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Food and nutrients
Food and nutrients
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  1. 1. Nutrition Basics Nutrition Overview and Assessment
  2. 2. N utrition is <ul><li>“ the science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, absorbs, transport, utilizes, and excretes food substances”- The Council on Food and Nutrition of the American Medical Association </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning About Nutrition <ul><li>Reputable Research </li></ul><ul><li>Quackery Claims </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Design Methods <ul><li>Lab Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiological Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention (Experimental) Studies </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Scientific Method
  6. 6. Elements of Nutritional Quackery <ul><li>Claim is too good to be true </li></ul><ul><li>Claims to have a secret formula </li></ul><ul><li>Makes unrealistic guarantees </li></ul><ul><li>Claims weight loss > a pound a week </li></ul><ul><li>Uses “Star” testimonials </li></ul><ul><li>Claims that non-essential nutrients are essential </li></ul>
  7. 7. What and How Much to Eat? <ul><li>Learn the body’s nutrient needs </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize the body’s nutrient needs </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the foods that meet these needs </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to think critically about food choices, read labels, and evaluate foods </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the above information to create a personalized food plan </li></ul>
  8. 8. Categorizing the Body’s Nutrient Needs <ul><li>40-45 Essential Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Fatty Acids (EFA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 Amino Acids (EAA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 21 Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six General Classes of Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. A Calorie <ul><li>A measurement of energy measured in a bomb calorimeter </li></ul><ul><li>“ the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius” </li></ul><ul><li>Food is measured in kilocalories ( kcal ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Calories” with a large “C” on nutrition label are in kcal </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transformation of Energy <ul><li>1,000 calories = 1 kcal = 1(food) Calorie </li></ul>CHO PROTEIN FAT ALCOHOL ENERGY SOURCES
  11. 11. The Energy Nutrients
  12. 12. The Standard American Diet (SAD) <ul><li>~16% of kcals as proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 from animal sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~50% of kcals as CHOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 from simple sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest mainly refined flours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~33% of kcals as Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~2/3 from animal fats </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Food Label Energy Nutrient Calculations <ul><li>Per serving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHO: 15g x 4 kcal/g = 60 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRO: 3g x 4 kcal/g = 12 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT: 1g x 9 kcal/g = 9 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL: 81 kcal, rounded down to 80 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount per Serving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calories 80 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Fat 1g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Carbohydrate 15g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein 3 g </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Calculating Percent Kcal CHO 290 grams x 4 kcal/g = 1160 kcal Fat 60 grams x 9 kcal/g = 540 kcal Protein 70 grams x 4 kcal/g = 280 kcal Total 1980 kcal % kcal from CHO = 1160 / 1980 = 59% % kcal from fat = 540 / 1980 = 27% % kcal from protein = 280 / 1980 = 14 %
  15. 15. The Non-Energy Yielding Nutrients <ul><li>Vitamins: </li></ul><ul><li>Compose of various chemical elements </li></ul><ul><li>Vital to life </li></ul><ul><li>Needed in tiny amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Yields no energy </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals: </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic substances </li></ul><ul><li>Needed in tiny amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Trace minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Major minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Yields no energy </li></ul>
  16. 16. Water <ul><li>Compose of H2O </li></ul><ul><li>Vital to life </li></ul><ul><li>Is a solvent, lubricant, medium for transport, and temperature regulator </li></ul><ul><li>Makes up majority (2/3) of our body </li></ul><ul><li>Yields no energy </li></ul>
  17. 17. General Functions of Nutrients in Foods <ul><li>Provide Water </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Fuel for Entire Body </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Building Blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Metabolic Regulators </li></ul>
  18. 18. Influences of Food Choices Heredity Health belief Health Status Nutr. Knowledge Religious belief Flavor, texture, appearance Convenience Rural-urban residence Income $$$$ Occupation Education Ethnic identity Peer influences Childhood experiences
  19. 19. Status of Nutritional Health <ul><li>Desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Undernutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depleted nutrient stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced biochemical functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical signs and symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overnutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess intake of Calories and Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of vitamin & mineral supplements </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. ABCDE of Nutritional Assessment <ul><li>Anthropometrics </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><li>Diet history </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status </li></ul>
  21. 21. Nutrition Assessment Basics- Examples <ul><li>A nthropometric Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height/Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Mass Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B iochemical or Lab Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Physical ( C linical Examinations) </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Information ( D iet History) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics of the Family </li></ul>
