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Grounded Theory  Antoinette Jones & Larry Weas   ETR 745 – Interpretive Research   Northern Illinois University   College ...
Our Presentation   Part ONE: Introduction to Grounded Theory   Part TWO: Application of Grounded Theory   Part THREE: G...
Part ONE: Grounded Theory Introduction        What is Grounded Theory?        Goals and Perspectives of Grounded Theory ...
What is Grounded Theory?    Grounded Theory: A specific methodology    developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) for    the p...
Goals and Perspective of Grounded Theory?  The phrase "grounded theory" refers to theory that is developed  inductively fr...
Overview of Grounded Theory?Over time, a grounded theory study works through the following mostly-overlapping phases.   Ph...
Part TWO: Application of Grounded Theory    The Discovery of Grounded Theory     •   Discovery of a Grounded Theory (Chap...
Discovery of Grounded Theory           Glaser and Strauss book is about discovering           theory from data, what Glase...
Discovering Theory (Chapter 1)  "In discovering theory, one generates conceptual  categories or their properties from evid...
Verification and “Grand “ Theory (Chapter 1)   Verification and Grand Theory   Most research today is designed to verify e...
Generating TheoryWhy use comparative analysis?     Accurate Evidence  Empirical Generalizations    Specifying a Concept   ...
•Generating Theory Types of Grounded Theory  • Well-codified                set of propositions vs. running              t...
•Generating Theory   Glaser & Strauss (1967) suggested their   theory generation, “puts a high emphasis   on theory as pro...
•Generating Theory •   Substantive Theory- empirical inquiry i.e. race     relations or education •   Formal Theory- conce...
•Generating Theory Elements of a theory • Conceptual   categories & conceptual properties • Hypothesis   or relationships ...
•Generating Theory Key aspects     •   Category – stands by itself as a conceptual element of a theory             • Prope...
•Generating Theory Suggestions for researchers Glaser & Strauss  (1967) • Ignore   existing theory and focus on the study ...
•Generating Theory Examples of grounded theory research •   Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2008). Three Elements of Self Authorshi...
Example of Grounded Theory Research  Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant PedagogyGLORIA LADSON-BILLINGS            CULT...
Constant Comparative Methods of             Qualitative AnalysisApproaching Analysis & Alternatives to Qualitative Data   ...
Constant Comparative Methods of Qualitative AnalysisApproaching Analysis & Alternatives to Qualitative Data: 1.   Convert ...
Comparison of Grounded Theory Use of approaches to Qualitative Analysis GENERATING THEORY               PROVISIONAL TESTIN...
Four Stages of The Constant Comparison Method 1.   Comparing incidents applicable to each category : Starts by coding each...
Properties of the Theory  Diversity in the data, means that each incident is compared with other  incidents, or with prope...
Components of a Research Design  There is a fluid interplay between methodology and method in the process  of undertaking ...
Developing Grounded Theory: The Second Generation            Six key grounded theory methodologists examine the           ...
Developing Grounded Theory: The Second Generation Glaserian GT Approach is not a qualitative research method, but claims t...
Genealogy of Grounded Theory: Major Milestones                                       Glaser & Strauss                     ...
Basics of Qualitative Research            Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and            Procedures for Develop...
Key Features: Basics of Qualitative Research  •   Allows for students to develop their critical thinking skills in the "Cr...
Constructing Grounded Theory at a Glance              According to Charmaz (2006) , the organization of this              ...
The Grounded Theory Process: (Charmaz)                                                                             Further...
References: Grounded Theory Birks, M. & Mills, J. (2011). Grounded theory: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Bor...
•Part THREE: Grounded Theory Video Activity  • The activity is to find concepts or name patterns in research    you have a...
•Grounded Theory Video Links Barney Glaser on Jargonizing and grounded theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6RpQelvS1k&...
Part FOUR: Discussion & Questions In summary, Grounded Theory is… a research method that will enable you to:    • develop ...
Thank You!
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Grounded Theory Presentation

Grounded Theory: A specific methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) for the purpose of building theory from data. In their book the term grounded theory is used in a more sense to denote theoretical constructs derived form qualitative analysis of data.

