• Nanotechnology is the engineering of
functional systems at the molecular scale.
• More simply, building things one atom or
molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic
• A nanometer is one billionth of a meter (3 - 4
Introduction to robotics
• Robotics is the branch
of technology that deals with the design,
construction, operation, development
and application of robots and computer
systems for their control, and
• These technologies deal with automated
machines that can take the place of
What is a Robot?
• A robot is a mechanical or virtual
artificial agent, usually an electro-
mechanical machine that is guided by
a computer program or electronic
• They range from small, miniature
machines, to large crane size
Introduction to Nanorobotics
• The technology of creating machines or robots
at or close to the microscopic scale of a
nanometer (10−9 meters).
• A robot that allows precision interactions with
nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with
• Largely in the research-and-development
phase (Target year 2050).
• Some primitive molecular machines have
Theory behind Nanobots
• As robots can perform certain
functions that humans
cannot, thus why not have a
microscopic robot performing
• Necessary for very large
numbers of them to work
together to perform microscopic
and macroscopic tasks.
Features of Nanorobots
• Nanorobots can be categorized into two
groups called autonomous & insect robots.
• A major asset of nanorobots is that they
require very little energy to operate.
• Durability is another potential asset, may
remain operational for years.
• High speed is also a significant
• Microarray, the dense, two-
dimensional grid of
biosensors, is the critical
component of a biochip
• Microarrays can be used for
DNA, protein, chemical
compound and antibody
• Also known as “DNA
• A DNA machine is a
constructed from DNA.
• Similar double helix
structure like the DNA
• Uses a flagellum for
• Use similar mechanisms as
Application of Nanobots
• Medical technology, where
they might be used to
identify cancer cells and
• Detection of toxic chemicals
and the measurement of
concentrations in the
• For Space Application.
Nanorobots in medicine
• It’s structure will have two spaces consisting of
interior and exterior.
• They will communicate with doctor by
encoding messages to acoustic signals.
• Technological advancements such as bionic
motors, DNA as computer, & nano robotics
• Leonard Adleman confirmed that DNA is
programmable in computers.
Nanorobots can be used in blood cell to
Nanobot in medicine
• Early diagnosis and targeted drug
delivery for cancer, biomedical
instrumentation, surgery, etc.
• Employ nanobots injected into the
patient to perform treatment on a
• Improve the presence of drug
molecules where they are needed in
• Fractal robot is a new kind of robot made from
motorized cubic bricks that move under computer
• These cubic motorized bricks can be programmed to
move and shuffle themselves to change shape to make
objects likes a house potentially in a few seconds
because of their motorized internal mechanisms.
Fractal Robot Example
• Example of a Dog shaped
fractal robot changing into a
SELF-REPAIR IN FRACTAL ROBOTS.
• Self repair is an important
breakthrough for realizing micro and
nanotechnology related end goals.
• Three different kinds of self repair
-Usage of plates to construct the
-Using smaller fractal machines to
affect self repair inside large cubes.
Advantages of inorganic nanobots
• Easy to program.
• Ease of external control.
• Unlimited chemistry (with
Disadvantages of inorganic
• Difficult and expensive to make self-
• Difficulty of communicating with
organic systems must carry own (limited)
Advantages of organic nanobots
• Easy to make using genetic
• Self-reproducing (cheap).
• Easily communicate with
other organic systems.
• Protein factories
Disadvantages of organic nanobots
• Poorly understood
• Hard to program.
• Limited external control
• Limited to CHON
chemistry and needs water.
• All of the current developments in technology
directs human a step closer to nanorobots
• Nanorobots can theoretically destroy all
common diseases of the 20th century, thereby
ending much of the pain and suffering.
• Although research into nanorobots is in its
preliminary stages, the promise of such
technology is endless.