The word nanotechnology popularized by the K Eric Drexler in 1980.
Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic
and molecular scale.
It works with materials, devices and other structures with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100
With a variety of potential applications, nanotechnology is a key technology for the future.
Two categories of nanotechnology
Strong nanotechnology: It focuses on the general-purpose assembler: a microrobot that, with the proper
programming, can build anything.
Weak nanotechnology: It is anything up to "strong," including the manipulation of matter at the atomic
It is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent usually an electromechanical machine that
is guided by computer program or electronic circuitry.
Examples: Nanorobots, Swarm robots and Industrial robots.
Types of Robots:
1. Mobile robots 2. Rolling robots
3. Walking robots 4.Stationary robots
5. Autonomous robots 6. Beam robots
7. Virtual robots 8. Remote control robots
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation,
structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for
their control, sensory feedback and information processing.
Robotics is related to the sciences of engineering, electronics, mechanics and software.
These technologies deal with automated machines that can take place of humans in
hazardous or manufacturing processes.
Today, robotics is rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build
new robots that serve various practical purpose.
Known as nanorobot pioneer, Adriano Cavalcanti is the
medical nanorobotics inventor for the practical hardware
architecture of nanorobots, which was integrated as a
model based on nanobioelectronics for applications in
environmental monitoring, brain aneurysm, diabetes,
cancer and cardiology.
His advanced prototype provided a suitable integrated
circuit approach, using an effective wireless platform.
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a
Nanorobotics is the tiny machine designed to perform a specific task whose components are at or close
to the scale of a nanometer.
The main element used will be carbon in the form of diamond nanocomposites because of the strength
and chemical inertness of these forms.
Programmable assembly of nm-scale components either by manipulation with macro or micro devices,
or by directed self-assembly.
Design and fabrication of robots with overall dimensions at or below the mm range and made of nm-
Programming and coordination of large numbers (swarms) of such nanorobots.
The best example of this technology is Nanorobot. 8/20/2015
Nanorobot also called as Nanobots , Nonoids, Nanites , Nanomachines or Nanomites.
Nanorobot is the part of nanotechnology that performs task at nanoscale dimensions.
A Nanorobot is a nanotechnological robot machine which is a mechanical or eletromechanical device or
microscopic devices whose dimensions are measured in nanometres.
Nanorobots are molecular machine or tiny machines used to cure diseases in human or in any organism.
Nanorobots would typically be devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometres.
Nanorobot is one of the most advanced forms of nano-medicine.
The first useful applications of nanomachines might be in medical technology, which could be used to
identify and destroy cancer cells.
Size of Nanorobot
1nm = 10−9 meter
The prefix ‘nano’ means billionth.
We cant see with our naked eyes Size nanorobots are same like viruses and blood cells
NanoRobot Viruses Red Blood cell
Challenges in building Nanorobot
Some interesting challenges plague the fabrication of Nanorobot with moving part.
An important challenge to overcome is one of engineering.
How to reduce friction and sticking nature of small devices.
How to supply power.
How would a self-replicating Nanorobot store and use information.
How to program Nanorobot.
Computers and Control
Actuators and Propulsion
Interfaces and Integration
Programming and Coordination
Nanorobots raise all the issues that are important for NEMS 8/20/2015
It has 2 spaces or structure interior and exterior.
Interior : Vacuum environment.
Exterior : Not affected by chemical liquids of our body.
Radioactive material is used as a part of exterior surface, which helps to nanorobot at any period of time.
Assembling structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule
Designs derived from biological models.
An electric motor is attached for it’s propagation inside the circulatory system in the blood vessels.
The microprocessor, artery thermometer, camera, rotating needle are incorporated.
The microprocessor based control unit is used to control the overall operations of nanorobot
Magnetic switch is used to provide to switch on and off nanorobot at any point of time.
Components: Onboard sensors, motors, manipulators , power suppliers, molecular components.
Best known biological sample is Ribosome used to construct robotic arm.
Manipulator arm driven by detailed sequence of control signals.
Control signals received by robotic arm via on board sensors using broadcast architecture.
Assemblers are molecular machine system perform molecular manufacturing on atomic scale.
Types of Making Nanorobots
The first approach is through nubots. Nubot is an abbreviation for ‘nucleic acid robots.’ Nubots are
organic molecular machines at the nanoscale. DNA structure can provide means to assemble 2D and 3D
2. Bacteria based:
This approach proposes the use of biological microorganisms, like the bacterium E(Escherichia)- coli.
Thus the model uses a flagellum for propulsion purposes. The uses of electromagnetic fields are normally
applied to control the motion of this kind of biological integrated device.
Molecular sorting rotor:
A class of nanomechanical device capable of selectively binding (or releasing) molecules from/ to solution,
and of transporting these bound molecules against significant concentration gradients.
Made up of carbon nanotubes.
Nanotube with nanogears used for changing the direction of movement.
Like that in nanorobots it is used to drive forward against the blood stream.
A fin is a surface used for stability and/or to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or
other fluid media.
Fitted along with the propellers used to propel the device
A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a
signal which can be read by an observer or by an (mostly electronic) instrument.
Provides real time information about antibodies to antigens, cell receptors to their glands etc..
Fitted externally and internally with the nanorobots to receive the signal movement direction.
To detect chemical vapours at low concentration based on surface stress.
