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Qualitative Research
What is Qualitative Research?

Quality of a particular activity (in detail)

Complete picture
Outline

General Characteristics

Philosophical Assumptions

Steps in Qualitative Research

Approaches to Qualitative ...
What is Qualitative Research?

Quality of a particular activity (in detail)

Complete picture
General Characteristics

The natural setting's data source

Whole phenomena

Data: mostly - form of words

Concerning ...
Philosophical Assumptions

World-views or Paradigms
− Positivism: Quantitative
− Theoretical Framework: Qualitative

Pos...
Some Assumptions of Qualitative Researchers

Realities - multiple mental constructions

Alternative visions

Facts and ...
Postmodernism??

Postmodernists

Deny underlying structure: social behavior

Nonmathemetical languages – unverified

T...
Steps in Qualitative Research

Identify the phenomena
– Foreshadowed problems

Identify the participants (purposive samp...
Approaches to Qualitative Research

Narrative research

Phenomenology

Grounded theory

Case studies

Ethnographic an...
Narrative research

Biographical study – life experiences

Autobiography: the subject written

Life history: entire lif...
Phenomenology

Particular phenomenon
– Ex: specific time and place
Grounded theory

Focus to generate theory: grounded

Data: participants experienced the process

Process theory
Case studies

Intrinsic case study
− Understanding of individual

Instrumental case study
− Understanding of case

Mult...
Sampling in Qualitative research

Typical sampling: representative

Critical sampling: unusual

Homogenous sample

Ext...
Generalization in Qualitative Research

Images - prototype
Ethical issues

Identities of subjects should be protected

Treat with respect

No harmful effects
Recap about this!

Qualitative and Quantitative often are used
together: mixed-methods studies

Depending on researcher ...
Qualitative research in Education
Qualitative research in Education
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Qualitative research in Education

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Qualitative research in Education

  1. 1. Qualitative Research
  2. 2. What is Qualitative Research?  Quality of a particular activity (in detail)  Complete picture
  3. 3. Outline  General Characteristics  Philosophical Assumptions  Steps in Qualitative Research  Approaches to Qualitative Research  Generalization in Qualitative Research
  4. 4. What is Qualitative Research?  Quality of a particular activity (in detail)  Complete picture
  5. 5. General Characteristics  The natural setting's data source  Whole phenomena  Data: mostly - form of words  Concerning of How?  Inductive analysis  Focusing on the subjects: perspectives  Flexible design
  6. 6. Philosophical Assumptions  World-views or Paradigms − Positivism: Quantitative − Theoretical Framework: Qualitative  Postmodernism??
  7. 7. Some Assumptions of Qualitative Researchers  Realities - multiple mental constructions  Alternative visions  Facts and values cannot be separated  Educational purpose  understanding of what things mean to others
  8. 8. Postmodernism??  Postmodernists  Deny underlying structure: social behavior  Nonmathemetical languages – unverified  Truth – Product of history, power, and social interests
  9. 9. Steps in Qualitative Research  Identify the phenomena – Foreshadowed problems  Identify the participants (purposive sample)  Generation of hypotheses/propositions  Data collection (description) – Observing/ interviewing  Data analysis: description  Interpretations and conclusions: continuously
  10. 10. Approaches to Qualitative Research  Narrative research  Phenomenology  Grounded theory  Case studies  Ethnographic and historical research  Sampling in Qualitative research
  11. 11. Narrative research  Biographical study – life experiences  Autobiography: the subject written  Life history: entire life  Oral history: surrounding people
  12. 12. Phenomenology  Particular phenomenon – Ex: specific time and place
  13. 13. Grounded theory  Focus to generate theory: grounded  Data: participants experienced the process  Process theory
  14. 14. Case studies  Intrinsic case study − Understanding of individual  Instrumental case study − Understanding of case  Multiple (Collective) case study − Several case in same time
  15. 15. Sampling in Qualitative research  Typical sampling: representative  Critical sampling: unusual  Homogenous sample  Extreme case sample: not general  Theoretical sample  Opportunistic sample: in arisen situation  Confirming sample: validate finding  Maximal variation sample: diversity of characteristics  Snowball sample: during the conduct of study
  16. 16. Generalization in Qualitative Research  Images - prototype
  17. 17. Ethical issues  Identities of subjects should be protected  Treat with respect  No harmful effects
  18. 18. Recap about this!  Qualitative and Quantitative often are used together: mixed-methods studies  Depending on researcher focuses

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