; reflect back to the source of the signals, or both. The
nanorobot could emit pulses of ultrasonic signals, which could be detected using
special equipment with ultrasonic sensors.
Using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device, doctors could locate and
track a nanorobot by detecting its magnetic field. Doctors might also track nanorobots
by injecting a radioactive dye into the patient's bloodstream. Other methods of
detecting the nanorobot include using X-rays, radio waves, microwaves or heat.
6.3.2 Onboard Systems
Onboard systems, or internal sensors, might also play a large role in navigation. A
nanorobot with chemical sensors could detect and follow the trail of specific
chemicals to reach the right location. A spectroscopic sensor would allow the
nanorobot to take samples of surrounding tissue, analyze them and follow a path of
the right combination of chemicals.
6.4 POWER SOURCES
There are mainly two power sources used for nanorobots internal power sources and
external power sources.
6.4.1 Internal Power Sources
A nanorobot could use the patient's body heat to create power, but there would need
to be a gradient of temperatures to manage it. Power generation would be a result of
the See beck effect. Capacitor which has a slightly better power-to-weight ratio can
6.4.2 External Power Sources
External power sources include systems where the nanorobot is either tethered to the
outside world or is controlled without a physical tether. Tethered systems would need
a wire between the nanorobot and the power source. The wire would need to be
strong, but it would also need to move effortlessly through the human body without
causing damage. A physical tether could supply power either by electricity or
optically. Experimenting with in Montreal, can either manipulate the nanorobot
directly or induce an electrical current in a closed conducting loop in the robot.
The basic idea behind nanorobotics is to manipulate objects at scale of nanometers.
Nanorobots might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices,
machines, or circuits, a process known as molecular manufacturing.
There are basically two approaches followed in implementing nanorobots:
1. The first approach is biochip which provides a possible approach to
manufacturing nanorobots for common medical applications, such as for
surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery. This method for
manufacturing on nanotechnology scale is currently in use in the electronics
industry. So, practical nanorobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics
devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical
2. The second approach is self reconfigurable modular robots also known as
Fractal robots. Self-reconfiguring robots are also able to deliberately change
their own shape by rearranging the connectivity of their parts, in order to adapt
to new circumstances, perform new tasks, or recover from damage
7.1 THE IDEA BEHIND BIOCHIP
A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid
substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve
higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of
mathematical operations in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological
reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. Biochips helped to dramatically
accelerate the identification of the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, an ongoing
world-wide research collaboration known as the Human genome project . Developing
a plat-form incorporates electronics for addressing, reading out,
The biochip platform can be plugged in a peripheral standard bus of the
analyzer device or communicate through a wireless channel. Biochip technology has
emerged from the fusion of biotechnology and micro/nanofabrication technology.
Biochips enable us to realize revolutionary new bio analysis systems that can directly
manipulate and analyze the micro/nano-scale world of bio molecules, organelles and
The development of biochips is a major thrust of the rapidly growing
biotechnology industry, which encompasses a very diverse range of research efforts
including genomics, proteomics, computational biology, and pharmaceuticals, among
other activities. Advances in these areas are giving scientists new methods for
unraveling the complex biochemical processes occurring inside cells, with the larger
goal of understanding and treating human diseases. At the same time, the
semiconductor industry has been steadily perfecting the science of
microminiaturization. The merging of these two fields in recent years has enabled
biotechnologists to begin packing their traditionally bulky sensing tools into smaller
and smaller spaces, onto so-called biochips. These chips are essentially miniaturized
laboratories that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical
reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of biological
analytes for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism
7.2 COMPONENTS OF BIOCHIP
Biochip implant consists of two components:
2. Reader or scanner
The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder it contains
no battery or energy of its own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide
its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive biochip contains
no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life, up to 99 years, and no
Transponder consists of 4 parts:
Computer Microchip: The microchip stores a unique identification number
from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is
limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. The unique ID number is
etched or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before
Fig 7.1 Components of Biochip
Antenna Coil: This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite
or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna receives and sends signals
from the reader or scanner.
Tuning Capacitor: The capacitor stores the small electrical charge sent by the
reader or scanner, which triggers the transponder. This activation allows the
transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. As
radio waves are utilized to communicate between the transponder and reader,
the capacitor is tuned to the same frequency as the reader.
