An Overview ofAn Overview ofNutritionNutritionChapter 1Chapter 1
IntroductionIntroduction• Daily food choices• Benefit health• Harm health• Chronic disease• Diet• Foods andbeverages
Food ChoicesFood Choices• Choices are highly personal• Social or behavioral motives• Personal preference• Taste• Sweet and...
Food ChoicesFood Choices• Social interactions• Availability, convenience, and economy• Benefits of home-cooked meals• Posi...
Food ChoicesFood Choices• Values• Religious beliefs, political views,environmental concerns• Body weight and image• Nutrit...
The NutrientsThe Nutrients• Water• Hydrogen &oxygen• Inorganic• Minerals• Simplest nutrient• Inorganic• Vitamins• Organic•...
Body Composition of Health-Wight Men & Women
Elements in the Six Classes ofElements in the Six Classes ofNutrientsNutrients
Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients• Amount of energy in food• Depends on macronutrient composition• Using ...
Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients• Provide kcalories• Carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g• Protein = 4 kcal/g• Fat = ...
The VitaminsThe Vitamins• Thirteen organic vitamins• Water-soluble vitamins• Fat-soluble vitamins• Facilitate energy relea...
The Minerals & WaterThe Minerals & Water• Minerals• Do not yield energy• Sixteen essential minerals• Indestructible• Cause...
The Science of NutritionThe Science of Nutrition• Foundation in several other sciences• Biology, biochemistry, physiology•...
Conducting ResearchConducting Research• Use of scientific method• Systematic process for conducting research• Research stu...
The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method
Conducting ResearchConducting Research• Epidemiological studies• Cross-sectional studies• Case-control studies• Cohort stu...
Examples of Research Designs
Examples of Research Designs
Analyzing Research FindingsAnalyzing Research Findings• Correlations – only show association• Positive correlation• Not ne...
Publishing ResearchPublishing Research• Peer review• Research has validity• Findings are preliminary when published• Not m...
Parts of a Research Article
Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Standards defined for:• Energy• Nutrients• Other dietary components• P...
Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)• Average amount sufficient for ha...
EAR and RDA ComparedEAR and RDA Compared
Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Adequate Intakes (AI)• Insufficient scientific evidence• AI value set ...
Inaccurate vs. Accurate ViewInaccurate vs. Accurate Viewof Nutrient Intakesof Nutrient Intakes
Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)• Average dietary energy intake to m...
Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Acceptable Macronutrient DistributionRanges (AMDR)• Adequate energy an...
Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimates apply to healthy people• Needed adjustments• Recommendations...
Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Individual LevelIndividual Level• Deficiency or excess over time leads tomalnu...
Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Individual LevelIndividual Level• Creating a “total picture” of the individual...
Stages in the Development of aStages in the Development of aNutrient DeficiencyNutrient Deficiency
Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Population LevelPopulation Level• National nutrition surveys• National nutriti...
Healthy People 2020 Nutrition& Weight Status Objectives
Healthy People 2020 Nutrition& Weight Status Objectives
Diet and HealthDiet and Health• Food plays vital role in supporting health• Chronic disease – epidemic levels• Multiple fa...
Diet and Health• Risk factors• Persist over time• Cluster• Prominence of riskfactors• Tobacco• Diet & activitypatterns• Ot...
NutritionNutritionInformation &Information &MisinformationMisinformationHighlight 1
Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation• Validity of information• Who is providing info...
• News• Often tell lopsided story• Testimonials• Tight deadlines• Limited understanding• Current and controversialNutritio...
• Identifying nutrition experts• Physicians & other health-care professionals• Training in nutrition is limited• Registere...
• Identifying fake credentials• Accreditation• Diploma mills• Fraudulent businesses• Red flags of nutrition quackery• Misi...
Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation
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Chapter1 - An Overview of Nutrition

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Chapter1 - An Overview of Nutrition

