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Nanorobotics

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Nano robotics Research Presentation

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Nanorobotics

  1. 1. NANOROBOTICS DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY SUBMITEED BY: RIGVENDRA KUMAR VARDHAN M.TECH ECE 1ST YEAR REG. NO: 14304022
  2. 2. Presentation overview  Nanotechnology  Robots  Robotics  Nanorobotics Inventor  Nanorobotics  Nanorobot  Challenges  Issues  Components  Design Techniques  Types of making Nanorobots  Design Architecture  Structure of Nanorobot  How Nanorobot Work?  Application of Nanorobot  Advantage  Disadvantage 8/20/2015 2
  3. 3. Nanotechnology Robotics Nanorobotics
  4. 4. Nanotechnology  The word nanotechnology popularized by the K Eric Drexler in 1980.  Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale.  It works with materials, devices and other structures with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.  With a variety of potential applications, nanotechnology is a key technology for the future.  Two categories of nanotechnology  Strong nanotechnology: It focuses on the general-purpose assembler: a microrobot that, with the proper programming, can build anything.  Weak nanotechnology: It is anything up to "strong," including the manipulation of matter at the atomic level 8/20/2015 4
  5. 5. Nanoscale 8/20/2015 5
  6. 6. Why Nanotechnology? 8/20/2015 6
  7. 7. Robots  It is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent usually an electromechanical machine that is guided by computer program or electronic circuitry.  Examples: Nanorobots, Swarm robots and Industrial robots.  Types of Robots: 1. Mobile robots 2. Rolling robots 3. Walking robots 4.Stationary robots 5. Autonomous robots 6. Beam robots 7. Virtual robots 8. Remote control robots 8/20/2015 7
  8. 8. Robotics  Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback and information processing.  Robotics is related to the sciences of engineering, electronics, mechanics and software.  These technologies deal with automated machines that can take place of humans in hazardous or manufacturing processes.  Today, robotics is rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build new robots that serve various practical purpose. 8/20/2015 8
  9. 9. Nanorobotics Inventor Known as nanorobot pioneer, Adriano Cavalcanti is the medical nanorobotics inventor for the practical hardware architecture of nanorobots, which was integrated as a model based on nanobioelectronics for applications in environmental monitoring, brain aneurysm, diabetes, cancer and cardiology. His advanced prototype provided a suitable integrated circuit approach, using an effective wireless platform. 8/20/2015 9
  10. 10. Nanorobotics  Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometre.  Nanorobotics is the tiny machine designed to perform a specific task whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer.  The main element used will be carbon in the form of diamond nanocomposites because of the strength and chemical inertness of these forms.  Programmable assembly of nm-scale components either by manipulation with macro or micro devices, or by directed self-assembly.  Design and fabrication of robots with overall dimensions at or below the mm range and made of nm- scale components.  Programming and coordination of large numbers (swarms) of such nanorobots.  The best example of this technology is Nanorobot. 8/20/2015 10
  11. 11. Nanorobot  Nanorobot also called as Nanobots , Nonoids, Nanites , Nanomachines or Nanomites.  Nanorobot is the part of nanotechnology that performs task at nanoscale dimensions.  A Nanorobot is a nanotechnological robot machine which is a mechanical or eletromechanical device or microscopic devices whose dimensions are measured in nanometres.  Nanorobots are molecular machine or tiny machines used to cure diseases in human or in any organism.  Nanorobots would typically be devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometres.  Nanorobot is one of the most advanced forms of nano-medicine.  The first useful applications of nanomachines might be in medical technology, which could be used to identify and destroy cancer cells. 8/20/2015 11
  12. 12. Size of Nanorobot  1nm = 10−9 meter  The prefix ‘nano’ means billionth.  We cant see with our naked eyes Size nanorobots are same like viruses and blood cells NanoRobot Viruses Red Blood cell 20-25 nm 8/20/2015 12
  13. 13. Challenges in building Nanorobot  Some interesting challenges plague the fabrication of Nanorobot with moving part.  An important challenge to overcome is one of engineering.  How to reduce friction and sticking nature of small devices.  How to supply power.  How would a self-replicating Nanorobot store and use information.  How to program Nanorobot. 8/20/2015 13
  14. 14. Nanorobot Issue  Sensors  Computers and Control  Actuators and Propulsion  Power  Communications  Interfaces and Integration  nano/micro/macro  organic/inorganic  biotic/abiotic  Programming and Coordination  Nanorobots raise all the issues that are important for NEMS 8/20/2015 14
  15. 15. Component of Nanorobot 8/20/2015 15
  16. 16. Nanorobot 8/20/2015 16
