Introduction to Matter and the Metric System 7 th Grade Physical Science Mr. Riordan
What is Matter?
Matter is all things that we can see, touch, and smell in our daily lives.
Matter is what the universe is made of
A property is a characteristic of something that helps identify it, and which makes it unique.
Properties describe an object .
Properties of Matter There are some properties of matter. These properties are mass, weight, volume, and density .
Our working definition of matter is any substance that has mass and volume
Mass is the amount of matter in an object .
It cannot be changed unless you add or remove matter from an object.
The metric units that are used to express mass are the gram (g), milligram (mg) , and the kilogram (kg).
The amount of space an object takes up or occupies is called its volume.
The metric units that are used to express volume are the liter (L), milliliter (mL) , and the cubic centimeter (cm 3 ). Liters and milliliters are used to measure the volume of liquids .
Cubic centimeters are used to measure the volume of solids .
History of the Metric System Developed in Lyon, France, ~1670 Created to make consistent units for measurement
Based on “powers of 10” …what does this mean?
The Basic Metric Units Meter : base unit for length Liter : base unit for volume
Gram : base unit for mass
Powers of 10 Prefixes in front of the base unit tell if the measurement is greater or less than the base unit. Each prefix is a factor of ten .
This makes it easy to convert between units.
How big is a …. Kilometer? 1000x larger then a meter Meter? Height of a standard countertop Centimeter? 100x smaller then a meter, the width of a dime
Millimeter? 1000x smaller then a meter, the thickness of a dime
Metric Prefixes Kilo 1000x Larger Smaller Base Units Kilo 1000 X larger Hecto 100 X larger Deka 10 X larger (no prefix) Meter Liter Gram Deci One Tenth 1/10 Centi One Hundreth 1/100 Milli One Thousanth 1/1000
Using a Ruler
What is the length of the blue arrow?
Using a Ruler
ALWAYS measure with the starting point at the “0” mark!
Kilometer - km 1000 times larger than a meter.
12 blocks less than a mile.
Hectameter - hm 100x larger than a meter.
Height of Statue of Liberty from base to torch
Decameter - dam
Meter - m
Decimeter - dm
10x smaller than a meter.
Centimeter - cm
100x smaller than a meter
Millimeter - mm
1000x smaller than a meter
Micrometer - um 1,000,000x smaller than a meter.
diameter of a bacteria cell
Nanometer - nm 1,000,000,000x smaller than a meter.
Thickness of a DNA molecule.
Kilogram - kg 1000x heavier than a gram
Mass of a liter of orange juice.
Hectogram - hg 100x heavier than a gram.
Mass of a stick of butter.
Decagram - dkg
Gram - g
Decigram - dg 10 x lighter than a gram.
Mass of 10 grains of salt
Centigram - cg 100x lighter than a gram.
Mass of a single grain of salt.
Milligram - mg
1,000x lighter than a gram.
Microgram - ug
1,000,000x lighter than a gram
Nanogram - ng
1,000,000,000x lighter than a gram
Kiloliter - kL
1000x larger than a liter
Hectoliter - hL 100x larger than a liter.
Volume of two kitchen trashcans
Decaliter - dkL 10 x larger than a liter.
Volume of 3 gallons of milk
Liter - L
Deciliter - dL
10x smaller than a liter.
Centiliter - cL
100x smaller than a liter
Milliliter - mL 1000x smaller than a liter
Volume of a cube of sugar
Microliter - uL
1,000,000x smaller than a liter
nanoLiter - nL
1,000,000,000x smaller than a liter.