Chapter 2 Lecture

5,000 views
4,877 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,000
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
170
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 2 Lecture

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  2. 2. Philosophy That Works <ul><li>“Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food.” </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose different foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not overeat any single type of food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control portion size </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nutrient Density <ul><li>Nutrient Dense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of vitamin and mineral content with number of kcals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empty calories </li></ul>
  4. 4. Comparison of Nutrient Density
  5. 5. Energy Density <ul><li>Comparison of kcal content with weight of food </li></ul><ul><li>High-energy-dense foods </li></ul><ul><li>Low-energy-dense foods </li></ul>
  6. 6. States of Nutritional Health
  7. 7. Desirable Nutritional Health <ul><li>Intake meets body’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Body has a small surplus </li></ul>
  8. 8. Undernutrition <ul><li>Intake is below body’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Surpluses are depleted </li></ul><ul><li>Health declines </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic processes slow or stop </li></ul><ul><li>Subclinical deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical symptoms </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overnutrition <ul><li>Intake exceeds body’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abuse of supplements </li></ul><ul><li>www.shapeup.org </li></ul>
  10. 11. Measuring Nutritional State <ul><li>Anthropometric </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Assessment </li></ul>
  11. 12. Measuring Nutritional State
  12. 13. Limitations of Nutritional Assessment <ul><li>Delayed symptoms and signs </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms due to different causes </li></ul>
  13. 14. Healthy Habits to Adopt <ul><li>Consume a healthy diet </li></ul><ul><li>Control your weight </li></ul><ul><li>Drink alcohol in moderation (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise > 30 minute a day </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t smoke </li></ul>
  14. 15. Guidelines For Planning Healthy Diets:
  15. 16. The Food Guide Pyramid <ul><li>Translates science into practical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Helps people meet nutritional needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, & minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggests a pattern of food choices </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates foundations of healthy diet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety, balance, moderation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. The Food Guide Pyramid <ul><li>Not for children under the age of 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Each food is deficient in at least one essential nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Variety is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie and nutrient content may vary within a food group </li></ul>
  17. 21. Using the Pyramid <ul><li>Choose low-fat/non-fat options </li></ul><ul><li>Include plant proteins several times a week </li></ul><ul><li>Include dark green vegetable every day </li></ul><ul><li>Include vitamin C-rich food every day </li></ul><ul><li>Choose whole-grain products </li></ul><ul><li>Include plant oils daily </li></ul><ul><li>Eat fish at least twice a week </li></ul>
  18. 22. Number of Calories 18 tsp 12 tsp 6 tsp Total sugar 93 73 53 Total fat 7 6 5 Meat 2-3 2-3 2-3 Milk 4 3 2 Fruit 5 4 3 Veg 11 9 6 Bread 2800 kcal 2200 kcal 1600 kcal Energy
  19. 23. Evaluating Our Average Diet <ul><li>Does not meet the recommended servings </li></ul><ul><li>Consumes only 1-2 fruits/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(vs. 2-4 servings recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumes only 2-3 vegetables/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(vs. 3-5 recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excessive in fats, oils, & sweet foods </li></ul>
  20. 24. How Does Your Diet Rate? <ul><li>www.usda.gov/cnpp </li></ul><ul><li>www.forcevbc.com/good/food.htm </li></ul>
  21. 25. The Dietary Guidelines Another tool for menu planning
  22. 26. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Published by USDA and DHHS </li></ul><ul><li>Created to promote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal nutrient intakes and diet composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate vitamin and mineral intakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of chronic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Intended for healthy children (>2 yrs) and adults </li></ul>
  23. 27. Aim for Fitness <ul><li>Aim for a healthy weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waist circumference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be physically active each day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> 30 minutes a day, most days of the week </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Build a Healthy Base <ul><li>Let the pyramid guide your food choices </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily </li></ul><ul><li>Keep foods safe to eat </li></ul>