  22. 22. Learning Human Nutrient Needs DRI ( Dietary Reference Intakes) <ul><li>RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established by Food and Nutrition Board of National Academy of Sciences and updated every 4-5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets general nutrition needs of healthy adults </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AI (Adequate Intake) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set when scientific data insufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Copper, Biotin, Chromium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Levels) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Intakes for possible toxic nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Uses for RDAs <ul><li>Planning food supplies for groups </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing standards for food assistance programs </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating dietary survey data </li></ul><ul><li>Developing food & nutrition information </li></ul><ul><li>Helping establish food label standards </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating food fortification </li></ul><ul><li>Developing new food products </li></ul>
  24. 24. Standards For Food Labeling <ul><li>RDA not used on food label since it is gender and age specific </li></ul><ul><li>FDA developed the Daily Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamins and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily Reference Value (DRV) for nutrients without RDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only used on food labels </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. DRV for 2000 kcal Food Component DRV 2000 kcal Fat <65 g Sat. Fat < 20 g Protein 50 g Cholesterol < 300 mg CHO 300 g Fiber 25 g Sodium <2400 mg Potassium 3500 mg
  26. 26. General Food Label Nutrient Recommendations <ul><li>Look at all the information </li></ul><ul><li>Look for Quality of Ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Fit the information into your own diet </li></ul><ul><li>Understand DV and how it may or may not apply to you </li></ul>
  27. 27. Foods that Meet Nutrient Needs <ul><li>Concept of Nutrient Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose mostly foods that are higher in nutrients for the amount of Calories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dietary Guidelines of 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>The Newest Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Food Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange List Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Food Choices </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Dietary Guidelines of 2000 <ul><li>Aim For Fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim for a healthy weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be physically active each day </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. More Dietary Guidelines <ul><li>Build a Healthy Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the pyramids guide your food choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of fruits and veggies daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep food safe to eat </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. More Dietary Guidelines <ul><li>Choose sensibly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose and prepare foods with less salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation (but not at all if you are pregnant) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Eatwise Dietary Guidelines for People who enjoy Lifelong Good Health <ul><li>They eat grains and related foods at each meal, mainly whole grain, unrefined, and minimally processed. </li></ul><ul><li>They eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, about 7 cups throughout the day. </li></ul><ul><li>They eat mostly legumes, nuts and seeds, then fish, poultry, and then less often, red meat. </li></ul><ul><li>They eat moderate amounts of fats, preferably plant oils over animal fats. </li></ul><ul><li>They eat small amounts of dairy foods, mostly as yogurt and cheese and wise eaters know that soy milk are healthful alternatives. </li></ul>
  32. 32. More Eatwise Guidelines <ul><li>They eat small amounts of added sugar and added salt. </li></ul><ul><li>They drink about six glasses of water a day, and if they drink alcohol, they do so in moderation (but none at all if pregnant). </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy their pleasures of their foods and meals. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Eatwise Program Guidelines <ul><li>Breastfeeding-The best start in life </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarianism-Emphasize plant foods and minimize animal foods </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability-Buy local and sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Safe and Hygienic Foods-Practice food safety in the kitchen </li></ul>
  34. 34. Using Food Guides to Plan Meals <ul><li>Five Groups (1916) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic 7 (1943) </li></ul><ul><li>Old Basic 4 (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Food Guide Pyramid (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>MyPyramid (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Cultural Pyramids </li></ul>
  35. 35. USDA Food Guide Pyramid-More details
  36. 36. Evaluation of American Diet Using the old Food Guide Pyramid Categories <ul><li>Consumed 1-2 servings of fruit a day (versus recommended 2-4) </li></ul><ul><li>Consumed 2-3 servings of vegetables a day (versus recommended 3-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive intake in the fats, oils, and sweets group (versus use “sparingly”) </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive intake of high fat meats and refined grains </li></ul>
  37. 37. Now in oz. What Counted as a Serving in the Old Pyramid? Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta 1 slice of bread 1 ounce of ready to-eat cereal 1/2 cup of cooked cereal, rice, or pasta Vegetable 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables 1/2 cup of other vegetables, cooked or raw 3/4 cup of vegetable juice Fruit 1 medium apple, banana, orange 1/2 cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit 3/4 cup of fruit juice Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese 1 cup of milk or yogurt 1-1/2 ounces of natural cheese 2 ounces processed cheese Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts 2-3 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry, fish 1/2 cup of cooked dry beans or ½ cup tofu counts as a serving. 2 tablespoons of peanut butter or 1/3 cup of nuts count as 1 ounce of “meat” according to the USDA.
