Strathmore Mobile Boot Camp                 November 2010          Mobile Website Development         Introduction to Mobi...
Table of Contents The Need for Mobile Web Mobile Web History              Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All   ...
The Need for Mobile Web      Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All                  Rights Reserved.
The Need for Mobile Web Limitations of mobile phones   Limited Processor Power and Memory   Limited Battery Life   Lim...
The Need for Mobile Web TCP/IP protocol suite was not designed for a  wireless environment Bandwidth resource is expensi...
The Need for Mobile Web Users consume mobile services differently. They buy and pay for their mobiles and mobile  softwa...
The Need for Mobile WebMobile devices available today can bebroken down in to a few broad classes:  1. Feature Phones  2. ...
The Need for Mobile Web Feature Phones are the most common device  type. They usually come in candy bar, clamshell or  s...
The Need for Mobile WebFigures: FeaturePhones                   Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All               ...
The Need for Mobile Web Smart phones share the same features as a feature phone with two primary differences:   its abil...
The Need for Mobile Web Smart phones typically use a more full  featured operating system Companies market them as them ...
The Need for Mobile WebFigure: Smartphone- iPhone                     Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All         ...
The Need for Mobile Web PDAs evolved from the PDAs of the ‘90s Now often include voice, messaging, and data  capabilitie...
The Need for Mobile WebFigure: PersonalDigital Assistants                     Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All ...
The Need for Mobile Web   Voice-Only Phones are typically extremely    low-cost phones aimed at developing    markets   ...
The Need for Mobile Web Feature Phones lead the market by a large margin However the borderline between the Feature Phon...
The Need for Mobile WebFigure: Distributionof Mobile Handsets                       Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010...
The Need for Mobile Web The Web is a vast collection of servers linked by  TCP/IP computer networks. These web servers, ...
The Need for Mobile Web In an HTTP request, the client sends a web  server the URI of the desired resource and a  collect...
The Need for Mobile Web In an HTTP response, the web server sends  the client the document itself (markup, text,  or bina...
Mobile Web History   Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All               Rights Reserved.
Mobile Web History Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Forum was  founded in 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and  Phon...
Mobile Web History In 2002, the WAP Forum consolidated into the Open  Mobile Alliance (OMA) and the specification work  f...
Mobile Web History WAP is designed with two main goals   to minimize bandwidth requirement   to maximize the number of ...
Mobile Web HistoryFigure: The WAPprotocol stack                  Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All              ...
Mobile Web History WAP protocol stack is a lightweight protocol stack  that is designed to address the limitations of wir...
Mobile Web History WAP tries to utilize existing Internet protocols and  standards as much as possible For example XML, ...
Mobile Web History Each layer of the protocol stack is designed to  be scalable and efficient. For example, in Wireless ...
Mobile Web History To describe the capabilities of a mobile device, WAP  has defined a user agent profile (UAProf) The c...
Mobile Web History The aim of using UAProf is to allow all elements of  the WAP infrastructure (i.e., content servers,  a...
Mobile Web History The user agent profile of a mobile device is stored in  its manufacturers server, called the profile  ...
Mobile Web History Example of UAProf: For Sony Ericsson K750i, found  at:  http://wap.sonyericsson.com/UAprof/K750iR101.x...
Mobile Web History To reduce transmission time, WAP uses binary-coded  WML (wireless markup language) pages. Also WAP sp...
Mobile Web History HTML pages are not suitable for use in mobile  devices with limited processor power and screen. Wirel...
Mobile Web History WML is a tagged language. WML adopts a deck and card metaphor. Each WML document is made up of multi...
Mobile Web History<wml>   <card id=“Card1" title="First Card">       <p>          Hello World!       </p>   </card>   <car...
Mobile Web HistoryFigure: A WML deckwith two cards.                     Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All       ...
Mobile Web History WMLScript is a scripting language which  complements WML. Similar to JavaScript for HTML WMLScript b...
Mobile Web HistoryThree elements in a WAP architecture: Client: the WML browser in a wireless device.  It issues WAP requ...
Mobile Web History Gateway: provides protocol conversion  between the WWW protocol stack and the  WAP protocol stack, by ...
Mobile Web History         Figure: WAP infrastructure.   Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All               Rights ...
Mobile Web History When protocol conversion is performed at the  gateway, it can minimize wireless  communication overhea...
Mobile Web History The architecture discussed so far is the common pull  architecture based on the client - server paradi...
Mobile Web History Push architecture is very useful in delivering  messages like instant news, email indication,  adverti...
Mobile Web History  Figure: WAP push architecture   Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All               Rights Reser...
Mobile Web HistoryWAP is designed to meet the following requirements Interoperability Scalability Efficiency Reliabili...
Mobile Web History Mobile Web uses the plumbing of Desktop Web  and adds new MIME types, markup languages,  document form...
Mobile Web HistoryThe Mobile Web introduces new components intothe web ecosystem, including: Markup languages and styles ...