Used for drug detection
Sensitive to Biological Element
Detect body temperature ,fluids or enzymes
Phosphatidic acid Chemotactic sensor can use.
It Contains control unit that receive Signal from Nanobiosensor and Perform its job .
Contain Highly Concentrated enzymes which will be delivered into infected cell.
Cant use conventional sources.
Nanorobots would hold small chemical Supply Become fuel source when combined with blood.
Communication & Networking
All Nanorobots communicates outside with Ad-Hoc Network.
To know the location of Nanorobots where it goes we use ultrasonic technique.
Signal processing techniques are used to track this ultrasonic signal.
Sensor Based Navigational
How Nanorobot are Made?
Developing is complicated
Shape of NanoRobot
Structure and Working of Nanorobot
Glyco Protein based (Ig) structure
enters human blood or tissue by
means of intravenous vaccination
• Molecular Sorting Rotor
• Jet pump
• Membrane propulsion
Provides real-time information about
antibodies to antigens, cell receptors to
their glands etc.
Used for drug detection.
To detect chemical vapors at low
concentration based on surface stress.
Charge of the system
battery made of a single nano wire which is 7000
times thinner than human hair is used.
various source of power
Source within the body
Power from the bloodstream
External to the body
Induced magnetic 8/20/2015
Cameras and Lasers in Nanorobots
Laser made out of
nanoroids and a
chip is used.
Laser can be used
for removing clots
and blocks and
Disposable micro camera for
navigation and view of internal
It will be accessed by CMOS
sensors for transmission of
Programming in Nanobots
It helps the
created with the
help of C, C++
be tagged with a
barcode or code.
keep data of
Reduces delay in
a stalk solution
with a layer of
How Nanorobot Work ?
Nanorobots are introduced into the body by surgery.
So the nanorobots are made smaller than the blood vessels as it can travel.
The nanorobot is injected in femoral artery
Navigation & Positioning
Nanorobots use blood flow for its movement.
All nanorobots communicates outside with Ad-Hoc Network.
To know the location of nanorobots where it goes we use ultrasonic technique
Signal processing techniques are used to track this ultrasonic signal
Nanorobots movement depend upon
Speed of blood
Get through the heart without stuck
React with changes in blood flow rate
Able to change the direction according to the blood stream
To satisfy this, nanorobots should be made with electric motors to turn propeller.
Sensors are used to locate the fatty deposits.
To control the nanorobots as per our wish fit the TV camera .
Sensors are used to receive the signals and do the operations according to signals send by remote
Nanorobots towards a destination
The fatty deposits (or) clots are removed using special blades fitted with nanorobots.
Continuous (or) pulse signal is used to activate the blades.
To take nanorobots from the body we use two methods one is retrace our path
View of nanorobot removing the fatty deposit 8/20/2015
Nanorobots might carry small ultrasonic signal
generators to deliver frequencies directly to kidney
Nanorobots may treat conditions like arteriosclerosis
by physically chipping away the plaque along artery
Breaking up Blood clots , Kidney Stones , Liver Stones.
To Cure skin Diseases and as cosmetic cream.
Heart Surgery, Tumors.
It would prevent heart attack , kill cancer cells etc.
It would augment immune system by finding and killing bacteria and viruses.
It can be used a a mouthwash to do all brushing and flossing.
Smart anti-cancer Therapeutics.
Targeted drug delivery.
In treatment of Arteriosclerosis. 8/20/2015
Future of Nanorobotics
In industry and manufacturing.
In supercomputer: Nanites could mean faster computers, less pollution and cheaper energy .
To monitor potentially dangerous microorganisms in the ocean.
Use in Defence System.
In brain’s growth.
They could produce a stain-resistant trousers, to the most speculative extrapolations, such as self-
In space technology
Nanorobots can be used to actively repair damaged suit materials while an astronaut is in the field.
Measurement of toxic elements in environment.
Inexpensive(if mass produced).
Fast process & results are accurate.
Rapid elimination of disease.
Involves less psychological strain
Harmful ray attack is reduced. 8/20/2015
Nanorobot might function at the atomic and molecular level to build devices, machines or circuits known
as molecular manufacturing.
Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-
The microscopic size of nanomachines translates into high operational speed
Individual units require only a tiny amount of energy to operate
The major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability, in theory, they can remain
operational for years, decades or centuries.
Durability is another potential asset
Very complicate design (Practical implementation is some what difficult).
initial design cost is very high.
Hard to program.
Limited external control mechanisms.
Some times robots goes out of control in human body.
Should be Accurate if not harmful effect occurs.
may affect human health by introducing toxicity in blood.
risk of cancer.
All of the current developments in technology directs human a step closer to nanorobots production.
Nanorobots can theoretically destroy all common diseases of the 20th century, thereby ending much of
the pain and suffering.
Although research into nanorobots is in its preliminary stages, the promise of such technology is endless.
Nanobots are going to revolutionize the medical industry in future.
Recent advancement in the field of Nanorobotics gives the hope of the effective use of this technology in
The nanorobots are used in heart surgery, due to this number of risks and side effects behind is reduced.
The same technique is used in various treatments like cancer, breaking kidney stones, breaking liver
stones, parasite removal only with slight modification.
Within ten year several advancement technologies should be made from this nanorobotics.
Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase 8/20/2015