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How to Write Form a Research Proposal and Form a Budget


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How to Write Form a Research Proposal and Form a Budget

  2. 2. What is research? <ul><li>Research refers to search for knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of research <ul><li>Exploratory studies- to understand a phenomenon or to get insights into it. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive studies- description of characteristics of a particular individual, situation or group. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation studies- determine the frequency with something occurs or its association with something . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quantitative vs Qualitative <ul><li>Quantitative research measures quantity and amount, applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative research applicable to phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. It helps to understand and analyse various factors that motivate people to behave in a particular manner. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>What is the study about? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you doing this study? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will it be carried out? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of data will be required? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will the data be found? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the sample design? </li></ul><ul><li>What techniques of data collection will be used? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be analysed? </li></ul><ul><li>In what style will the report be written? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Variables and attributes <ul><li>Attributes are characteristics or qualities that describe an object or a person </li></ul><ul><li>Variables are logical groupings of attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female are attributes and sex or gender are variables. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Understanding key constructs <ul><li>Reality- objectivity and subjectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Observation- information gathering –seeing and hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Fact- Phenomenon that is observed </li></ul><ul><li>Law- should be universally applicable </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theory- concepts, variables and statements <ul><li>Theory- systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular subject </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Concept: basic building blocks of theory, abstract elements representing classes of phenomenon within the field of study. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Units of analysis: <ul><li>Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Social artifacts </li></ul>
  10. 10. Four moral principles that constitute the basis of ethics in research: <ul><li>Principle of non maleficense- Research must not cause harm to the participants in particular and to people in general </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of beneficense- Research should also make a positive contribution towards the welfare of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of autonomy- Research must respect and protect the rights and dignity of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of justice- the benefits and risks of research </li></ul>
  11. 11. A research proposal: <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Review of literature </li></ul><ul><li>Research objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Plan of analysis </li></ul>
  12. 12. BUDGET <ul><li>Period of project </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources- core staff and others, research assistance –field and technical support. </li></ul><ul><li>Research expenses: printing of tools, Field expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings/consultations for dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Printing of the report </li></ul><ul><li>Capital- computers/setting up office/software for data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Overheads – electricity, rent, and so on </li></ul>