  17. 17. Design Techniques  It has 2 spaces or structure interior and exterior.  Interior : Vacuum environment.  Exterior : Not affected by chemical liquids of our body.  Radioactive material is used as a part of exterior surface, which helps to nanorobot at any period of time.  Technique Used  Bottom-up approach  Assembling structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule  Designs derived from biological models.  An electric motor is attached for it’s propagation inside the circulatory system in the blood vessels. 8/20/2015 17
  18. 18. Design Techniques(contd.)  The microprocessor, artery thermometer, camera, rotating needle are incorporated.  The microprocessor based control unit is used to control the overall operations of nanorobot  Magnetic switch is used to provide to switch on and off nanorobot at any point of time.  Components: Onboard sensors, motors, manipulators , power suppliers, molecular components.  Best known biological sample is Ribosome used to construct robotic arm.  Manipulator arm driven by detailed sequence of control signals.  Control signals received by robotic arm via on board sensors using broadcast architecture.  Assemblers are molecular machine system perform molecular manufacturing on atomic scale. 8/20/2015 18
  19. 19. Types of Making Nanorobots 1. Nubots:  The first approach is through nubots. Nubot is an abbreviation for ‘nucleic acid robots.’ Nubots are organic molecular machines at the nanoscale. DNA structure can provide means to assemble 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices. 2. Bacteria based:  This approach proposes the use of biological microorganisms, like the bacterium E(Escherichia)- coli. Thus the model uses a flagellum for propulsion purposes. The uses of electromagnetic fields are normally applied to control the motion of this kind of biological integrated device. 8/20/2015 19
  20. 20. Design Architecture 8/20/2015 20
  21. 21. Design Architecture  Molecular sorting rotor:  A class of nanomechanical device capable of selectively binding (or releasing) molecules from/ to solution, and of transporting these bound molecules against significant concentration gradients.  Made up of carbon nanotubes.  Nanotube with nanogears used for changing the direction of movement.  Propeller:  Like that in nanorobots it is used to drive forward against the blood stream.  Fins:  A fin is a surface used for stability and/or to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media.  Fitted along with the propellers used to propel the device 8/20/2015 21
  22. 22. Contd.  Nanobiosensors:  A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (mostly electronic) instrument.  Provides real time information about antibodies to antigens, cell receptors to their glands etc..  Fitted externally and internally with the nanorobots to receive the signal movement direction.  To detect chemical vapours at low concentration based on surface stress.  Used for drug detection  Sensitive to Biological Element  Detect body temperature ,fluids or enzymes  Phosphatidic acid Chemotactic sensor can use.  PH responsive.  Transducer 8/20/2015 22
  23. 23. Contd.  Nano Chip  It Contains control unit that receive Signal from Nanobiosensor and Perform its job .  Nano Container  Contain Highly Concentrated enzymes which will be delivered into infected cell.  Power Supply  Cant use conventional sources.  Chemical Energy.  Nanorobots would hold small chemical Supply Become fuel source when combined with blood.  Communication & Networking  All Nanorobots communicates outside with Ad-Hoc Network.  To know the location of Nanorobots where it goes we use ultrasonic technique.  Signal processing techniques are used to track this ultrasonic signal. 8/20/2015 23
  24. 24. Sensor Based Navigational Behavior 8/20/2015 24
  25. 25. How Nanorobot are Made?  Developing is complicated  Mechanical Basis  Nano Factory  Shape of NanoRobot  Element used  Power cell 8/20/2015 25
  26. 26. Structure and Working of Nanorobot Glyco Protein based (Ig) structure enters human blood or tissue by means of intravenous vaccination • Molecular Sorting Rotor Works with the following components • Propellers • Fins • Jet pump • Membrane propulsion Sensor 8/20/2015 26
  27. 27. Provides real-time information about antibodies to antigens, cell receptors to their glands etc. Used for drug detection. To detect chemical vapors at low concentration based on surface stress. 8/20/2015 27
  28. 28. Charge of the system battery made of a single nano wire which is 7000 times thinner than human hair is used. various source of power Source within the body Body heat Power from the bloodstream External to the body Physical connection Induced magnetic 8/20/2015 28
  29. 29. Cameras and Lasers in Nanorobots Laser made out of nanoroids and a semiconductor chip is used. Laser can be used for removing clots and blocks and minor surgeries and wounds. Disposable micro camera for navigation and view of internal images. It will be accessed by CMOS sensors for transmission of images 8/20/2015 29
  30. 30. Programming in Nanobots It helps the OODMS is created with the help of C, C++ language. Nanobots would be tagged with a primary identity barcode or code. medical authorities to keep data of nanobots inoculated Reduces delay in healthcare & treatment 8/20/2015 30
  31. 31. Inoculated using a stalk solution with a layer of drug covering. Mass basis implantation is preferred Connected with database managements. Communication 8/20/2015 31
  32. 32. How Nanorobot Work ? Injection Navigation & Positioning Detection Destruction 8/20/2015 32
  33. 33. Injection  Nanorobots are introduced into the body by surgery.  So the nanorobots are made smaller than the blood vessels as it can travel.  The nanorobot is injected in femoral artery 8/20/2015 33
