Section 8 - Cell Reproduction


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Section 8 - Cell Reproduction

  1. 1. Cellular Reproduction Biology I Factoids
  2. 2. Factoid 100 <ul><li>Section 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram of a Chromosome: </li></ul>Sister chromatids centromere
  3. 3. Factoid 101 <ul><li>The Cell Cycle is made up of the G1 phase, the S phase, the G2 phase, and the M phase. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factoid 102 <ul><li>The cell grows during the G1 phase. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factoid 103 <ul><li>DNA replication occurs during the S phase. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factoid 104 <ul><li>The organelles duplication and the cell prepares for mitosis during the G2 phase. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Factoid 105 <ul><li>The M phase (M for Mitosis) is divided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factoid 106 <ul><li>During prophase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The chromosomes become visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nuclear membrane disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The spindle forms </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Factoid 107 <ul><li>During Metaphase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chrmosomes line up along the equator of the cell </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Factoid 108 <ul><li>During Anaphase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart to opposite poles. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Factoid 109 <ul><li>During telophase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything done during prophase is “undone” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Factoid 110 <ul><li>During cytokinesis the cell splits. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Factoid 111 <ul><li>Cytokinesis forms by a cleavage furrow in animal cells and by a cell plate in plant cells. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Factoid 112 <ul><li>Organisms have two basic types of cells: somatic cells are body cells and gametes are sex cells </li></ul>
  15. 15. Factoid 113 <ul><li>Sex cells (gametes) are produced by meiosis. Somatic cells are produced by mitosis. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Factoid 114 <ul><li>Male sex cells are called sperm and female sex cells are called eggs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Factoid 115 <ul><li>Somatic cells are diploid (2n). Sex cells are haploid (n). Meiosis divides the chromosome number in half. </li></ul><ul><li>Diploid cells  meiosis  haploid cells  fertilization  diploid cells again. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Factoid 116 <ul><li>Humans have 46 chromosomes. Sperm have 23 chromosomes and eggs have 23 chromosomes. Sperm (23) + egg (23) = baby (46). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Factoid 117 <ul><li>Meiosis adds genetic variation. This means that it allows for different shapes, colors, and forms of organisms. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Factoid 118 <ul><li>Meiosis is divided into two parts: meiosis I and meiosis II. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Factoid 119 <ul><li>Each part of meiosis has 4 parts: Meiosis I has Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I. Meiosis II has Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Factoid 120 <ul><li>An organism is only successful if it successfully spreads its genes to the next generation. This is the driving force behind most evolution. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Factoid 121 <ul><li>External fertilization occurs outside the body (frogs and fish). Internal fertilization occurs inside the body (higher animals and humans). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Factoid 122 <ul><li>Asexual reproduction is the production of an offspring involving only 1 parent, produces genetically identical clones, and without splitting the chromosomes. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Factoid 123 <ul><li>Three types of asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary fission – a single cells splits in half. Common in bacteria and some protists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding – small area of cells grow into a new organism. Used by fungi and simple animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetative propagation – plants send out runners that grow into a new plant or a cutting can be made. </li></ul></ul>