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  1. 1. Career Counseling,Assessment, and Diagnosis Psy 340: Section 3
  2. 2. Section 3: Goals Understand major career counseling theories, philosophy, tools, and place in psychology Gain an overview of assessment: theory, types, uses, key personality and intellectual assessments Role of diagnosis, DSM, uses and criticisms
  3. 3. Career Counseling Theories Frank Parsons (1909) – Knowledge of self, world of work (wow) and match the two – Evolution of P-E fit models John Holland (1985): Holland’s Hexagon Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)
  4. 4. Holland’s Theory People and careers can be described in terms of 6 dimensions RIASEC – Realistic – Investigative – Artistic – Social – Enterprising – Conventional
  5. 5. Holland’s Theory (cont) Holland Code – 3 letter combination (people and work) Person-Environment congruence Congruence – Match between person and environment – predictive of satisfaction, not stability and achievement Major theory – Tests – Generated lots of research
  6. 6. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994 Relationship with Bandura & Social Learning Theory Role of – Person Factors – Environment Factors Interests to Goals to Actions
  7. 7. SCCT Model Contextual Influences Personal Inputs Self-Efficacy Learning Interests Choice Choice Performance Experiences Goals Actions Background OutcomeContextual Affordances Expectations
  8. 8. SCCT Summary Who you are and where you are influences learning experiences – Person and environment factors – Shapes interests and expectations Interests don’t always result in actions – Interests may shape goals and one may or may not act on goals – Barriers may impact interests translated to goals
  9. 9. Career Counseling: Same asPersonal-Emotional (PE) counseling? Rootsand emphasis in counseling psychology Venn Diagram – Personal Career choices in relation to personal life – Are they really that different? Isolated? Use different theory and assessments
  10. 10. Assessment in Career Strong Interest Inventory (SII) – Uses Holland’s theory Self-Directed Search (SDS) Card sorts – qualitative assessment – Occupations – Values – Majors Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  11. 11. Career Resources Occupation Outlook Handbook O-Net Career Counseling – University Counseling Center – Pre-Major Advisement (PM students only) Career Services
  12. 12. Career Counseling Summary Career counseling is central to counseling psychology’s development and current focus Similar to PE counseling, with additional theories Holland’s Person-environment congruence SCCT – Person and environmental factors – Importance of self-efficacy and expectations
  13. 13. Assessment Overview Everyday assessment vs. psychological assessment Psychological assessment requirements – Systematic – Objective – Accurate Scientific method to understand others – Explain and predict behavior
  14. 14. So what is assessment?? Gathering information!! – Behavior – Functioning – Personality Typically thought of a psychological “tests” – Quantitative data – Empirically tested – Tests have norms to allow for comparison
  15. 15. Types of assessment Assessment may cover: – Personality – Interests – Intelligence – Behaviors Modes of assessments: – Tests • procedure or instrument used gather information – Interview • Very common Quantitative and Qualitative assessment
  16. 16. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Assessment? Quantitative  Qualitative – Usually using “tests” – Holistic/ integrated or standardized – No norms, standards measures – Assessment during – Norms and the counseling standards for process comparison – Flexible – Specific and structured
  17. 17. Building Blocks of Testing Standardization – Set procedure and testing environment to insure similar test administrations Norms – scores generated from large standardized group – How most people do on test – Allow for comparison Reliability and validity – Is the test scientifically reliable?
  18. 18. Reliability of Tests Reliability – Consistency of a measurement device – Are the same results obtained each use? Types of reliability – Test-retest: Does the test give the same results at different times? – Internal consistency: Do different parts of the test give the same results? – Interrater reliability: Do different people using the measure come up with similar answers?
