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ONTAP - Sports Nutrition

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ONTAP - Sports Nutrition

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ONTAP - Sports Nutrition

  1. 1. SPORTS NUTRITIONSHSM Certificate
  2. 2. Several complementary and opposing views on sports nutrition are currently available via print and internet sources. Individual preference ultimately depends on several factors, including but not limited to the following: ● Age ● Sex ● Body composition ● Stress ● Metabolism ● Age of participant ● Exercise intensity & duration ● Time of day of performance ● Dietary restrictions/preferences The most popular and widely accepted views will be presented here, as well as some food for thought for further research.
  3. 3. General Nutrition Regardless of activity level, all individuals require the same nutrients necessary for maintenance, repair and function of the human body. The structure of the human body is composed of carbohydrates, protein, fats and water. Vitamins and minerals are required for the proper functioning of the body. The body therefore requires a continuous influx of these five nutrients and water to prepare the body for exercise, to support optimal performance, and to promote recovery and restoration.
  4. 4. CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are the main fuel source for exercise. They provides 4kcal of energy per gram to fuel your brain, daily activities and athletic performance. The greater the exertion and duration of activity, the greater the amount of carbohydrate that is required. Good sources of carbohydrate-rich foods are: ★ whole grain bread, pitas, bagels, wraps and multi-grain crackers ★ rice, pasta, quinoa, couscous, barley ★ oatmeal or other grain cereals ★ fruit like bananas, oranges, apples, pears, grapes, cantaloupe, watermelon ★ starch vegetables like potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, winter squash and corn
  5. 5. PROTEIN Protein is the main structural component of muscles. Protein provides 4kcal of energy per gram to fuel your activities and provide for repair of muscle after exercise. Except for water, protein is the most abundant substance in your body, and must be replaced daily. The greater the exertion and duration of activity, the greater the amount of protein that is required, but not immediately before exercise (the reason will be discussed later). Good sources of protein-rich foods are: ★ Lean meats, poultry, fish and seafood ★ Milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage cheese ★ Eggs ★ Nuts and seeds and their butters (without added sugar) ★ Beans, peas, lentils ★ Tofu, soy products, and fortified soy beverage continued...
  6. 6. continued... USES OF PROTEIN IN THE BODY: ★ maintenance of body tissue, including muscle ★ the structural component of development and repair of muscle ★ secondary source of energy to fuel activities (carbs are primary) ★ creation of some hormones (eg. insulin) ★ main component of enzymes that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body (eg. metabolism) ★ forms antibodies that help prevent infection, illness and disease
  7. 7. FATS Fat provides the most amount of usable energy to the body of any nutrient. It is also used as a hormone highway - many hormones are transported using fat in the body. No fat = no transportation of hormones! It provides 9kcal/g of energy (twice as much as carbs or protein) to fuel your activities. The greater the exertion and duration of activity, the greater the amount of fat that is required on a daily basis, but not immediately before exercise (the reason will be discussed later). Good sources of fat are: ★ Avocados ★ Cheese ★ Whole eggs ★ Fatty fish ★ Nuts ★ Chia seeds ★ Extra virgin olive oil ★ Peanut oil/butter ★ Corn, safflower oil ★ Coconut oil
  8. 8. General guidelines for nutrient intake General guidelines for adults will be presented in the pages that follow that is for maintaining current body mass and general good health, depending on an individual’s lifestyle: Sedentary lifestyle Moderately active lifestyle Highly active lifestyle More focus will be put on active lifestyles for this certification.
  9. 9. Sedentary lifestyle This is a lifestyle where exercise is not a part of life, eating simply sustains life. In this case, fewer calories and protein are required each day than active individuals. Proper nutrition is still required to prevent malnutrition and avoid gaining excess body weight. Calories Protein Carbohydrates Fats Water Women 1600-2000 46 grams 2.5 cups vegetables 1.5 cups fruit 6 ounces grains 5 teaspoons oil/nuts/seeds/ avocados 8 x 8ounces (64 oz total) Men 2000-2600 56 grams 3 cups vegetables 2 cups fruit 8 oz grains 7 teaspoons oil/nuts/seeds/ avocados 8 x 8 ounces (64 oz total)
  10. 10. Moderately active lifestyle This is a lifestyle where exercising moderately for 30-60 minutes most days of the week is the norm, for fitness or longevity. This is recommended for the general population for: ★ good health, ★ mood stabilization, ★ the ability to deal with life stressors and ★ be able to, at will, participate in spontaneous life activities requiring movement and endurance (eg. playing with kids, a game of pick-up with friends, jumping repeatedly off the dock at the lake!)
