Qualitative research in Education

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  • 1. Qualitative Research
  • 2. What is Qualitative Research?  Quality of a particular activity (in detail)  Complete picture
  • 3. Outline  General Characteristics  Philosophical Assumptions  Steps in Qualitative Research  Approaches to Qualitative Research  Generalization in Qualitative Research
  • 4. What is Qualitative Research?  Quality of a particular activity (in detail)  Complete picture
  • 5. General Characteristics  The natural setting's data source  Whole phenomena  Data: mostly - form of words  Concerning of How?  Inductive analysis  Focusing on the subjects: perspectives  Flexible design
  • 6. Philosophical Assumptions  World-views or Paradigms − Positivism: Quantitative − Theoretical Framework: Qualitative  Postmodernism??
  • 7. Some Assumptions of Qualitative Researchers  Realities - multiple mental constructions  Alternative visions  Facts and values cannot be separated  Educational purpose  understanding of what things mean to others
  • 8. Postmodernism??  Postmodernists  Deny underlying structure: social behavior  Nonmathemetical languages – unverified  Truth – Product of history, power, and social interests
  • 9. Steps in Qualitative Research  Identify the phenomena – Foreshadowed problems  Identify the participants (purposive sample)  Generation of hypotheses/propositions  Data collection (description) – Observing/ interviewing  Data analysis: description  Interpretations and conclusions: continuously
  • 10. Approaches to Qualitative Research  Narrative research  Phenomenology  Grounded theory  Case studies  Ethnographic and historical research  Sampling in Qualitative research
  • 11. Narrative research  Biographical study – life experiences  Autobiography: the subject written  Life history: entire life  Oral history: surrounding people
  • 12. Phenomenology  Particular phenomenon – Ex: specific time and place
  • 13. Grounded theory  Focus to generate theory: grounded  Data: participants experienced the process  Process theory
  • 14. Case studies  Intrinsic case study − Understanding of individual  Instrumental case study − Understanding of case  Multiple (Collective) case study − Several case in same time
  • 15. Sampling in Qualitative research  Typical sampling: representative  Critical sampling: unusual  Homogenous sample  Extreme case sample: not general  Theoretical sample  Opportunistic sample: in arisen situation  Confirming sample: validate finding  Maximal variation sample: diversity of characteristics  Snowball sample: during the conduct of study
  • 16. Generalization in Qualitative Research  Images - prototype
  • 17. Ethical issues  Identities of subjects should be protected  Treat with respect  No harmful effects
  • 18. Recap about this!  Qualitative and Quantitative often are used together: mixed-methods studies  Depending on researcher focuses