  19. 19. Validity of Tests Validity – Does the test measure what is supposed to? – Appropriateness of test interpretation Types of validity – Face validity: does it look like it is measuring what it is supposed to measure? – Predictive validity: how well do tests score predict behavior that the test should predict? – Concurrent validity: correlation of score with scores on established test – Construct validity: the degree to which the measure reflects the structure of the hypothesized construct
  20. 20. Expanded View of Assessment Spengler et al. (1995) – assessment is everywhere – Continual assessment, beyond testing – All assessment is subjective, value judgments Goldman (1990,1991) – Benefits of qualitative assessment – Types – Qualitative assessment as a piece of the puzzle • Combination, not replacement
  21. 21. Qualitative Assessment How does it stand up to?? – assessment requirements of • Systematic • Objective • Accurate Isit reliable? Valid? What role does qualitative assessment play?
  22. 22. Steps of Assessment Referral question – Deciding what is being assessed – What is the best means of assessment? – Determine goals of assessment Collecting data – Tests, interviews,varied sources – Always reference referral question
  23. 23. Steps of Assessment (cont.) Interpretation – Make decisions and judgments using data Diagnosis – To facilitate treatment and communication among the treating professionals Psychological report – Communicate the results
  24. 24. Diagnosis and the DSM Emil Kraepelin developed 1st classification system – ID and labeled symptom sets – Specific cause, course, outcome Diagnosis – After assessment – Identify disorder that fits symptom profile Role in the medical model – Problem identification – Discover cause of problem – Treat problem scientifically
  25. 25. DSM and Multi-axial Assessment Diagnosticand Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) – Evolved through revisions – Politics of inclusion – Current DSM-IV-R First DSM in 1952 Diagnosis on 5 axis to capture the complexity of psychological disorders
  26. 26. Multiaxial Assessment in DSM Axis I: Clinical syndromes – Typical labels (e.g. bi-polar) – Can be temporary Axis II: Personality Disorders – Long-standing, enduring characteristics Axis III: Physical Conditions/Disorders – Injuries, chronic illnesses Axis IV: Severity of Psychological Stressors Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
  27. 27. DSM Uses and CriticismsUSES CRITICISMS Communication  Sexist Research  Culturally biased Unified fields  Defining categories Facilitate treatment more political than scientific  Problems with labeling, stigmas
  28. 28. DSM Discussion Is diagnosis necessary? Is the DSM necessary? What purpose does the DSM serve? Pros and cons of labeling What are some other options other than the DSM that could meet similar needs but be an improvement?
  29. 29. Personality and Behavioral Assessment Overview Interview – Intake, Mental Status,Case history Projective personality tests – Rorschach, TAT, etc. Objective personality tests • MMPI, NEO-PI, MBTI Behavioral assessment
  30. 30. Therapeutic Interview Dual purpose – Gather info and help client Intake interview – Determine nature of problem and fit w/ agency – Initial information used for case assignment – Varying timing and format (structure) – General information gathered • Basic info, problem onset, current functioning, coping, attempted solutions, etc.
  31. 31. Therapeutic Interview (cont) Mental Status Exam – Formal assessment of mental functioning – Often performed in ER – Covers several areas of functioning • (e.g., appearance, speech/thought, mood, memory, attention, etc) see pg 102 Case history – Gathers info on personal and family history and social situation – Covers broad areas • (e.g., current situation, family history, health, education, marriage/ current family,etc.) see pg.103
  32. 32. Projective Personality Tests Rorschach Inkblot Test – 10 inkblots, tell what is, ID specific aspect Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – 31 cards with vague pictures to illicit themes – Make up story about the picture Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) – Draw members of family doing something Rotter Sentence Completion – Oral or written form – “I hate….”; “Mothers are ….” Reliability, validity, clinical usefulness debate
  33. 33. Objective Personality Tests Objective vs. subjective – Similar to qualitative vs. quantitative Scale construction methods – Empirical (external) • Administer items and see what items differ between what groups – Inductive • Administer items and analyze mathematically how items “hang together” – Deductive • Theory/definition before create test • Items created to “fit” theory
