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AISECT COLLEGE
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Dr. Priya Trivedi
M.Sc.(BOTANY), M.Ed., Ph.D.(Botany)
Head ,Academicsand Department of Science
at
Compfeeder Aisect College of Professional Studies, Indore
Welcome to the Kingdom of Algae.....
Reproduction in ALGAE
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Reproduction
in
Algae Vegetative
Fragmentation
Fission
Tuber
Adventitious
Hormogonia
Budding
Asexual
Zoospores
Alpanospores
Akinetes
Hypnospores
Tetraspores
Autospores
Sexual
Isogamy
Anisogamy
Oogamy
Hologamy
Autogamy
(A) Vegetative Reproduction:
Vegetative reproduction in algae takes place by the following methods:
(i) Fragmentation:
 Fragmentation is the most common vegetative method of reproduction.
 The filamentous thallus breaks into fragments, and each fragment is capable of
forming new thallus.
 Fragmentation can take place due to mechanical pressure, insect bite etc.
 The common examples are Ulothrix, Spirogyra, Oedogonium,
Zygnema, Oscillatoria etc.
(ii) Fission:
 Fission is common in desmids, diatoms and other
unicellular algae.
 The cell divides mitotically into two the cells are separated by septum formation.
(iii) Tubers:
 Tubers are spherical or globular bodies formed on lower nodes and rhizoids in
Chara.
 Tubers are formed due to storage of food. On detachment from parent plant,
these develop into new plants.
(iv) Adventitious branches:
Adventitious branches like protonema develop on
rhizoids of Chara.
On detachment they form new thalli.
Similar adventitious structures are formed on thalli
of Dictyota and Fucus.
(v) Hormogonia:
 In blue green algae like Nostoc, Cylindrospermum, the main filament breaks
into small fragments of varying length called hormogonia.
 The hormogonia may be formed at the place of heterocyst in the filaments.
(vi) Budding:
 In Protosiphon budding takes place due to proliferation of vesicles.
 The buds detach to make new thalli.
(B) Asexual Reproduction:
Asexual reproduction takes place with the help of
some spores and structures.
Fertilization and fusion of nuclei does not take place.
The reproduction takes place only by protoplasm of
the cell.
Different methods of asexual reproduction are:
(i) Zoospores:
 The zoospores are flagellated asexual structures.
 The zoospores are formed in reproductive body the zoosporangium.
 The zoospores can be biflagellate e.g., Chlamydomonas,
biflagellate and quadriflagellate e.g., Ulothrix, Cladophora,
multi-flagellate e.g., Oedogonium.
 Zoospores move in water before they germinate to make new plants.
 Zoospores are normally formed under favourable conditions.
 In Vaucheria, a compound zoospore called synzoospore is formed.
(ii) Aplanospores::
 Aplanospores are formed under unfavorable conditions.
 Aplanospores are non-motile structures, in which protoplasm gets
surrounded by thin cell wall.
 The aplanospores on release form new plants, e.g., Ulothrix.
(iii) Akinetes:
The akinetes are formed under unfavorable
conditions as method of perennation.
The akinetes are thick walled, non-motile
structures like aplanospores.
Akinetes, on release, form new thalli. e.g.,
Anabaena.
(iv) Hypnospores:
Hypnospores are thick walled structures.
These are formed during unfavorable conditions.
Under prolonged unfavorable conditions, the protoplasm of
hypnospores divides to make cysts.
The cysts are capable of forming new thallus. e.g.,
Chlamydomonas nivalis.
(v) Tetra spores:
 Tetra spores are non-motile spores formed in some members of
Rhodophyceae and Phaeophyceae.
 In Polysiphonia, tetra spores are formed in tetra sporangia by reduction
division on special tetrasporophytic plants.
(vi) Autospores:
 The auto spores are aplanospores like structures.
 These are similar to the parent cell.
 In Chlorella, Scenedesmus, auto spores acquire all characteristics of
parent cells before their discharge from sporangium.
(C) Sexual Reproduction:
 Sexual reproduction takes place by fusion of gametes of different
sexuality.
 The gametes are formed in gametangia by simple mitotic division or by
reduction division.
 The haploid gametes fertilize to make diploid zygote.
Why sexual reproduction developed and
why it is maintained ?
Depending upon morphological and
physiological characteristics of gametes,
sexual reproduction can be of the following
types:
(i) Isogamy:
 In isogamous reproduction the fusing gametes are morphologically
similar.
 These gametes are physiologically different due to different hormones.
 The gametes are represented by (-) and (+) strains to show morphological
isogamy but physiological anisogamy e.g., Chlamydomonas,
Ulothrix, Spirogyra and Zygnema.
Isogamy in Chlamydomonas
(ii) Anisogamy:
 In anisogamy the fusing gametes are morphologically as well as
physiologically different. These are formed in different gametangia.
 The microgametes or male gametes are smaller, active and formed in
large number.
 The macrogametes or female gametes are larger, less active and formed in
relatively smaller number e.g., Chlamydomonas.
Anisogamy in Spirogyra
(iii) Oogamy:
 It is the most advanced type of sexual reproduction.
 The male gametes or microgametes are formed in antheridia.
 The female gamete is large, usually one and formed in female structure
oogonium.
 During fertilization the male gametes reach oogonium to fertilize egg
and a diploid zygote is formed, e.g., Chlamydomonas.
Oogamy in Chlamydomonas
(iv) Hologamy:
 In hologamy the unicellular thallus of opposite strains (-) and (+)
behaves as gametes directly.
 The thalli fuse to make diploid zygote e.g., Chlamydomonas.
(v) Autogamy:
 In autogamy two gametes of same mother cell fuse to form diploid
zygote.
 Since both gametes are formed by same cell there is no genetic
recombination e.g., diatoms.
