Nanotechnology in medicine


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Nanotechnology in medicine

  1. 1. Seminar Year 2 Block 3Supervisor : Prof Anil Kumar SaxenaPresenters : 1. Balqis Binti Busrah (1110940) 2. Nur Asyraf Binti Liah (1110428) 3. Fatin Farha Binti Mohd Saifuddin (1119444) 4. Muhammad Bazli Aminuddin (1119349) 5. Mohd Al-Fateh Bin Shayuthy (1114523) 6. Sahal Bin Sharir (1019123)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology is a part of science and technology about the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular size. Nano is just a prefix of small scale size in which 1 nano=10^-9 metres. Meanwhile, technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Nano is very small in which it is the same size as virus and DNA. However. A piece of hair and red blood cell are too big to be considered as nano. Nanomedicine is medical application in range of nanomaterials and nanobiosensor. It is the idea of Richard Feymen who describe the importance of decreasing the size of object so that people can do many things in this scale. Dr. Drexler propose the idea of nanoscale assembler which would be able to build a copy of itself into a complex, atomic specification by means of mechano synthesis.
  3. 3.  Nanotechnology arise from the invention of scanning tunneling microscope which is the tool to see nanostructure. If you want to take a look at a sample of substrate, you can take sharp metallic tip, scan over the sample. Then, apply a voltage and there will be current flow between the tip and the substrate. By using this current as a signal, then you can see the substrate down to atomic level. Fullerene is any molecule compose entirely of carbon in the form of hollow sphere or tubes. Spherical fullerene is also called ‘bucky ball’ made up from graphite structure. If you roll it, you will get ‘bucky tubes’ or carbon nanotubes. Depending on how you roll it, you will get different chirality of the tubes. The importance of it is that we can get powerful and faster transistor with a small size.
  4. 4. TOOL AND TECHNIQUE1. Bottom up technique:- tool used: - Dual Polarization interferometry - Molecular Beam Epitaxy Mechanism2. Top down technique:- tool used: - Atomic force microscopy of work - Scanning tunneling microscopeNano materials1. Fullerene – how it is made?2. Inorganic nanoparticle: made up of what? Properties interested such as mechanical, optical, magnetic, chemical and electrical when we change the structure from bulk size to nanosize..Nanostructure– made up of different structures such sphere, tube, crystal, and shell that thus make theirname nanosphere, nanotube, nanocrystal, and nanoshell.- Some function of different structure.
  5. 5. NANOTECH IN DRUG DISCOVERY, DELIVERY, AND TISSUE ENGINEERING• Impact in Drug Discovery : Nanosphere, Solution Arrays, NanobiosensorsOn going research : Influence in tissue engineering• Impact in Drug Delivery : Nanoneedles, Nano-electro Mechanical Systems, Fullerenes, Nanocapsules, Nanoshells, Nanoporous materials, DendrimersOn going research : Future nanoparticles• Impact in Tissue Engineering : Molecular Imprinting Technique, Building of Binding sites for specific proteinOn going research : Complete human organs printing
  6. 6. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN IMPLANTS• Two types of implants : Passive and active• Passive implants include bone, dental, knee-joint and hip-joint implant.• Nanophase material such as titanium and nanocoatings such as nanocrystallinediamonds are used in passive implants to strengthen the devices and provedbeneficial.• Active implants include cochlear, retinal and neural implants as well aspacemakers.• Electrodes nanocoatings such as polypyrrole/NT3 and PEDOT coatings havebeen used in active implants to promote neuron growth and efficacy.• Carbon nanotubes have been used to replace or annex axons in activeimplants.• Wavy piezoelectric nanoribbons have been used to prolong battery life inpacemakers.
  7. 7. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN SURGERY Nanotechnology helps minimize mistakes, provide efficacy and better surgical act. Nanocoatings on surgical blades and catheters, nanotweezers as well as femtosecond lasers are some of the examples of application of nanotechnology. Nanorobots have not been implemented yet but it is believed to enhance the field of surgery in the future.
  8. 8. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DIAGNOSTICTOOLS  Biochips 1. Array Technology 2. Lab on Chip 3. Cell Chip  Imaging 1. Low toxic effect 2. Earlier disease detection
  9. 9. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER Molecular imaging and early detection of cancer In vivo imaging improvement Report compliance of patient towards cancer therapy Help in creating multifunctional therapeutic alternatives Opportunity for cancer prevention and control Research enabler for future improvement
  10. 10. CONCLUSION Challenges - Cost and manufacturing - Consumer perception Islamic input - Seek the knowledge - Don’t do damage on earth - Human can’t be immortal