Sweta Leena Panda
Introduction to Robotics
Applications using Nanorobots
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter
Nanotechnolgy is building machines one atom at a time
First described by Nobel lauriate physicist Richard Feynman
In 1959 he gave a lecture called "There's plenty of room at the
bottom" in which he suggested that the laws of physics would allow
people to use small machines to make smaller machines eventually
onto the atomic level
The first one to coin the term is K. Eric Drexler, one time student of
With the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope and the
atomic force microscope, scientists were allowed to not only take
photographs of single atoms but also to move atoms one by one.
Introduction to Nanorobotics
It deals with the controlled manipulation of objects with
nanometer scale dimensions
Nanomanipulation is most effective process.
It is concerned with construction and programming of
robots with overall dimensions at the nanoscale.
A nanorobot is a specialized nanomachine.
It has dimensions on the order of nanometers.
Typically 0.5 to 3 microns large with 1-100 nm parts.
The possibility of nanorobots was first proposed by Richard
Feyman in his talk “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”
It is concerned with atomic and molecular-sized objects and
is also called Molecular Robotics.
Nanorobotics research has proceeded along two lines:
- first is devoted to simulation
with nanoscale dimensions.
- second involves manipulation
with macroscopic instruments.
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter at the
molecular level, with the aim of creating new products with
Two categories of nanotechnology
Strong nanotechnology: It focuses on the general-
purpose assembler: a microrobot that, with the proper
programming, can build anything.
Weak nanotechnology: It is anything up to "strong,"
including the manipulation of matter at the atomic level
Applications using Nanorobots
To cure skin disease and as cosmetic cream.
Can be used a a mouthwash to do all brushing and flossing.
Would augment immune system by finding and killing
bacteria and viruses.
It would prevent heart attack , kill cancer cells etc.
To monitor potentially dangerous microorganisms in the
Nanorobots can be used in blood
cell to detect pathogens.
Fractal robot is a new kind of robot made from motorized
cubic bricks that move under computer control.
These cubic motorized bricks can be programmed to move
and shuffle themselves to change shape to make objects
likes a house potentially in a few seconds because of their
motorized internal mechanisms.
Fractal Robots & Nanotechnology
The design of a fractal nanocomputer is not an easy task
using conventional principles.
However, using fractal nanotechnology principles, the
exercise reduces to a fairly simple exercise where you build
a fractal nanocomputer at the large scale and providing you
followed fractal principles, the computer technology scales
downward to whatever resolution limit imposed by the
technology you are using.
SELF-REPAIR IN FRACTAL
Self repair is an important breakthrough for realizing micro
and nanotechnology related end goals.
Three different kinds of self repair
-Usage of plates to construct the cubes.
-Using smaller fractal machines to affect self repair inside
Features of fractal robots
Communication of Power & Data
Costs - feasible
Computer technology seems to be where nanotechnology
will first be exploited
Computers with circuits that are nothing more than
individual atoms would mean processor speeds measured
not in megahertz, but in terahertz (million megahertz )
A nanotech computer the size of a current laptop, by some
accounts, could conceivably hold as much computing power
as now exists on the entire planet
A nanochip is an integrated circuit (IC) that is so small, in
physical terms, such that more processing power can fit
into a given physical volume, it runs faster and requires
A nanite is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose
dimensions are measured in nanometers
Nanites could be programmed to replicate themselves, or to
work synergistically to build larger machines or to construct
Challenges in building nanites
Some interesting challenges plague the fabrication of nanites
with moving parts
An important challenge to overcome is one of engineering
How to reduce friction and sticking nature of small
How to supply power
How would a self-replicating nanite store and use
How to program nanites
In June of 1997 a team of Australian researchers managed
to build a functioning nanite, a biosensor
The central component of the device is a tiny electrical
switch, an ion-channel, only 1.5 nonometres in size.
It is used to detect
drugs, hormones, viruses, pesticides, gene
sequences, drugs, medically-active compounds, and more.
Applications of nanites
Nanites could mean faster computers, less pollution
and cheaper energy
They could produce a stain-resistant trousers, to the
most speculative extrapolations, such as self-replicating
Nanites could be the factory workers of the future
In the Field of medicine
To cure skin diseases and
augment the immune system by
hunting down any virus or
cancer in the cell
Rapid detection of pathogens by
nanosensors swimming in the
blood, and immediate response
to them via artificial cells
Cell herding devices could
restore artery walls and artery
linings to health, by ensuring
that the right cells and
supporting structures are in the
right places thus preventing
most heart attacks
It is possible to clone body parts and put them into
diseased human bodies.
Nanites can be inserted into people to repair aging skin
cells or possibly diseased cells or organs.
Nanites can create new sorts of construction
materials, chemical compounds, electronics components
They could be used to turn material into food
Starvation and illness could quickly come to an end
Environmental problems such as ozone depletion and global
warming could be solved
Current focus of USC interdisciplinary Laboratory for Molecular
Development of high-level systems for programming a Scanning
Probe Microscope (SPM) as a sensory robot
Developing and integrating the various component technologies
needed for nanomanipulation
A research grant worth $1.5 million from the U.S. National Science
Foundation (NSF) to create swarms of nanomachines (robots) to
A multidisciplinary team from NorthEastern
University, Rutgers, Lucent Technologies' Bell Laboratories
and other universities has been assembled to study the
development of protein-based nanorobots.
Collaborators from a federal laboratory (NASA - Jet
Propulsion Laboratory) and others will provide technical
consulting and advising
The long term goal of this project is to develop nanodevices
That can manipulate objects in the nanoworld,
Transfer information from the nano to the macro world
also be able to travel in the nanoenvironment
Bottom-Up Nanomachines project
This project is funded by the FET - Proactive Initiative
1999 on Nanotechnology Information Devices of the
The objectives of BUN are to
design, synthesise, interconnect, assemble and test
nanomachines (with critical dimensions well below 1 nm)
and circuits to build an information processing machine in
a bottom up approach
Dark side of the force
Nanites could be used to develop Nanoweapons
Governments will not be able to control nanotechnology
Nanites could be developed that would devour only the organic
components (the soldiers) so a tank can be reused by the enemy
A doomsday nanite might be programmed to reproduce itself
with any and all material it comes into contact with. The Earth
would be gone in no time
All of the current developments in technology directs human a
step closer to nanorobots production.
Nanorobots can theoretically destroy all common diseases of the
20th century, thereby ending much of the pain and suffering.
Although research into nanorobots is in its preliminary stages,
the promise of such technology is endless.