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FOOD, NUTRITION & CULTURE ‘ Feeding oneself and one’s offspring is the first concern of all living creatures’
WHY IS THE ACQUISITION OF FOOD SO IMPORTANT? <ul><li>Question answered by the old adage ‘ We are what we eat .’  </li></ul...
PERSPECTIVES ON NUTRITION <ul><li>To scientists , nutrition  is the study of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nutrients found in...
WHAT IS FOOD? <ul><li>Food is a conduit for  nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one central thing about human experience t...
THE NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Whereas there are many different foods.  There are only  six classes of nutrients  namely: </li></ul...
TYPES OF NUTRIENTS  protein Vitamin c Fatty acids <ul><ul><li>Organic   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(with C- C or C- H bond...
ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose,  (preferred energy source) fructose and gal...
<ul><li>Vitamins  - only organic nutrient that does not supply energy but is needed to get energy from foods.   </li></ul>...
FOOD CHOICES <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </...
CHALLENGE OF CHANGING FOOD HABITS <ul><li>Food is about more than feeding the body. It is embedded in family life, culture...
<ul><li>Digestion  – process of breaking food into small substances to be absorbed by the body and subsequently used for f...
PRODUCTS OF DIGESTION (Energy Nutrients) Gastro- intestinal  System CHO FATS PROTEINS GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE GALACTOSE FATTY ACI...
<ul><li>Food energy measured in  calories .  </li></ul><ul><li>A calorie is  not  a component of food .  </li></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Plants store energy as  starch.  </li></ul><ul><li>Humans eat plants and other animals that have also eaten plants...
The Cycle of life begins with the sun! The Energy Cycle
THE ABC… OF A NUTRITIOUS DIET <ul><li>Adequacy </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie control </li></ul><ul><...
DIETARY GUIDELINES I am  inebriated! Not to be emulated!
NUTRITION AND HEALTH <ul><li>Health professionals agree that the overall composition of the diet has an important effect o...
NUTRITION GOALS  <ul><li>Disease Related </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce cancer d...
HOW MUCH FOOD DO WE NEED? <ul><li>RDA  (recommended dietary allowances) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary nutrient intake stan...
DRI GROUPS  (dietary reference intake) <ul><li>Recommendations made for various age and gender groups as follows:  </li></...
MEAL PLANNING GUIDES <ul><li>Food group plan </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange system </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Food Guide  </li></...
EXCHANGE SYSTEM <ul><li>Originally developed for diabetics </li></ul><ul><li>Lists of foods that can be exchanged </li></u...
<ul><li>Let the Pyramid guide your  food choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of grains  daily, especially whole gr...
FOOD LABELS <ul><li>Food labels provide the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common name of product. </li></ul...
CHECK THE FOOD LABEL BEFORE YOU BUY <ul><li>Food labels have several parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front panel,   </li></ul...
USING THE NUTRITION FACTS <ul><ul><li>Look at the % Daily Value (%DV) column to see whether a food is high or low in satur...
HELPFUL HINTS <ul><li>    Use the Food Guide Pyramid to help select  healthy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>    Eat a variety of...
DIETARY ASSESSMENT <ul><li>The following dietary assessment methods are used: </li></ul><ul><li>24-Hour recall </li></ul><...
KEEPING TRACK……… <ul><li>Food Record   </li></ul><ul><li>Do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Record everything you  </li><...
QUIZ How many calories does this meal of  110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol? a. 160...
Assignment : Check the RDA  (recommended dietary allowances)  in your country, if any. A+
REFERENCES <ul><li>Whitney E, Rolfes S.  Understanding Nutrition.  7 th ed. New York: West Publishing Company; 1996.  </li...
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Food, Nutrition and Culture

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Food, Nutrition and Culture

  1. 1. FOOD, NUTRITION & CULTURE ‘ Feeding oneself and one’s offspring is the first concern of all living creatures’
  2. 2. WHY IS THE ACQUISITION OF FOOD SO IMPORTANT? <ul><li>Question answered by the old adage ‘ We are what we eat .’ </li></ul><ul><li>All living creatures need to ‘take in nutrients to live.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition – the science that deals with the body’s ability to transform nutrients found in FOOD into FUEL & FLESH . </li></ul>Calories Muscle & Tissue
  3. 3. PERSPECTIVES ON NUTRITION <ul><li>To scientists , nutrition is the study of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nutrients found in foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body’s handling of nutrients to maintain health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrients (some of which provide energy for processes in the body) are substances that can promote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair </li></ul></ul>For many, nutrition is all about losing weight!