  38. 38. Old USDA Categories (3) Low 1,600 Mod 2,200 High 2,800 Grain Group Servings 6 9 11 Vegetable Group Servings 3 4 5 Fruit Group Servings 2 3 4 Milk Group Servings 2-3 2-3 2-3 Meat Group (ounces) 5 6 7 Total Fat (grams) 53 73 93 Total Added Sugars (teaspoons) 6 12 18 Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, teenagers, and young adults to age 24 need 3 servings of Dairy or other Calcium-rich foods. “Meat” group amounts are in total ounces.
  39. 39. The MyPyramid of 2005 (See next slide for link & details)
  40. 40. The MyPyramid of 2005 <ul><li>Click on the following link and explore: </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to read on the website: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy of the Pyramid (understand it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colored coded-categories and descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What counts as an oz. (explore individual foods) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalize your MyPyramid (this will be one of your assignments in Pageout) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. MyPyramid Tips <ul><li>Plan your meals and take your own lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Include vegetable protein often </li></ul><ul><li>Eat a colorful salad daily including dark green/yellow/orange/red /purple veggies and fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Include a vitamin C rich food every day </li></ul><ul><li>Choose whole grains </li></ul>
  42. 43. Updated Version
  43. 48. The Healthful House of Food and Fitness by Cherie Moore <ul><li>Click on </li></ul>
  44. 49. Using Exchange Lists to Plan Your Meals <ul><li>What is the Exchange System? </li></ul><ul><li>Who Developed the Exchange System? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Diabetes Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Dietetics Association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who could use these Exchange Lists? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone striving for weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone </li></ul></ul>
  45. 50. Exchange System-Important Points to Make it Work <ul><li>Strict attention to portion sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Not categorized by vitamins and minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Categorized by the energy (Calories) and energy nutrients (carbs, fats, and proteins) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some foods in different categories than the food pyramid (cheese, corn, and olives) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six general exchange categories (fat, starch, vegetable, fruit, milk, “meat”) </li></ul>
  46. 51. Exchange System Lists
  47. 52. Exchange Lists Categories <ul><li>Starch (80 kcal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 grams carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 grams protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0-1 grams fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetable (25 kcal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 grams carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 grams protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 grams fat </li></ul></ul>
  48. 53. Exchange Lists Categories <ul><li>Fruit (60 kcal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 grams carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 grams protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 grams fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein- legumes, meats, cheeses (55-100 kcal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 grams carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 grams protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-8 grams fat (depending on whether food is very lean, lean, medium fat or high fat) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 54. Exchange Lists Categories <ul><li>Milk (90-150 kcal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 grams carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 grams protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0-8 grams fat (depending on amount of fat in milk) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat (45 kcal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 grams carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 grams protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 grams fat </li></ul></ul>

Editor's Notes