Mobile Web History Rich Web 2.0 features such as JavaScript  frameworks and Asynchronous JavaScript and  XML (AJAX) must ...
Mobile Web History Transcoding proxies often attempt to reformat  mobile markup en route to a mobile browser. Defensive ...
Mobile Web History Mobile users are keenly goal-directed and  location-aware. Roaming in and out of coverage areas, mobi...
Mobile Web History The mobile browser is totally new & has  unique benefits, quirks, and workarounds. Partial and flawed...
Mobile Web History Improperly formatted web pages can have  drastic effects on mobile devices, including  crashing the br...
Mobile Web History   Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All               Rights Reserved.
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Introduction to Mobile Internet

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This is part of the course given at the Strathmore University Mobile Boot Camp in Nov 2010.

Facilitator: Michael Wakahe, Director, Shujaa Solutions Ltd
Date: Nov 18th - 20th, 2010
Venue: Strathmore University Mobile Boot Camp

Published in: Technology, Business
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Introduction to Mobile Internet

  1. 1. Strathmore Mobile Boot Camp November 2010 Mobile Website Development Introduction to Mobile InternetFacilitated by:Michael WakaheShujaa Solutions Ltd
  2. 2. Table of Contents The Need for Mobile Web Mobile Web History Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. The Need for Mobile Web Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. The Need for Mobile Web Limitations of mobile phones  Limited Processor Power and Memory  Limited Battery Life  Limited Input and Output Facilities  Low Bandwidth  Unpredictable Availability and Stability Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. The Need for Mobile Web TCP/IP protocol suite was not designed for a wireless environment Bandwidth resource is expensive HTML pages are not suitable for use in mobile devices with limited processor power and screen. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. The Need for Mobile Web Users consume mobile services differently. They buy and pay for their mobiles and mobile software differently. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. The Need for Mobile WebMobile devices available today can bebroken down in to a few broad classes: 1. Feature Phones 2. Smart Phones 3. PDAs 4. Voice-Only Phones Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. The Need for Mobile Web Feature Phones are the most common device type. They usually come in candy bar, clamshell or slider form. They have a 12-key layout and typically come with voice, messaging and data capabilities. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. The Need for Mobile WebFigures: FeaturePhones Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. The Need for Mobile Web Smart phones share the same features as a feature phone with two primary differences:  its ability to run additional third-party applications  a slightly larger screen. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. The Need for Mobile Web Smart phones typically use a more full featured operating system Companies market them as them as advanced multimedia devices to consumers or as productivity devices to the business sector. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. The Need for Mobile WebFigure: Smartphone- iPhone Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. The Need for Mobile Web PDAs evolved from the PDAs of the ‘90s Now often include voice, messaging, and data capabilities. PDAs have much in common with smart phone But differ in that much of their functionality is oriented towards organizational tasks rather then voice communications. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. The Need for Mobile WebFigure: PersonalDigital Assistants Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. The Need for Mobile Web Voice-Only Phones are typically extremely low-cost phones aimed at developing markets Are not relevant in the context of the Mobile Web. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. The Need for Mobile Web Feature Phones lead the market by a large margin However the borderline between the Feature Phones and Smart Phones is constantly shifting towards the Smart Phone category The newest Feature Phones are often equal in functionality to yesterday’s Smart Phones. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. The Need for Mobile WebFigure: Distributionof Mobile Handsets Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. The Need for Mobile Web The Web is a vast collection of servers linked by TCP/IP computer networks. These web servers, implement the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to share documents and files. Web servers provide access by Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) to text files, markup documents, and binary resources. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. The Need for Mobile Web In an HTTP request, the client sends a web server the URI of the desired resource and a collection of request headers One of the request headers contains a list of MIME types that advertise the content types supported on the client. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. The Need for Mobile Web In an HTTP response, the web server sends the client the document itself (markup, text, or binary) and another set of headers One of the response headers contains the MIME type describing the file type of the document transmitted to the client. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Mobile Web History Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Mobile Web History Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Forum was founded in 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Phone.com. WAP 1.1 was published in 1999 WAP 2.0 was published in 2001 Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Mobile Web History In 2002, the WAP Forum consolidated into the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) and the specification work from WAP continues within OMA Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Mobile Web History WAP is designed with two main goals  to minimize bandwidth requirement  to maximize the number of supported network types (e.g., 9.6 Kbps in GSM). Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Mobile Web HistoryFigure: The WAPprotocol stack Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Mobile Web History WAP protocol stack is a lightweight protocol stack that is designed to address the limitations of wireless devices and the wireless network. To access ordinary web servers, WAP-enabled mobile devices can rely on a WAP gateway to provide protocol conversion between WWW protocol stack and WAP protocol stack. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Mobile Web History WAP tries to utilize existing Internet protocols and standards as much as possible For example XML, HTML, HTTP & TLS Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Mobile Web History Each layer of the protocol stack is designed to be scalable and efficient. For example, in Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP), there is no explicit connection setup or teardown Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. Mobile Web History To describe the capabilities of a mobile device, WAP has defined a user agent profile (UAProf) The capabilities of a mobile device are related to software and hardware This includes things like processor type, memory capacity, display size, browser type and version, network type, etc. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. Mobile Web History The aim of using UAProf is to allow all elements of the WAP infrastructure (i.e., content servers, application servers, gateways, etc.) to provide mobile devices with device-specific contents. A user agent profile is basically an XML document containing information about hardware and software characteristics of a mobile device and network to which it will be connected. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Mobile Web History The user agent profile of a mobile device is stored in its manufacturers server, called the profile repository. In order to provide mobile devices with device- specific contents, when a mobile device performs a request to a server, the URL of its user agent profile will be included in the header of the request message. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. Mobile Web History Example of UAProf: For Sony Ericsson K750i, found at: http://wap.sonyericsson.com/UAprof/K750iR101.xml Open example XML Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  33. 33. Mobile Web History To reduce transmission time, WAP uses binary-coded WML (wireless markup language) pages. Also WAP specifies a caching model and user agent profile (UAProf) for efficient delivery of device- specific content. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  34. 34. Mobile Web History HTML pages are not suitable for use in mobile devices with limited processor power and screen. Wireless Markup Language (WML) is designed to describe data and the format that data should be presented on mobile devices Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  35. 35. Mobile Web History WML is a tagged language. WML adopts a deck and card metaphor. Each WML document is made up of multiple cards, and cards are grouped into a deck. WML pages can be encoded in a binary format before transmission. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  36. 36. Mobile Web History<wml> <card id=“Card1" title="First Card"> <p> Hello World! </p> </card> <card id="Card2" title="Second Card"> <p> WAP is fun! </p > </card></wml> Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  37. 37. Mobile Web HistoryFigure: A WML deckwith two cards. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  38. 38. Mobile Web History WMLScript is a scripting language which complements WML. Similar to JavaScript for HTML WMLScript bytecode interpreter is compact in size, which allows efficient execution of scripts will less memory and processor requirements Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  39. 39. Mobile Web HistoryThree elements in a WAP architecture: Client: the WML browser in a wireless device. It issues WAP requests to a server. Server: the entity which provides services and where resources are located. This can be an ordinary Internet-based server or a WAP- capable server. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  40. 40. Mobile Web History Gateway: provides protocol conversion between the WWW protocol stack and the WAP protocol stack, by using content encoders and decoders Thus a gateway acts as a proxy server Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  41. 41. Mobile Web History Figure: WAP infrastructure. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  42. 42. Mobile Web History When protocol conversion is performed at the gateway, it can minimize wireless communication overhead at the client side. The gateway can also cache frequently requested contents so as to reduce the request - response time. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  43. 43. Mobile Web History The architecture discussed so far is the common pull architecture based on the client - server paradigm WAP system architecture also specifies a push architecture to enhance the WAP services Here the server sends messages to the client without explicit request from the client. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  44. 44. Mobile Web History Push architecture is very useful in delivering messages like instant news, email indication, advertising etc In the push architecture, the server and the gateway are called the push initiator (PI) and the push proxy gateway (PPG), respectively. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  45. 45. Mobile Web History Figure: WAP push architecture Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  46. 46. Mobile Web HistoryWAP is designed to meet the following requirements Interoperability Scalability Efficiency Reliability Security Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  47. 47. Mobile Web History Mobile Web uses the plumbing of Desktop Web and adds new MIME types, markup languages, document formats, and best practices Web content provided is optimized for the small screens, resource constraints, and usability challenges of web browsers on mobile devices. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  48. 48. Mobile Web HistoryThe Mobile Web introduces new components intothe web ecosystem, including: Markup languages and styles optimized for mobile devices MIME types that differentiate mobile markup from desktop HTML Browser clients with a wide variety of capabilities Network proxies that further adapt your content to cater for those clients Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  49. 49. Mobile Web History Rich Web 2.0 features such as JavaScript frameworks and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) must be used judiciously, or you risk draining battery power. Operators frequently control and block traffic to Mobile Web sites. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  50. 50. Mobile Web History Transcoding proxies often attempt to reformat mobile markup en route to a mobile browser. Defensive programming is essential to reduce exposure to transcoders and mobile network problems. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  51. 51. Mobile Web History Mobile users are keenly goal-directed and location-aware. Roaming in and out of coverage areas, mobile users count network access problems among the top factors affecting the Mobile Web browsing experience. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  52. 52. Mobile Web History The mobile browser is totally new & has unique benefits, quirks, and workarounds. Partial and flawed implementations of web standards are commonplace. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  53. 53. Mobile Web History Improperly formatted web pages can have drastic effects on mobile devices, including crashing the browser or resetting the device. Advanced web features such as JavaScript and AJAX are highly desirable but drain battery life. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  54. 54. Mobile Web History Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
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