  4. 4. WHAT IS FOOD? <ul><li>Food is a conduit for nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one central thing about human experience that can open up both our senses and our experiences to our place in the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Alice Waters </li></ul></ul>Food is culturally defined, what is considered a food in Culture A is not necessarily a food in Culture B. OCTOPUS MEXICAN FOODS ACKEE AND BREADFRUIT PEARBUSH BUDS
  5. 5. THE NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Whereas there are many different foods. There are only six classes of nutrients namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates (CHO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually, more than one class of nutrients is represented in a food (e.g., ( CHO, fats, proteins, water, minerals [e.g., Ca] and vitamins [e.g., Vitamin D] are in milk . </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF NUTRIENTS protein Vitamin c Fatty acids <ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(with C- C or C- H bonds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHO, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul></ul>water Sodium and Chlorine ions <ul><ul><li>Inorganic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose, (preferred energy source) fructose and galactose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Vitamins - only organic nutrient that does not supply energy but is needed to get energy from foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential nutrient - body cannot make enough of and must get from food. </li></ul><ul><li>Some dietary and lifestyle practices (smoking, inactivity, drinking alcohol) are risk factors for many health conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Substances (non-nutrients) in foods are phytochemicals that give foods the characteristic taste and smell. </li></ul>MORE FOOD RELATED FACTS ….
  9. 9. FOOD CHOICES <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Habit </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Preference </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical location </li></ul><ul><li>Social Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Values and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Select foods to provide adequate amounts of nutrients and energy! </li></ul><ul><li>When humans eat, foremost in their minds is that they are consuming foods, not nutrients! </li></ul><ul><li>The following influence food choices: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Value </li></ul>pizza
  10. 10. CHALLENGE OF CHANGING FOOD HABITS <ul><li>Food is about more than feeding the body. It is embedded in family life, culture and religious ritual. </li></ul><ul><li>Food has always been the most direct, intimate tie to a nurturing earth and a primary means of bonding with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Food has helped us to know where and who we are. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Digestion – process of breaking food into small substances to be absorbed by the body and subsequently used for fuel, growth, maintenance and repair. </li></ul>RELEASING NUTRIENTS FROM FOOD Simple (e.g., phagocytosis- engulf and form food vacuoles in which food is broken down in the unicellular amoeba). Complex (e.g., cooking and chewing food before introducing it to the sophisticated multi-organ, digestive system in multi-cellular humans).
  12. 12. PRODUCTS OF DIGESTION (Energy Nutrients) Gastro- intestinal System CHO FATS PROTEINS GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE GALACTOSE FATTY ACIDS GLYCEROL AMINO ACIDS
  13. 13. <ul><li>Food energy measured in calories . </li></ul><ul><li>A calorie is not a component of food . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1g fat = 9 calories </li></ul></ul>1g CHO = 4 calories <ul><ul><li>1g protein = 4 calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 g alcohol = 7 calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(alcohol is not a nutrient) </li></ul></ul>MEASURING FOOD ENERGY
  14. 14. <ul><li>Plants store energy as starch. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans eat plants and other animals that have also eaten plants. </li></ul>ENERGY <ul><li>Plants use the sun’s energy to combine carbondioxide and water to form glucose and oxygen. </li></ul>6H 2 O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  15. 15. The Cycle of life begins with the sun! The Energy Cycle
  16. 16. THE ABC… OF A NUTRITIOUS DIET <ul><li>Adequacy </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie control </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Density </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul>
  17. 17. DIETARY GUIDELINES I am inebriated! Not to be emulated!