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Grounded Theory Presentation

  1. 1. Grounded Theory Antoinette Jones & Larry Weas ETR 745 – Interpretive Research Northern Illinois University College of Education
  2. 2. Our Presentation Part ONE: Introduction to Grounded Theory Part TWO: Application of Grounded Theory Part THREE: Grounded Theory Video Activity Part FOUR: Discussion & Questions
  3. 3. Part ONE: Grounded Theory Introduction  What is Grounded Theory?  Goals and Perspectives of Grounded Theory  Overview of Grounded Theory
  4. 4. What is Grounded Theory? Grounded Theory: A specific methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) for the purpose of building theory from data. In their book the term grounded theory is used in a more sense to denote theoretical constructs derived form qualitative analysis of data. (Corbin & Strauss, 2008)
  5. 5. Goals and Perspective of Grounded Theory? The phrase "grounded theory" refers to theory that is developed inductively from a corpus of data. If done well, this means that the resulting theory at least fits one dataset perfectly. This contrasts with theory derived deductively from grand theory, without the help of data, and which could therefore turn out to fit no data at all. Grounded theory takes a case rather than variable perspective, although the distinction is nearly impossible to draw. This means in part that the researcher takes different cases to be wholes, in which the variables interact as a unit to produce certain outcomes (Borgatti, 2010)
  6. 6. Overview of Grounded Theory?Over time, a grounded theory study works through the following mostly-overlapping phases. Phase 1 – Data Collecting • You will mostly do this through observation, conversation and interview. Phase 2 – Note Taking • After each bout of data collection you note down the key issues:: “note-taking". Phase 3 – Coding • As you code, certain theoretical propositions will occur to you. As the data collection and coding proceeds the codes . Phase 4 – Memoing • You group your memos, like with like, and sequence them in whatever order will make your theory clearest. Phase 5 & 6 – Sorting & Writing • The order of your sorted memos provides you with the skeleton, and many of the words, of your thesis. You begin writing. (Dick, 1990)
  7. 7. Part TWO: Application of Grounded Theory  The Discovery of Grounded Theory • Discovery of a Grounded Theory (Chapter One) • Generating Theory (Chapter Two) • The Constant Comparative Methods of Qualitative Analysis (Chapter Five)  Other References…
  8. 8. Discovery of Grounded Theory Glaser and Strauss book is about discovering theory from data, what Glaser & Strauss call grounded theory. The major strategy they use is a general method of comparative analysis. They argue that much of current research is primarily the verification of theory or the development of theory through logical deduction rather than from the experimental data itself.
  9. 9. Discovering Theory (Chapter 1) "In discovering theory, one generates conceptual categories or their properties from evidence, then the evidence from which the category emerged is used to illustrate the concept" (p. 23). These conceptual categories can then be explored in other comparison groups, which may support the categorical concept or suggest modifications to make it more generalizable.
  10. 10. Verification and “Grand “ Theory (Chapter 1) Verification and Grand Theory Most research today is designed to verify existing theories, not generate new ones. Researchers eek out small gains of knowledge from existing "grand theories" rather than explore new areas not covered by existing theories. The existing research culture emphasizes and reveres good scientific, quantitative verification studies and downplays more qualitative studies whose objective is theory generation. Most theory is thus generated through logical deduction from past studies and knowledge and not from the data itself.
  11. 11. Generating TheoryWhy use comparative analysis? Accurate Evidence Empirical Generalizations Specifying a Concept Verifying Theory Generating Theory
  12. 12. •Generating Theory Types of Grounded Theory • Well-codified set of propositions vs. running theoretical discussion
  13. 13. •Generating Theory Glaser & Strauss (1967) suggested their theory generation, “puts a high emphasis on theory as process; that is, theory as an ever-developing entity, not as a perfected product” (p. 32).
