Fungi notes

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Fungi notes

  1. 1. What are the characteristics ofWhat are the characteristics of Fungi?Fungi? Most Multicellular (except yeast) Eukaryotes – cells contain a nucleus Heterotrophic – are consumers like animals (eat food) Most are decomposers (recycle) Cell walls composed of chitin
  2. 2. Structures of FungiStructures of Fungi Body made of mycelium (grows below ground) Fruiting body- part that reproduces (grows above ground) Mycelium and fruiting body made of hyphae- string-like structures
  3. 3. Mycelium Fruiting body Hyphae The Structure of a Mushroom
  4. 4. III. Growth and ReproductionIII. Growth and Reproduction Most Fungi develop from a spore into a hyphae, then a mycelium Spores are microscopic- they are everywhere! 1. Spores are easily carried by wind or animals When conditions are favorable a fruiting body can grow overnight! 1. Fungi like warm, moist environments Can reproduce sexually or asexually 1. Sexually -Involves 2 mating types (+) and (-)
  5. 5. FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS HYPHAE FUSE Fruiting body (N+N) Button + Mating type (N) - Mating type (N) Basidiospores (N) Zygote (2N) Basidia (N + N) Gills lined with basidia Gills Stalk Base Cap Haploid Diploid Figure 21-8 The Life Cycle of a Basidiomycete Page 534
  6. 6. How are Fungi classified?How are Fungi classified? Divided into major groups based on structure and reproduction Zygomycetes- The common molds ex: black bread mold
  7. 7. Zygomycetes http://mercury.bio.uaf.edu/courses/biol105/Lectures/Section4/4b4d1_31_06.jpg
  8. 8. How are Fungi classified?How are Fungi classified? Divided into major groups based on structure and reproduction Zygomycetes- The common molds ex: black bread mold Ascomycota- The sac fungi ex: yeast
  9. 9. http://mercury.bio.uaf.edu/courses/biol105/Lectures/Section4/4b4d1_31_06.jpg
  10. 10. How are Fungi classified?How are Fungi classified? Divided into major groups based on structure and reproduction Zygomycetes- The common molds ex: black bread mold Ascomycota- The sac fungi ex: yeast Basidiomycota- The club fungi ex: mushroom
  11. 11. Basidiomycota http://mercury.bio.uaf.edu/courses/biol105/Lectures/Section4/4b4d1_31_06.jpg
  12. 12. Basidiomycota http://mercury.bio.uaf.edu/courses/biol105/Lectures/Section4/4b4d1_31_06.jpg
  13. 13. How are Fungi classified?How are Fungi classified? Divided into major groups based on structure and reproduction Zygomycetes- The common molds ex: black bread mold Ascomycota- The sac fungi ex: yeast Basidiomycota- The club fungi ex: mushroom Deutermycota- The imperfect fungi (no known sexual life cycle) ex: Penicillium
  14. 14. Ecology of FungiEcology of Fungi Decomposers – recycle nutrients
  15. 15. During the Revolutionary WarDuring the Revolutionary War The British lost more ships to fungal rot than to enemy fire
  16. 16. Ecology of FungiEcology of Fungi Pioneer species- important for soil formation lichen- break down rock into soil; it is symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
  17. 17. Densely packed hyphae Layer of algae/ cyanobacteria Loosely packed hyphae Densely packed hyphae Lichen Structure
  18. 18. Lichen is a pioneer species and help with the formation of soil.
  19. 19. The acids in the lichens break down the rock over time and these particles of rock mix with dead lichen to form soil.
  20. 20. Ecology of FungiEcology of Fungi Pioneer species- important for soil formation; break down rock into soil lichen- very important pioneer species; it is symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism Mycorrhizae- symbiotic relationship between plants and fungus; plant gets water and nutrients and fungus gets a place to live on the roots of the plant
  21. 21. Ecology of FungiEcology of Fungi Mycorrhizae- symbiotic relationship between plants and fungus Important in Baking and Brewing -making bread and other products
  22. 22. Eaten as foods
  23. 23. Truffle
  24. 24. Blue Cheese: Penicillium roquefortii is used in the manufacture of blue cheeses e.g. Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton, Danish Blue etc. During the fermentation process the fungus spores are injected into the curd. Growth of the fungus imparts a pleasant tang to the final product. By the way, the blue in the blue-cheese is caused by the pigment in the spores (conidia) of the fungus. So, when you eat blue cheese you are consuming spores by the million.
  25. 25. Eaten as foods Responsible for crop damage (as much as 50% in tropical areas)
  26. 26. Eaten as foods Responsible for crop damage (as much as 50% in tropical areas) Cause human diseases and illnesses athletes foot
  27. 27. Eaten as foods Responsible for crop damage (as much as 50% in tropical areas) Cause human diseases and illnesses athletes foot ringworm
  28. 28. Eaten as foods Responsible for crop damage (as much as 50% in tropical areas) Cause human diseases and illnesses athletes foot ringworm thrush
  29. 29. Used in medicine production: penicillin, high blood pressure, pain medications
  30. 30. THE END
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