  1. 1. An Overview ofAn Overview ofNutritionNutritionChapter 1Chapter 1
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction• Daily food choices• Benefit health• Harm health• Chronic disease• Diet• Foods andbeverages
  3. 3. Food ChoicesFood Choices• Choices are highly personal• Social or behavioral motives• Personal preference• Taste• Sweet and salty• Genetics• Habit• Ethnic heritage or tradition
  4. 4. Food ChoicesFood Choices• Social interactions• Availability, convenience, and economy• Benefits of home-cooked meals• Positive and negative associations• Emotions• Boredom, depression, anxiety• Stress
  5. 5. Food ChoicesFood Choices• Values• Religious beliefs, political views,environmental concerns• Body weight and image• Nutrition and health benefits• Functional foods• Examples
  6. 6. The NutrientsThe Nutrients• Water• Hydrogen &oxygen• Inorganic• Minerals• Simplest nutrient• Inorganic• Vitamins• Organic• Carbohydrates• Organic• Proteins• Organic• Contains nitrogen• Lipids (fats)• Organic
  7. 7. Body Composition of Health-Wight Men & Women
  8. 8. Elements in the Six Classes ofElements in the Six Classes ofNutrientsNutrients
  9. 9. Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients• Amount of energy in food• Depends on macronutrient composition• Using nutrients for energy• Breaking of bonds• Storage of excess energy• Metabolism• Materials for building body tissues• Regulation of bodily activities
  10. 10. Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients• Provide kcalories• Carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g• Protein = 4 kcal/g• Fat = 9 kcal/g• Alcohol• Not a nutrient• Yields energy – 7 kcal/g• Macronutrients vs. micronutrients
  11. 11. The VitaminsThe Vitamins• Thirteen organic vitamins• Water-soluble vitamins• Fat-soluble vitamins• Facilitate energy release• Almost every bodily action requiresassistance from vitamins• Vulnerable to destruction• Examples
  12. 12. The Minerals & WaterThe Minerals & Water• Minerals• Do not yield energy• Sixteen essential minerals• Indestructible• Causes of mineral losses from foods• Water• Medium for nearly all body activities
  13. 13. The Science of NutritionThe Science of Nutrition• Foundation in several other sciences• Biology, biochemistry, physiology• Tremendous growth• Sequencing of human genome• Nutritional genomics
  14. 14. Conducting ResearchConducting Research• Use of scientific method• Systematic process for conducting research• Research studies• Controls• Randomization• Sample size• Placebos• Double-blind experiments
  15. 15. The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method
  16. 16. Conducting ResearchConducting Research• Epidemiological studies• Cross-sectional studies• Case-control studies• Cohort studies• Experimental studies• Laboratory-based animal studies• Laboratory-base in vitro studies• Clinical trials
  17. 17. Examples of Research Designs
  18. 18. Examples of Research Designs
  19. 19. Analyzing Research FindingsAnalyzing Research Findings• Correlations – only show association• Positive correlation• Not necessarily a desired outcome• Negative correlation• No correlation• Cautious interpretations and conclusions• Accumulation of evidence
  20. 20. Publishing ResearchPublishing Research• Peer review• Research has validity• Findings are preliminary when published• Not meaningful by themselves• Findings need to be replicated
  21. 21. Parts of a Research Article
  22. 22. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Standards defined for:• Energy• Nutrients• Other dietary components• Physical activity• Collaborative effort of U.S. and Canada• Recommendations apply to healthy people• May be different for specific groups
  23. 23. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)• Average amount sufficient for half ofpopulation• Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)• Recommendations to meet needs of mosthealthy people• About 98% of population
  24. 24. EAR and RDA ComparedEAR and RDA Compared
  25. 25. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Adequate Intakes (AI)• Insufficient scientific evidence• AI value set instead of RDA• Expected to exceed average requirements• Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)• Point where nutrient is likely to be toxic• Helps protect against overconsumption
  26. 26. Inaccurate vs. Accurate ViewInaccurate vs. Accurate Viewof Nutrient Intakesof Nutrient Intakes
  27. 27. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)• Average dietary energy intake to maintainenergy balance• Healthy body weight• Physical activity• No upper level
  28. 28. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Acceptable Macronutrient DistributionRanges (AMDR)• Adequate energy and nutrients• Reduce risk of chronic diseases• Range• 45-65% kcalories from carbohydrate• 20-35% kcalories from fat• 10-35% kcalories from protein
  29. 29. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimates apply to healthy people• Needed adjustments• Recommendations – not minimum levels noroptimal levels• Goals intended to be met through diet• Apply to average daily intakes• Each DRI category serves a unique purpose
  30. 30. Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Individual LevelIndividual Level• Deficiency or excess over time leads tomalnutrition• Undernutrition and overnutrition• Symptoms of malnutrition• Diarrhea• Skin rashes• Fatigue• Others
  31. 31. Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Individual LevelIndividual Level• Creating a “total picture” of the individual• Historical information• Health status, SES, drug use• Diet history – intake over several days;portion sizes; computer analysis• Anthropometric measurements• Height and weight – track to identify trends• Physical examinations• Laboratory tests
  32. 32. Stages in the Development of aStages in the Development of aNutrient DeficiencyNutrient Deficiency
  33. 33. Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Population LevelPopulation Level• National nutrition surveys• National nutrition monitoring program• Coordinates two major national surveys• Oversample high-risk groups• National health goals• Healthy People• National trends
  34. 34. Healthy People 2020 Nutrition& Weight Status Objectives
  35. 35. Healthy People 2020 Nutrition& Weight Status Objectives
  36. 36. Diet and HealthDiet and Health• Food plays vital role in supporting health• Chronic disease – epidemic levels• Multiple factors over multiple years• Leading causes of death
  37. 37. Diet and Health• Risk factors• Persist over time• Cluster• Prominence of riskfactors• Tobacco• Diet & activitypatterns• Others
  38. 38. NutritionNutritionInformation &Information &MisinformationMisinformationHighlight 1
  39. 39. Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation• Validity of information• Who is providing information?• Qualifications• Internet• Anyone can publish anything• No guarantees of accuracy• Evaluate websites• Who, When, Where, Why, and What?
  40. 40. • News• Often tell lopsided story• Testimonials• Tight deadlines• Limited understanding• Current and controversialNutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation
  41. 41. • Identifying nutrition experts• Physicians & other health-care professionals• Training in nutrition is limited• Registered Dietitian (RD)• Degree and clinical internship• National exam• Maintain up-to-date knowledge• Dietetic Technician Registered (DTR)Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation
  42. 42. • Identifying fake credentials• Accreditation• Diploma mills• Fraudulent businesses• Red flags of nutrition quackery• MisinformationNutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation
  43. 43. Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation

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