  14. 14. •Generating Theory • Substantive Theory- empirical inquiry i.e. race relations or education • Formal Theory- conceptual inquiry i.e. privilege and power, social capital • Both fall in the middle range
  15. 15. •Generating Theory Elements of a theory • Conceptual categories & conceptual properties • Hypothesis or relationships between categories and properties
  16. 16. •Generating Theory Key aspects • Category – stands by itself as a conceptual element of a theory • Property- is a conceptual element of a category• Both category and property are indicated by the data (not data itself) • Constant comparing draws the researchers attention to similarities and differences • Generating theory should aim at achieving diversity in categories • Comparison of differences generates relationships or hypothesis • Concepts should be analytic (generalized to designate characteristics and sensitizing (have meaning)
  17. 17. •Generating Theory Suggestions for researchers Glaser & Strauss (1967) • Ignore existing theory and focus on the study • Work in areas that have little to no literature already • Collection, coding, and analysis should be done together as much as possible
  18. 18. •Generating Theory Examples of grounded theory research • Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2008). Three Elements of Self Authorship. Journal of College Student Development. • Holland, N. E. (2010). Postsecondary Education Preparation of Traditionally Underrepresented College Students: A Social Capital Perspective. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 111-125. • Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 465-491. • Moradi, B. (2005). Advancing Womanist identity Development: Where We Are and Where We Need to Go. The Counseling Psychologist, 225-. • Solorzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2000). Critical Race Theory, Racial Microagressions, and Campus Racial Climate: The Experiences of African American College Students. The Journal of Negro Education, 60-73. •
  19. 19. Example of Grounded Theory Research Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant PedagogyGLORIA LADSON-BILLINGS CULTURALLY RELEVANT PEDAGOGY • Examined the pedagogical practices of eight elementary school teachers in a small town in North Carolina
  20. 20. Constant Comparative Methods of Qualitative AnalysisApproaching Analysis & Alternatives to Qualitative Data Comparison of Grounded Theory Four Stages of The Constant Comparison Method Properties of the Theory
  21. 21. Constant Comparative Methods of Qualitative AnalysisApproaching Analysis & Alternatives to Qualitative Data: 1. Convert qualitative data…test the hypotheses – “All relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically, assembles, assesses and analyzes thee data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a give proposition.” 2. Only to generate theoretical ideas…new categories and their properties, hypothesis and interrelated hypotheses. Constantly redesigning and reintegrating - theoretical notions in reviewing the material. 3. One that is combined…analytic procedure of constant comparison --explicit coding of the 1st approach, and the style of theory development in the 2nd approach. 4. Analytical induction…combines the 1st and 2nd approaches in a manner different from the constant comparative method. Concerned with the generating an proving an integrated, limited, precise, universally applicable theory of causes accounting for specific behavior. (Glaser & Strauss, 1967)
  22. 22. Comparison of Grounded Theory Use of approaches to Qualitative Analysis GENERATING THEORY PROVISIONAL TESTING OF THEORY YES NO YES Combining inspection for Inspection for hypotheses (2) along with hypotheses (2) coding for test, then analyzing data (1) Analysis induction (4) Constant comparative method (3) NO Coding for test, then Ethnographic description analyzing data (1) (Glaser & Strauss, 1967)
  23. 23. Four Stages of The Constant Comparison Method 1. Comparing incidents applicable to each category : Starts by coding each incident in data into many categories of analysis as possible as categories emerge or as data emerge that fit an existing category. 2. Integrating categories and their properties: Process starts out in a small way; memos and possible conferences are short, But as coding continues, the constant comparison units change from comparison of incident with incident to comparison of incident with proprieties of the category that results form initial comparisons of incidents. 3. Delimitating the theory : As the theory develops, various delimiting features of the constant comparative method begin to curb what could otherwise become an overwhelming task. 4. Writing the theory : At this stage of qualitative analysis, the analyst possess coded data, a series of memos, and a theory. (Glaser & Strauss, 1967)
  24. 24. Properties of the Theory Diversity in the data, means that each incident is compared with other incidents, or with properties of a category, in terms of as many similarities and differences as possible: • Crude Proofs – such coding only establishes whether an incident indicates the few properties of the category that are being counted. • “Developmental” Theory – Constant comparison of incidents tends to create it. Can be used to generate static theories, but facilitates the generation of theories of process, sequence, and change pertaining to organizations, positions, and social interaction. (Glaser & Strauss, 1967)
  25. 25. Components of a Research Design There is a fluid interplay between methodology and method in the process of undertaking a research study. Represented in the crossover between each of the domains. (Birks & Mills, 2011)
  26. 26. Developing Grounded Theory: The Second Generation Six key grounded theory methodologists examine the history, principles, and practices of this method, highlighting areas in which different strands of the methods diverge. A very useful and clarifying book arisen from a one-day symposium on advances in qualitative methods in Alberta, 2007. For the first time, the students of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, “the second generation” of grounded theory researchers, met to discuss grounded theory and its developments. Usage: In this volume they provide a description of the history, principles and practice of the grounded theory methods.