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Reproduction in algae

  • 1. AISECT COLLEGE LIKE, COMMENT AND SHARE NOW Dr. Priya Trivedi M.Sc.(BOTANY), M.Ed., Ph.D.(Botany) Head ,Academicsand Department of Science at Compfeeder Aisect College of Professional Studies, Indore
  • 2. Welcome to the Kingdom of Algae..... Reproduction in ALGAE LIKE, COMMENT AND SHARE NOW
  • 4. (A) Vegetative Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction in algae takes place by the following methods: (i) Fragmentation:  Fragmentation is the most common vegetative method of reproduction.  The filamentous thallus breaks into fragments, and each fragment is capable of forming new thallus.  Fragmentation can take place due to mechanical pressure, insect bite etc.  The common examples are Ulothrix, Spirogyra, Oedogonium, Zygnema, Oscillatoria etc.
  • 5.
  • 6. (ii) Fission:  Fission is common in desmids, diatoms and other unicellular algae.  The cell divides mitotically into two the cells are separated by septum formation.
  • 7. (iii) Tubers:  Tubers are spherical or globular bodies formed on lower nodes and rhizoids in Chara.  Tubers are formed due to storage of food. On detachment from parent plant, these develop into new plants.
  • 8. (iv) Adventitious branches: Adventitious branches like protonema develop on rhizoids of Chara. On detachment they form new thalli. Similar adventitious structures are formed on thalli of Dictyota and Fucus.
  • 9.
  • 10. (v) Hormogonia:  In blue green algae like Nostoc, Cylindrospermum, the main filament breaks into small fragments of varying length called hormogonia.  The hormogonia may be formed at the place of heterocyst in the filaments.
  • 11. (vi) Budding:  In Protosiphon budding takes place due to proliferation of vesicles.  The buds detach to make new thalli.
  • 12.
  • 13. (B) Asexual Reproduction: Asexual reproduction takes place with the help of some spores and structures. Fertilization and fusion of nuclei does not take place. The reproduction takes place only by protoplasm of the cell.
  • 14. Different methods of asexual reproduction are: (i) Zoospores:  The zoospores are flagellated asexual structures.  The zoospores are formed in reproductive body the zoosporangium.  The zoospores can be biflagellate e.g., Chlamydomonas, biflagellate and quadriflagellate e.g., Ulothrix, Cladophora, multi-flagellate e.g., Oedogonium.  Zoospores move in water before they germinate to make new plants.  Zoospores are normally formed under favourable conditions.  In Vaucheria, a compound zoospore called synzoospore is formed.
  • 15.
  • 16. (ii) Aplanospores::  Aplanospores are formed under unfavorable conditions.  Aplanospores are non-motile structures, in which protoplasm gets surrounded by thin cell wall.  The aplanospores on release form new plants, e.g., Ulothrix.
  • 17. (iii) Akinetes: The akinetes are formed under unfavorable conditions as method of perennation. The akinetes are thick walled, non-motile structures like aplanospores. Akinetes, on release, form new thalli. e.g., Anabaena.
  • 18.
  • 19. (iv) Hypnospores: Hypnospores are thick walled structures. These are formed during unfavorable conditions. Under prolonged unfavorable conditions, the protoplasm of hypnospores divides to make cysts. The cysts are capable of forming new thallus. e.g., Chlamydomonas nivalis.
  • 20.
  • 21. (v) Tetra spores:  Tetra spores are non-motile spores formed in some members of Rhodophyceae and Phaeophyceae.  In Polysiphonia, tetra spores are formed in tetra sporangia by reduction division on special tetrasporophytic plants.
  • 22. (vi) Autospores:  The auto spores are aplanospores like structures.  These are similar to the parent cell.  In Chlorella, Scenedesmus, auto spores acquire all characteristics of parent cells before their discharge from sporangium.
  • 23.
  • 24. (C) Sexual Reproduction:  Sexual reproduction takes place by fusion of gametes of different sexuality.  The gametes are formed in gametangia by simple mitotic division or by reduction division.  The haploid gametes fertilize to make diploid zygote.
  • 25. Why sexual reproduction developed and why it is maintained ?
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Depending upon morphological and physiological characteristics of gametes, sexual reproduction can be of the following types:
  • 30. (i) Isogamy:  In isogamous reproduction the fusing gametes are morphologically similar.  These gametes are physiologically different due to different hormones.  The gametes are represented by (-) and (+) strains to show morphological isogamy but physiological anisogamy e.g., Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix, Spirogyra and Zygnema.
  • 32. (ii) Anisogamy:  In anisogamy the fusing gametes are morphologically as well as physiologically different. These are formed in different gametangia.  The microgametes or male gametes are smaller, active and formed in large number.  The macrogametes or female gametes are larger, less active and formed in relatively smaller number e.g., Chlamydomonas.
  • 34. (iii) Oogamy:  It is the most advanced type of sexual reproduction.  The male gametes or microgametes are formed in antheridia.  The female gamete is large, usually one and formed in female structure oogonium.  During fertilization the male gametes reach oogonium to fertilize egg and a diploid zygote is formed, e.g., Chlamydomonas.
  • 36. (iv) Hologamy:  In hologamy the unicellular thallus of opposite strains (-) and (+) behaves as gametes directly.  The thalli fuse to make diploid zygote e.g., Chlamydomonas.
  • 37.
  • 38. (v) Autogamy:  In autogamy two gametes of same mother cell fuse to form diploid zygote.  Since both gametes are formed by same cell there is no genetic recombination e.g., diatoms.
  • 39.
  • 40. YOU CAN GO THROUGH OUR WEBSITES www.aisectcollegeindore.com , aisectcollege123@gmail.com , madhuban123@gmail.com THANKS FOR WATCHING OUR VIDEO