Glass Capsule: The glass capsule holds the microchip, antenna coil and
capacitor. The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime
glass. After assembly, the capsule is hermetically (air-tight) sealed, so no
bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside
7.2.2 Reader or Scanner
The reader consists of an coil which creates an electromagnetic field that, via
radio signals, provides the necessary energy to "excite" or "activate" the implanted
biochip. The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code
or ID number sent back from the "activated" implanted biochip. The reader also
contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the
result in an LCD display.
Fig 7.2 Biochip Scanner
The reader generates a low-power electromagnetic field via radio signals.
Implanted biochip gets activated.
Biochip sends ID code back to the reader via radio signals.
Reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format and
displays it on LCD
Biochips have found their applications all over the world .Some of the applications
are listed below.
Genomics is the study of gene sequences in living organisms and being able to read
and interpret them. The human genome has been the biggest project undertaken to
date but there are many research projects around the world trying to map the gene
sequences of other organisms.
Proteome analysis or Proteomics is the investigation of all the proteins present in a
cell, tissue or organism. The use of Biochip facilitates High throughput proteomic
analysis, Multi-dimensional micro separations (pre LC/MS) to achieve high plate
number and Electro kinetic sample injection for fast, reproducible, samples
Bio-diagnostics or bio-sensing is the field of sensing biological molecules based on
electrochemical, biochemical, optical, luminometric methods. The use of biochip
facilitates development of sensors which involves optimization of the platform,
reduction in detection time and improving the signal-to-noise ratio.
SELF RECONFIGURABLE MODULAR ROBOTS
Modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems or self-reconfigurable modular robots are
autonomous kinematic machines with variable morphology. Beyond conventional
actuation, sensing and control typically found in fixed-morphology robots, self-
reconfiguring robots are also able to deliberately change their own shape by
rearranging the connectivity of their parts, in order to adapt to new circumstances,
perform new tasks, or recover from damage.
They can contain electronics, sensors, computer processors, memory,
and power supplies; they can also contain actuators that are used for manipulating
their location in the environment and in relation with each other. A feature found in
some cases is the ability of the modules to automatically connect and disconnect
themselves to and from each other, and to form into many objects or perform many
tasks moving or manipulating the environment.
Modular robots are usually composed of multiple building blocks of a
relatively small repertoire, with uniform docking interfaces that allow transfer of
mechanical forces and moments, electrical power and communication throughout the
robot. The modular building blocks usually consist of some primary structural
actuated unit, and potentially additional specialized units such as grippers, feet,
wheels, cameras, payload and energy storage and generation.
Self reconfigurable it means that the mechanism or device is capable of
utilizing its own system of control such as with actuators or stochastic means to
change its overall structural shape. Having the quality of being "modular" in "self-
reconfiguring modular robotics" is to say that the same module or set of modules can
be added to or removed from the system, as opposed to being generically
"modularized" in the broader sense.
8.2 INSPIRATION AND MOTIVATION
There are two key motivations for designing modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems.
Functional advantage: Self reconfiguring robotic systems are potentially
more robust and more adaptive than conventional systems. The reconfiguration
ability allows a robot or a group of robots to disassemble and reassemble
machines to form new morphologies that are better suitable for new tasks, such as
changing from a legged robot to a snake robot and then to a rolling robot. Since
robot parts are interchangeable (within a robot and between different robots),
machines can also replace faulty parts autonomously, leading to self-repair.
Economic advantage: Self reconfiguring robotic systems can potentially lower
overall robot cost by making a range of complex machines out of a single (or
relatively few) types of mass-produced modules.
The quest for self-reconfiguring robotic structures is to some extent inspired by
envisioned applications such as long-term space missions that require long-term self-
sustaining robotic ecology that can handle unforeseen situations and may require self
repair. A second source of inspiration are biological systems that are self-constructed out
of a relatively small repertoire of lower-level building blocks (cells or amino acids,
depending on scale of interest). This architecture underlies biological systems‟ ability to
physically adapt, grow, heal, and even self replicate – capabilities that would be desirable
in many engineered systems.
8.3 CONSTRUCTION OF NANO FRACTAL ROBOTS
The design of a fractal nanocomputer is not an easy task using conventional
principles. However, using fractal nanotechnology principles, the exercise reduces to
a fairly simple exercise where you build a fractal nanocomputer at the large scale and
providing you followed fractal principles, the computer technology scales downward
to whatever resolution limit imposed by the technology you are using.