  27. 27. Developing Grounded Theory: The Second Generation Glaserian GT Approach is not a qualitative research method, but claims the dictum "all is data". This means that not only interview or observational data but also surveys or statistical analyses or "whatever comes the researchers way while studying a substantive area" (Glaser quote) can be used in the comparative process as well as literature data from science or media or even fiction. Thus, Glaserian method emphasizes conceptualization abstract of time, place and people. Straussian GT Approach is that important concepts of grounded theory are categories, codes and codings. The research principle behind grounded theory is neither inductive nor deductive, but combines both in a way of abductive reasoning . This leads to a research practice where data sampling, data analysis and theory development are not seen as distinct and disjunct, but as different steps to be repeated until one can describe and explain the phenomenon that is to be researched. (Morse et al, 2009)
  28. 28. Genealogy of Grounded Theory: Major Milestones Glaser & Strauss Discovery (1967) Glaser Glaser (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity Schatzman (1991) Dimensional Analysis Strauss Bowers (1987), Caron & Strauss (1987) Glaser (1992, Bowers, (2000), Bowers & Qualitative Analysis 1994, 1996, Schatzman (2009) Straussian GT 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006) Strauss & Corbin (1990, 1998) Charmaz (2000, 2006) Constructivist GT Glaserian GT Corbin & Strauss (2008) Clarke (2003, 2005, 2006) Stern (1995) Situational Analysis (Morse et al, 2009)
  29. 29. Basics of Qualitative Research Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory Corbin and Strauss provide a step-by-step guide to the research act--from the formation of the research question through several approaches to coding and analysis, to reporting on the research. Full of definitions and illustrative examples, this book concludes with chapters that present criteria for evaluating a study, as well as responses to common questions posed by students of qualitative research. Usage: Significantly revised, Basics of Qualitative Research remains a landmark volume in the study of qualitative methods.
  30. 30. Key Features: Basics of Qualitative Research • Allows for students to develop their critical thinking skills in the "Critical Issues" section at the end of each chapter. • Shows the actual steps involved in data analysis (from description to grounded theory) and data gathering by means of theoretical sampling. • Provides exercises for thinking, writing and group discussion that reinforces material presented in the text. • Consists of a student companion Web site at www.sagepub.com/corbinstudysite that includes real data and practice with qualitative software such as MAXQDA, as well as student practice exercises. (Corbin & Strauss, 2008)
  31. 31. Constructing Grounded Theory at a Glance According to Charmaz (2006) , the organization of this book reproduces the logic of grounded theory in linear form. Its starts by gather data and end writing the analysis and reflecting on the entire process. In practice, however, the research process is not so linear. Grounded theorist stop and write when ever ideas occur to them. Some of the best ideas may occur to us late in the process and may lure us back to the field to gain a deeper view. Throughout the book , Charmaz treats grounded theory methods as constituting a craft that researchers practice. Like any craft, practitioners vary in their emphasis on one another aspect but taken together share commonalities, which is addressed in her book.
  32. 32. The Grounded Theory Process: (Charmaz) Further theoretical Writing the first draft sampling if needed Integrating memos diagramming conceptsAdopting certaincategories as Theoretical memo-writing andtheoretical concepts Sorting memos further refining of concepts Theoretical sampling seek specific new data Re-examination of earlier data Advanced memos refining conceptual categories Data Collection Focused Coding Initial memos raising codes to tentative categoriesInitial coding data collectionSensitizing concepts Research Problem and opening research questionsand general disciplinaryperspectives (Charmaz, 2006)
  33. 33. References: Grounded Theory Birks, M. & Mills, J. (2011). Grounded theory: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Borgotti, S. (2011). Introduction to Grounded Theory. Retrieved October 25, 2011 from http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Dick, B. (1990) Convergent interviewing, version 3. Brisbane: Interchange. An interviewing method which uses structured process, unstructured content, and a procedure for increasing the rigor of qualitative information. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Morse, J. M., Stern, P. N., Corbin, J., Bowers, B., Charmaz, K. & Clarke, A. E. (2009). Developing grounded theory: The second generation. Walnut creek, CA: Left Coast Creek.
  34. 34. •Part THREE: Grounded Theory Video Activity • The activity is to find concepts or name patterns in research you have already completed and jargonize it. • Share with the class what you come up with. • The idea is to get students to start thinking of generating theory from the research they have already conducted. • Creating categories, then properties of the categories, then hypothesis, or relationships between all three.
  35. 35. •Grounded Theory Video Links Barney Glaser on Jargonizing and grounded theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6RpQelvS1k&feature=related Barney Glaser Grounded theory is the study of a concept: http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=OcpxaLQDnLk
  36. 36. Part FOUR: Discussion & Questions In summary, Grounded Theory is… a research method that will enable you to: • develop a theory which • offers an explanation about • the main concern of the population of your substantive area • and how that concern is resolved or processed.
  37. 37. Thank You!

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