  25. 29. Choose Sensibly <ul><li>Chose a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol; moderate in total fat </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate your intake of sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Choose and prepare foods with less salt </li></ul><ul><li>If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation </li></ul>
  26. 30. Using of the Dietary Guidelines <ul><li>Consider your state of health </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in genetic background </li></ul><ul><li>There is no ‘optimal’ diet </li></ul>
  27. 32. Advice from the American Dietetic Association <ul><li>Be realistic, make small changes </li></ul><ul><li>Be adventurous, try new foods </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible, balance sweets and fatty foods with physical activities </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensible, watch portions </li></ul><ul><li>Be active daily </li></ul>
  28. 33. Nutrient Standards and Recommendations
  29. 34. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) <ul><li>Ongoing and collaborative effort </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (US) </li></ul>
  30. 35. RDAs AIs DRIs EERs ULs
  31. 36. Standards Under the DRI
  32. 37. The Recommended Dietary Allowances <ul><li>“Recommended intakes of nutrients that meet the needs of almost all healthy people of similar age and gender”---- the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences </li></ul>
  33. 39. Scientific Research
  34. 42. Studies <ul><li>Laboratory animal experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Human studies </li></ul><ul><li>Case-control study </li></ul><ul><li>Double-blind study </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Review </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up studies </li></ul>
  35. 43. Standards For Food Labeling <ul><li>DRIs are gender and age specific </li></ul><ul><li>FDA developed the Daily Values </li></ul><ul><li>Generic standard used on food labels </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for comparison </li></ul>
  36. 44. DRV for 2000 kcal 3500 mg Potassium < 2400 mg Sodium 25 g Fiber 300 g Carbohydrate < 300 mg Cholesterol 50 g Protein < 20 g Saturated Fat < 65 g Fat DRV 2000 kcal Food Component
  37. 45. Nutrition Facts
  38. 46. What’s on the Food Label? <ul><li>Product name </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer’s name and address </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform serving size </li></ul><ul><li>Amount in the package </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients in descending order by weight </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient components </li></ul>
  39. 47. What Food Requires a Label? <ul><li>Nearly all packaged foods and processed meat products </li></ul><ul><li>Health claims </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh fruit, vegetable, raw single ingredient meal, poultry, fish are voluntary </li></ul>
  40. 48. What is Not Required on a Label? <ul><li>% Daily Value for protein (for foods intended for 4 yrs. or older) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein deficiency is rare </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure to determine protein quality is expensive </li></ul>
  41. 49. Health Claims Allowed on Food Labels Relating to <ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Some cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Neural tube defects </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Use of “may” or “might” </li></ul>
  42. 50. Comparative and Absolute Nutrient Claims <ul><li>Sugar (free, no added) </li></ul><ul><li>Calories (free, low) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber (high, food source, added) </li></ul><ul><li>Fat (free, low, reduced) </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol (free, low, reduced) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium (free, low, light) </li></ul>
  43. 51. Claims <ul><li>Fortified/enriched </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Light, lite </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Good source </li></ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul>
  44. 52. Poor Nutrition Advice <ul><li>Quick fix </li></ul><ul><li>Warnings of danger </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds too good to be true </li></ul><ul><li>Simplistic conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations based on single study </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic statements </li></ul><ul><li>Lists “good” and “bad” foods </li></ul><ul><li>Selling a product </li></ul><ul><li>Studies published without peer review </li></ul><ul><li>Studies that ignore differences among individuals or groups </li></ul>
  45. 53. Good Nutrition Advice <ul><li>Physicians </li></ul><ul><li>Registered Dietitian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.eatright.org/find/html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.dietitians.ca </li></ul></ul>
  46. 54. Dietary Supplements
  47. 55. Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) 1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified vitamins, minerals, amino acids and herbal remedies as foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be marketed in US without FDA approval if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonably safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product must be labeled as a dietary supplement </li></ul></ul>
  48. 57. Evaluating Claims <ul><li>www.eatright.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.acsh.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.quackwatch.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.ncahf.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov </li></ul><ul><li>www.fda.gov </li></ul><ul><li>www.navigator.tufts.edu </li></ul>

×