Self repair is an important breakthrough for realizing micro and nanotechnology
related end goals. Three different kinds of self repair:
Usage of plates to construct the cubes
Using smaller fractal machines to affect self repair inside large cubes.
Fig 8.1 Self Construction of Fractal Robot
Due to their self reconstructing properties fractal nano robots have found their
application in many fields.
8.4.1 Space Exploration
One application that highlights the advantages of self-reconfigurable systems is long-
term space missions. These require long-term self-sustaining robotic ecology that can
handle unforeseen situations and may require self repair. Self-reconfigurable systems
have the ability to handle tasks that are not known a prioritise especially compared to
fixed configuration systems. In addition, space missions are highly volume and mass
constrained. Sending a robot system that can reconfigure to achieve many tasks is
better than sending many robots that each can do one task.
Fractal nano robots are used in medical science .They are used in treatment of cancer,
kidney stones, blood clotting , detection and elimination of defected cells .
Fractal Robots can be used in manufacturing of other electronic items with high level
of precision as they operate and manipulate objects at nano scale.
NANO ROBOTICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Nanotechnology opens the way towards new production routes, more
efficient, performance and intelligent materials, towards new design of structures and
related monitoring and maintenance systems.
9.1 Space Technology
There are mainly two applications of nanorobotics in space technology:
2. Space colonization
Swarms are nanorobots that act in unison like bees. They theoretically act like flexible
cloth material and being composed of what is called Bucky Tubes. This cloth will act
as strong as diamond. If a nano computer is added to nanomachine a smart cloth is
found. The smart cloth could be used to keep astronauts from bouncing around in
their own aircraft while they sleep, a problem that arises when autopilot computer
fires course correction rockets. This cloth like material will be able to offset the
sudden movements and slowly move the astronauts to their position.
9.1.2 Space Colonization
Nanorobots can be used in carrying out construction projects in hostile environments.
For example, with a handful of replicating robots, utilizing local material and
local energy, it is conceivable that space habitats can be completely constructed by
remote control so that habitants need only show up their suitcases.
Colonization of space can be done and engineer or group of engineers can
check the construction of habitats via telepresents utilizing cameras and sensors
created on the surface of the mars by nano bots all form the comfortable confines of
earth. Venus could be explored with Nano robots too.
In today‟s world very large scale integration is done on the electronic chips. Each chip
contains millions of electronic circuits. For a proper functioning each circuitry must
be designed with high percesion. As nano robots can operate at nano scale fabrication
of such chips can be easily done.
Potential applications for nanorobotics in medicine include early diagnosis and
targeted drug-delivery for cancer, arteriosclerosis, blood clots, kidney stones, wounds
biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics monitoring of diabetes and
In such plans, future medical nanotechnology is expected to employ
nanorobots injected into the patient to perform work at a cellular level. Such
nanorobots intended for use in medicine should be non-replicating, as replication
would needlessly increase device complexity, reduce reliability, and interfere with the
9.3.1 Treating arteriosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis refers to a condition where plaque builds along the walls of arteries.
Nanorobots could conceivably treat the condition by cutting away the plaque, which
would then enter the bloodstream.
9.3.2 Breaking up blood clots
Blood clots can cause complications ranging from muscle death to a stroke.
Nanorobots could travel to a clot and break it up. This application is one of the most
dangerous uses for nanorobots – the robot must be able to remove the blockage
without losing small pieces in the bloodstream, which could then travel elsewhere in
the body and cause more problems. The robot must also be small enough so that it
doesn't block the flow of blood itself.
9.3.3 Fighting cancer:
Doctors hope to use nanorobots to treat cancer patients. The robots could either attack
tumours directly using lasers, microwaves or ultrasonic signals or they could be part
of a chemotherapy treatment, delivering medication directly to the cancer site.
Doctors believe that by delivering small but precise doses of medication to the patient,
side effects will be minimized without a loss in the medication's effectiveness.
9.3.4 Helping the body clot:
One particular kind of nanorobots is the clottocyte, or artificial platelet. The clottocyte
carries a small mesh net that dissolves into a sticky membrane upon contact with
blood plasma. According to Robert A. Freitas, Jr., the man who designed the
clottocyte, clotting could be up to 1,000 times faster than the body's natural clotting
mechanism. Doctors could use clottocytes to treat haemophiliacs or patients with
serious open wounds.