  34. 34. Navigation & Positioning  Nanorobots use blood flow for its movement.  All nanorobots communicates outside with Ad-Hoc Network.  To know the location of nanorobots where it goes we use ultrasonic technique  Signal processing techniques are used to track this ultrasonic signal  Nanorobots movement depend upon  Speed of blood  Get through the heart without stuck  React with changes in blood flow rate  Able to change the direction according to the blood stream  To satisfy this, nanorobots should be made with electric motors to turn propeller. 8/20/2015 34
  35. 35. Detection  Sensors are used to locate the fatty deposits.  To control the nanorobots as per our wish fit the TV camera .  Sensors are used to receive the signals and do the operations according to signals send by remote control unit. Nanorobots towards a destination 8/20/2015 35
  36. 36. Destruction  The fatty deposits (or) clots are removed using special blades fitted with nanorobots.  Continuous (or) pulse signal is used to activate the blades.  To take nanorobots from the body we use two methods one is retrace our path View of nanorobot removing the fatty deposit 8/20/2015 36
  37. 37. Nanorobots might carry small ultrasonic signal generators to deliver frequencies directly to kidney stones 8/20/2015 37
  38. 38. Nanorobot in Cancer Therapy 8/20/2015 38
  39. 39. Nanorobots may treat conditions like arteriosclerosis by physically chipping away the plaque along artery walls 8/20/2015 39
  40. 40. Applications  Breaking up Blood clots , Kidney Stones , Liver Stones.  To Cure skin Diseases and as cosmetic cream.  Heart Surgery, Tumors.  Neuron replacement.  It would prevent heart attack , kill cancer cells etc.  It would augment immune system by finding and killing bacteria and viruses.  It can be used a a mouthwash to do all brushing and flossing.  Smart anti-cancer Therapeutics.  Parasite removal.  Targeted drug delivery.  In treatment of Arteriosclerosis. 8/20/2015 40
  41. 41. Future of Nanorobotics  In industry and manufacturing.  In supercomputer: Nanites could mean faster computers, less pollution and cheaper energy .  To monitor potentially dangerous microorganisms in the ocean.  Use in Defence System.  In brain’s growth.  They could produce a stain-resistant trousers, to the most speculative extrapolations, such as self- replicating nanorobots  In space technology  Nanorobots can be used to actively repair damaged suit materials while an astronaut is in the field.  Measurement of toxic elements in environment. 8/20/2015 41
  42. 42. Advantages  Small Size.  Inexpensive(if mass produced).  No maintenance  Automated  Fast process & results are accurate.  Painless Treatment  Easily Disposable  Rapid elimination of disease.  Involves less psychological strain  Harmful ray attack is reduced. 8/20/2015 42
  43. 43. Advantages(contd.)  Nanorobot might function at the atomic and molecular level to build devices, machines or circuits known as molecular manufacturing.  Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self- replication.  The microscopic size of nanomachines translates into high operational speed  Individual units require only a tiny amount of energy to operate  The major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability, in theory, they can remain operational for years, decades or centuries.  Durability is another potential asset 8/20/2015 43
  44. 44. Disadvantage  Expensive technology.  Very complicate design (Practical implementation is some what difficult).  initial design cost is very high.  Hard to program.  Limited external control mechanisms.  Some times robots goes out of control in human body.  Should be Accurate if not harmful effect occurs.  may affect human health by introducing toxicity in blood.  risk of cancer. 8/20/2015 44
  45. 45. Conclusion  All of the current developments in technology directs human a step closer to nanorobots production.  Nanorobots can theoretically destroy all common diseases of the 20th century, thereby ending much of the pain and suffering.  Although research into nanorobots is in its preliminary stages, the promise of such technology is endless.  Nanobots are going to revolutionize the medical industry in future.  Recent advancement in the field of Nanorobotics gives the hope of the effective use of this technology in medical field.  The nanorobots are used in heart surgery, due to this number of risks and side effects behind is reduced.  The same technique is used in various treatments like cancer, breaking kidney stones, breaking liver stones, parasite removal only with slight modification.  Within ten year several advancement technologies should be made from this nanorobotics.  Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase 8/20/2015 45
  46. 46. References  http://www.cjmag.co.jp/online/0597wnanites.html  http://www.imm.org/SciAmDebate2/whitesides.html  http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=5148  http://www.def-logic.com/articles/nanomachines.html  http://www.fractal-robots.com/  http://www.me.cmu.edu/faculty1/sitti/nano/  http://www.links999.net/robotics/robots/robots_introduction.html  http://www.ifr.mavt.ethz.ch/photo/nanorobotics  http://www.cheme.cornell.edu/%7Esaltzman/Classes/ENGRI_120/Research_Papers/paper47.PDF  http://www.medicaldesignonline.com/ 8/20/2015 46
  47. 47. Thank You 8/20/2015 47
  48. 48. Queries 8/20/2015 48

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