  34. 34. MMPI and MMPI-II Developed with the Empirical approach – 1930’s-40’s to diagnose psychopathology – Items that designate between groups make the scales Several hundred statements about life, opinions, likes/ dislikes, etc. – Forced choice T/F – “I am happy most of the time” Revised in 1989 as MMPI-II
  35. 35. MMPI-II Clinical Scales Hypochondriasis  Paranoia – Preoccupation with  Psychasthenia body – Obsessions/compulsi Depression ons Hysteria  Schizophrenia Psychopathic deviate  Mania – Antisocial behavior  Social introversion Masculine-Feminine
  36. 36. MMPI-II (cont) Validity scales – ? – number of omitted items – L – tendency to lie, self in favorable light – F – unusual items, “fake bad” – K – defensiveness, corrective factor Graph of scores Highest codes – Give profile of person – Use of “cookbooks”
  37. 37. NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) Based on Costa & McCrae’s five factor personality theory Measurement of normal personality Five Factors (OCEAN) – Neuroticism – Extraversion – Openness to experience – Agreeableness – Conscientiousness 240 statements, 4-point Likert scale indicating extent of agreement
  38. 38. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Developed with the deductive approached Based on Jung’s 4 dimensions of personality – Extraversion-Introversion – Sensing-Intuition – Thinking-Feeling – Judging-Perceiving Code/ Profile for people, 16 codes
  39. 39. Behavioral Assessment From behaviorism and behavior therapy Look at observable rather than underling personality Techniques – Behavioral assessment interviews – Observation (naturalistic, analogue, participant) – Self-Monitoring – Behavioral questionnaires – Biofeedback
  40. 40. Issues in Assessment IQ testing Computer generated scoring – Validity, reliability? – Professional responsibility Training requirements – Test administration Ethics – Releasing and maintenance of results – Use of testing (e.g. MMPI for hiring?)
  41. 41. Intellectual Assessment Problem of defining intelligence Fluid intelligence – Non-verbal, relatively culture free mental skills – E.g., the capacity to adapt to new situations Crystallized intelligence – Skills and knowledge acquired through repeated exposure and practice Verbal vs. Performance intelligence
  42. 42. Intelligence Scales Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale – Developed to predict which children would do well in school Skills areas and standards for each – Verbal reasoning – Quantitative reasoning – Abstract/Visual reasoning – Short-term memory Age norms Raw scores transformed into “IQ” – IQ of 100 is average, 16 standard deviation
  43. 43. Intellectual Assessment Weschler Tests – Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III, 1991) – Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R, 1981) All tests divided into two aspects – Verbal (e.g., vocabulary & comprehension) – Performance (e.g., puzzles & copying designs) Full scale IQ = verbal IQ + performance IQ Mean of 100, standard deviation of 15 Used to assess learning disabilities and neuropsychological disorders
  44. 44. Neuropsychological Assessment Neuropsychology studies relationship b/w brain and behavior Neuropsychological assessment – Set of procedures to detect presence, extent, and type of brain damage/ impairment – Evaluate behaviors that are linked to specific brain functioning Brain damage is increasing in society Research on the brain and behavior has increased due to technology – X-rays, EEGs, CAT scans, PET scans
  45. 45. Revisiting Assessment Steps Referral question Collecting data Diagnosis Psychological report – Communicate the results
  46. 46. Psychological Report Written summary of impressions and assessment results to guide client conceptualization and treatment Always consider – Referral question – What is the purpose – Who is the audience – What is the necessary information – What (if any) information could harm the client currently or in the future
  47. 47. Psychological Report (cont.) Aspects included – Referral question – Presenting problem/ Background information – Assessment results • Behavioral assessment • Testing results and observations – Diagnosis – Integrated summary and suggested treatment
  48. 48. Review of the Goals Career counseling theories, philosophy, tools, and place in psychology Overview of assessment – Theory – Types (Qual. And Quant.) – Uses and instruments (Personality, Interests, Intelligence, Behavioral, etc.) – Testing basics – Communicating findings Role of diagnosis and DSM – uses and criticisms