  18. 18. NUTRITION AND HEALTH <ul><li>Health professionals agree that the overall composition of the diet has an important effect on health. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating too much fat, sat. fat and cholesterol and not eating enough vegetables, fruits, and fiber has been linked to an increase in heart disease and other cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>The federal government constantly revises its official U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help consumers choose a healthy diet. </li></ul><ul><li>These guidelines make Recommendations for Americans 2 years of age and older. </li></ul>
  19. 19. NUTRITION GOALS <ul><li>Disease Related </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce cancer deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease incidence of diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce prevalence of osteoporosis and </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dental caries </li></ul>
  20. 20. HOW MUCH FOOD DO WE NEED? <ul><li>RDA (recommended dietary allowances) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary nutrient intake standards for US for many years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DRI (dietary reference intake) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently replaced RDA as primary standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands on RDAs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. DRI GROUPS (dietary reference intake) <ul><li>Recommendations made for various age and gender groups as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant and lactating women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. MEAL PLANNING GUIDES <ul><li>Food group plan </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange system </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Food Guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Food Pyramid) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. EXCHANGE SYSTEM <ul><li>Originally developed for diabetics </li></ul><ul><li>Lists of foods that can be exchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Food values are approximations </li></ul><ul><li>User makes an educated approximation </li></ul>= =
  24. 24. <ul><li>Let the Pyramid guide your food choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep food safe to eat! </li></ul>CHOOSING FOODS ………
  25. 25. FOOD LABELS <ul><li>Food labels provide the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common name of product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name and address of manufacturer, packer or distributor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net contents (wt, measure or count). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient content of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servings per container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calories/calories from fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient amounts and percentages of Daily Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily values and calories/gram reminder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. CHECK THE FOOD LABEL BEFORE YOU BUY <ul><li>Food labels have several parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front panel, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Added nutrients (e.g., “enriched grain/pasta” means thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and folic acid have been added. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition Facts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients list, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s in the food including e.g., added fats, or sugars. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients listed in descending order by weight. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. USING THE NUTRITION FACTS <ul><ul><li>Look at the % Daily Value (%DV) column to see whether a food is high or low in saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to consume more of a nutrient (e.g., Calcium), choose foods with a higher %DV. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods with 5%DV or less contribute a small amount of that nutrient. Those with 20% or more contribute a large amount. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition Facts serving sizes may differ from Food Guide Pyramid (e.g., 2 ozs of dry macaroni yields about 1 cup cooked, or two [½ cup] Pyramid servings). </li></ul>
  28. 28. HELPFUL HINTS <ul><li>    Use the Food Guide Pyramid to help select healthy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>    Eat a variety of plant foods, including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>   Eat some low-fat dairy products and low- fat foods from the meat and beans group. </li></ul><ul><li>  Enjoy fats and sweets occasionally. </li></ul>
  29. 29. DIETARY ASSESSMENT <ul><li>The following dietary assessment methods are used: </li></ul><ul><li>24-Hour recall </li></ul><ul><li>Food Record/Diary </li></ul><ul><li>Food Frequency Questionnaire </li></ul>
  30. 30. KEEPING TRACK……… <ul><li>Food Record </li></ul><ul><li>Do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Record everything you </li></ul><ul><li>eat and drink for 3 </li></ul><ul><li>consecutive days </li></ul><ul><li>Amount (ozs, g) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time eaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood before and after each meal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note other things you did that same day </li></ul>Chicken Bread
  31. 31. QUIZ How many calories does this meal of 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol? a. 160 b. 345 c. 560 d. 755 <ul><li>The Exchange System of meal planning was originally developed for people with </li></ul><ul><li>terminal diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>c. cardiovascular disease. </li></ul><ul><li>d. life- threatening obesity. </li></ul>Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy? a. fats b. alcohol c. proteins d. carbohydrates Teacher’s Pet
  32. 32. Assignment : Check the RDA (recommended dietary allowances) in your country, if any. A+
  33. 33. REFERENCES <ul><li>Whitney E, Rolfes S. Understanding Nutrition. 7 th ed. New York: West Publishing Company; 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Lapp é F, Lapp é A. Hopes Edge: The Diet of a Small Planet . New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putman, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Image Search. Available at: http:// www.google.com . Accessed June 2004. </li></ul>

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