9.3.5 Parasite Removal:
Nanorobots could wage micro-war on bacteria and small parasitic organisms inside a
patient. It might take several nanorobots working together to destroy all the parasites.
Gout is a condition where the kidneys lose the ability to remove waste from the
breakdown of fats from the bloodstream. This waste sometimes crystallizes at points
near joints like the knees and ankles. People who suffer from gout experience intense
pain at these joints. A nanorobot could break up the crystalline structures at the joints,
providing relief from the symptoms, though it wouldn't be able to reverse the
9.3.7 Cleaning Wounds:
Nanorobots could help remove debris from wounds, decreasing the likelihood of
infection. They would be particularly useful in cases of puncture wounds, where it
might be difficult to treat using more conventional methods.
9.3.8 Removing Kidney Stones:
Kidney stones can be intensely painful -- the larger the stone the more difficult it is to
pass. Doctors break up large kidney stones using ultrasonic frequencies, but it's not
always effective. A nanorobot could break up a kidney stones using a small laser.
Fig 9.1 Nanorobot in kidney treatment
10.1 TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS
Although there is much progress in the nanorobotics .This technology is still in
research and development phase, only few primitive designs have been tested. These
machines can‟t be fully relied. It is hard to predict the behaviour of nanorobots.
10.2 SECURITY THREATS
With the help of nano robotics more advance weapons can be designed. Atomic
weapons can now be more accessible and made to be more powerful and more
destructive. These can also become more accessible with the help of nanotechnology.
10.3 MANUFACTURING COST
Presently, nanotechnology is very expensive and developing it can cost you a lot of
money. It is also pretty difficult to manufacture, which is probably why products
made with nanotechnology are more expensive. That is why nanorobots are too
Nanomedicine will eliminate virtually all common diseases of the 20th century,
virtually all medical pain and suffering, and allow the extension of human capabilities
most especially our mental abilities.
Consider that a nanostructure data storage device measuring ~8,000 micron3
cubic volume about the size of a single human liver cell and smaller than a typical
neuron, could store an amount of information equivalent to the entire Library of
Congress. If implanted somewhere in the human brain, together with the appropriate
interface mechanisms, such a device could allow extremely rapid access to this
A single nanocomputer CPU, also having the volume of just one tiny human
cell, could compute at the rate of 10 teraflops (1013
floating-point operations per
second), approximately equalling (by many estimates) the computational output of the
entire human brain. Such a nanocomputer might produce only about 0.001 watt of
waste heat, as compared to the ~25 watts of waste heat for the biological brain in
which the nanocomputer might be embedded.
But, perhaps the most important long-term benefit to human society as a
whole could be the dawning of a new era of peace. We could hope that people who
are independently well-fed, well-clothed, well-housed, smart, well-educated, healthy
and happy will have little motivation to make war. Human beings who have a
reasonable prospect of living many "normal" lifetimes will learn patience from
experience, and will be extremely unlikely to risk those "many lifetimes" for any but
the most compelling of reasons.
SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK
Teams around the world are working on creating the first practical medical
nanorobot. Robots ranging from a millimetre in diameter to a relatively hefty two
centimetres long already exist, though they are all still in the testing phase of
development and haven't been used on people. We're probably several years away
from seeing nanorobots enter the medical market. Today's microrobots are just
prototypes that lack the ability to perform medical tasks.
In the future, nanorobots could revolutionize medicine. Doctors could treat
everything from heart disease to cancer using tiny robots the size of bacteria, a scale
much smaller than today's robots. Robots might work alone or in teams to eradicate
disease and treat other conditions. Some believe that semiautonomous nanorobots are
right around the corner -- doctors would implant robots able to patrol a human's body,
reacting to any problems that pop up. Unlike acute treatment, these robots would stay
in the patient's body forever.
Another potential future application of nanorobot technology is to re-engineer
our bodies to become resistant to disease, increase our strength or even improve our
intelligence. Dr. Richard Thompson, a former professor of ethics, has written about
the ethical implications of nanotechnology. He says the most important tool is
communication, and that it's pivotal for communities, medical organizations and the
government to talk about nanotechnology now, while the industry is still in its
Will we one day have thousands of microscopic robots rushing around in our
veins, making corrections and healing our cuts, bruises and illnesses? With
nanotechnology, it seems like anything is possible.