PVR Module 7


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Module 7 is also on the second test.

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PVR Module 7

  1. 1. ETHNICITY DEFINED <ul><li>A sense of identification associated with a cultural group’s common social & cultural heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, elusive, & not always clearly defined. </li></ul><ul><li>People from the same ethnic group often have a sense of uniqueness. </li></ul>
  2. 2. ETHNICITY CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Common language & dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Migratory status </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Religious faith & practices </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions, values, symbols, & literature </li></ul><ul><li>Folklore, music & food preferences </li></ul>
  3. 3. CULTURE DEFINED <ul><li>There is not a single definition of culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is the sum total of learned ways of doing, feeling, & thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>A form of conditioning that shows itself through behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences the manner in which the patient & nurse relate to each other in varied situations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CULTURE CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Represents nonphysical traits, such as values, beliefs, attitudes & customs. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is also the sum of beliefs, practices, habits, likes, dislikes, norms, customs, & rituals learned from the family during the years of socialization. </li></ul>
  5. 5. DRAW DIAGRAM ON BOARD <ul><li>SOCIALIZATION: Extended family, place reared, visits home, raised with extended family, name. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL: Extended family, participation in folk ways, language. </li></ul><ul><li>RELIGIOUS: Extended family, Church membership & participation, historical beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>ETHNIC: Extended family, resides in “ethnic” community, participates in “folk ways”, socializes with members of same ethnic group, identifies as “ethnic-American”. </li></ul>
  7. 7. PREJUDICE DEFINED <ul><li>A preconceived judgment or opinion formed without factual knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrational hostility, hatred, or suspicion of a particular group, race, or religion. </li></ul>
  8. 8. PREJUDICE <ul><li>Question????? Does prejudice have an impact on nurses’ giving appropriate health care? </li></ul><ul><li>Question????? Does prejudice have an impact on receiving appropriate health care? </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse prejudice vs Patient prejudice </li></ul>
  9. 9. LANGUAGE BARRIERS <ul><li>Language differences are possibly the most important factor in providing trans-cultural nursing care because these differences impact all stages of the nursing process. </li></ul><ul><li>If a patient does not speak the nurse’s language, a translator is necessary. </li></ul>
  10. 10. RESEARCH PROJECT <ul><li>Methods of improving the response of ethnic clients to health care systems. </li></ul>
  11. 11. FINANCIAL BARRIERS <ul><li>No/poor insurance coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Access to quality health care </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing power (supplies/equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive services </li></ul><ul><li>Food vs health care </li></ul><ul><li>Patient personal presentation (old clothes) </li></ul>
  12. 12. RELIGION & SPIRITUALITY <ul><li>Many nurses have difficulty differentiating spirituality from religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The two terms are frequently used interchangeably – and certainly there is a relationship. </li></ul>
  13. 13. RELIGION <ul><li>Religion is commonly associated with the “state of doing” or a specific unified system of practices associated with a particular denomination or form of worship. </li></ul><ul><li>A system of organized beliefs & worship that a person practices to outwardly demonstrate his/her spirituality. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SPIRITUALITY <ul><li>The need for meaning runs deep in each person. This deep need for meaning is connected to spirituality. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals definitions of spirituality are influenced by their own culture, life experiences, development, & ideas about life. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SPIRITUALITY <ul><li>A unifying theme in our lives </li></ul><ul><li>A state of being </li></ul>
  16. 16. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ABOUT HEALTH <ul><li>HINDUISM (Accepts modern medical science) Illness is caused by past sins; prolonging life is discouraged </li></ul><ul><li>SIKHISM (Accepts modern medical science) Females need to be examined by females; removing undergarments will cause great distress </li></ul>
  17. 17. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ABOUT HEALTH (cont’d) <ul><li>BUDDHISM (Accepts modern medical science) May refuse treatment on Holy Days; nonhuman spirits invading the body cause illness; may want a Buddhist priest; may permit withdrawal of life support; does not practice euthanasia. </li></ul>
  18. 18. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ABOUT HEALTH (cont’d) <ul><li>SHINTO (Accepts modern medical treatments along with ancient traditions) Will not allow treatments that “appear” to injure the body </li></ul><ul><li>ISLAM (Must be able to practice the Five Pillars of Islam; May have a fatalistic view of health) Family members are a comfort; group prayer is strengthening; may withdraw life support; does not practice euthanasia </li></ul>
  19. 19. Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>1. There is no god but God (allah) </li></ul><ul><li>2. The formal prayer (Salat) is done 5X/Day facing east toward Mecca (dawn, noon, midafternoon, sunset, evening) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Help the poor thru tax or charity </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fast from dawn until sunset during Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>5. A pilgrimage (Haji) to Mecca must be taken once in a lifetime, unless health or poverty precludes it. </li></ul>
  20. 20. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ABOUT HEALTH (cont’d) <ul><li>JUDAISM (Believes in the sanctity of life; God & medicine must have a balance; Observance of the Sabbath is important) They are obligated to seek care; euthanasia is forbidden; life supports are discouraged </li></ul><ul><li>CHRISTIANITY (Accepts modern medical science) Uses prayer, faith healing; appreciates visits from clergy </li></ul>
  21. 21. RELIGIOUS PRACTICES <ul><li>Asian: Coining </li></ul><ul><li>Baha’i: Fasting </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicism: Baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Jehovah Witness: Blood products </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism: Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Latter Day Saints (Morman): Holy garment </li></ul><ul><li>Native American: Totems </li></ul>
  22. 22. ACCOMMODATING SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>If a patient experiences cultural, religious or spiritual distress, or has a health problem that causes disconnectedness, loneliness can occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the patient & the nurse must feel free to let go & discover together the meaning illness poses for the client & the impact it has on the meaning/purpose of life. </li></ul>
  23. 23. TOOLS TO ACCOMMODATE SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>Establish Presence: Patients have reported that the presence of nurses & their caregiving activities contributes to a sense of well-being & provides hope for recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer: The act of prayer is a form of “self-dedication” that allows an individual to commune with God or a higher being </li></ul>
  24. 24. SOCIALIZATION TOOLS (cont’d) <ul><li>Supporting a Healing Relationship: An expert nurse learns to look beyond isolated patient problems & recognizes the broader picture of a patient’s needs. This is applying a holistic view toward a patient’s health concerns or problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Support Systems: provided the patient with the greatest sense of well-being. </li></ul>
  25. 25. SOCIALIZATION TOOLS (cont’d) <ul><li>Diet Therapies: Food & nutrition are important aspects of nursing care. Food is also an important component of religious observances </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Rituals: For many patients, the ability to exercise religious rituals is an important coping resource. </li></ul>
  26. 26. LPN ROLE IN MEETING SOCIALIZATION NEEDS <ul><li>Question????? Do LPN’s have a responsibility to meet patients’ cultural, ethnical, & religious/spiritual needs? </li></ul>