  11. 11. continued... With increased activity comes increased requirements for nutrients and water. The increase in calories will be determined by the type of activity performed and duration for which it is performed. The increase in calories should be divided into carbs, protein and fats, and not provided by one nutrient only. Activity Approx. calories/30 min (for 154 lb person) Approx. calories/1h for (154 lb person) Walking 140 280 Bicycling 145 290 Weight lifting 110 220 Dancing 165 330
  12. 12. Highly active lifestyle This is a lifestyle where an individual engages in high-intensity exercise/training on a daily basis, as for sport/elite athletics. Emphasis on nutrients may differ based on the goal(s) of the athlete: Strength/power vs. Endurance However, many general guidelines for sport performance nutrition encompass both goals.
  13. 13. CONSIDERATIONS For both strength/power and endurance activities: - Additional calories allotted pre-exercise should be rich in carbohydrates to fuel activity. - Additional calories allotted post-exercise should include protein-rich foods to help with recovery in addition to carb-rich foods. The increase in calories will be determined by the type of activity performed and duration for which it is performed.
  14. 14. continued... With increased activity comes increased requirements for nutrients and water. The increase in calories will be determined by the type of activity performed and duration for which it is performed. The increase in calories should be divided into carbs, protein and fats, and not provided by one nutrient only. High-intensity activity Approx. # calories/30 min (for 154 lb person) Approx. # calories/1h for (154 lb person) Vigorous weight lifting 220 440 Aerobics 240 480 Basketball (vigorous) 220 440 Jogging very fast 295 590
  15. 15. ATHLETE VITAMIN & MINERAL REQUIREMENTS Vitamins and minerals serve hundreds of functions in the body. They are found in a variety of foods to provide athletes with what is needed for training and competition. The following nutrients are of special concern for athletes: ★ Iron ★ B-vitamins ★ Antioxidants: Vit.C, E, beta carotene & selenium ★ Calcium & Vitamin D
  16. 16. IRON Iron is critical for athletes as it helps the body use and carry oxygen to active muscles. Training hard uses a lot of iron. Iron deficiency can lead to: ★ anemia ★ fatigue ★ low motivation ★ increased risk of illness Athletes, especially women, teens, distance runners and vegetarians should have their iron checked periodically by their doctor. Examples of excellent iron-rich foods include: meat, poulty, fish Other examples: beans, lentils, seeds, soy (plant source iron is not well absorbed without the presence of Vitamin C, so include citrus fruit, strawberries, bell peppers or broccoli to aid absorption)
  17. 17. B-VITAMINS B-vitamins are needed to release energy in your body, build and repair tissue and for healthy red blood cells (that carry oxygen to the cells). Eating enough calories and foods from all four food groups will ensure adequate B-vitamins. Good sources include: - some whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, milk products, legumes - and vegetables such as mushrooms, potatoes and leafy green vegetables Vitamin B12 is only found in foods of animal origin. Vegetarian and vegan athletes must include foods fortified with this vitamin such as soy beverage and meat substitutes (veggie burgers) to avoid deficiency.
  18. 18. ANTIOXIDANTS: Vitamins C and E, beta carotene and selenium Antioxidants: Vitamins C and E, beta carotene and selenium help protect your body’s cells from damage. Nutrient rich foods such as vegetables, fruit, nuts, whole grains and legumes are good sources. Vitamin C: citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli Vitamin E: vegetable oils, avocado, wheat germ, nuts, seeds Beta-carotene: bright-coloured vegetables; carrots, apricots, pumpkin and sweet potato Selenium: meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, yogurt, whole grains, mushrooms, nuts, seeds
  19. 19. CALCIUM & VITAMIN D Calcium and Vitamin D are important for healthy bones, teeth, muscles, nerves and hormone function. Vitamin D also keeps your immune system healthy. Calcium: milk, cheese, yogurt, fortified soy beverage, kale, canned salmon and sardines Vitamin D: egg yolks, fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, tuna, fortified cow’s milk and margarine - Vitamin D is also made when the sun hits bare skin. In Canada, athletes who train indoors most of the time are at risk of deficiency.
  20. 20. SPORTS NUTRITION TIPS ★ smaller portions eaten more frequently keeps metabolism raised and blood sugar level ★ pre-exercise meals and snacks should be planned with regard to nutrient content and timing ★ eating should be done 1-4 hours before exercise or competition - the closer to exercise/competition, the smaller the meal/snack should be to avoid digestive upset ★ carb-rich AND protein-rich foods should be included in meals and snacks ★ foods that are lower in fat and fibre should be chosen over high-fat, high-fibre choices prior to exercise ★ staying well hydrated well before and just prior to exercise is essential for performance, even starting the night before ★ water is the only hydration required if exercise bouts last 1.5 hours or less
  21. 21. SAMPLE PRE-EXERCISE SNACKS/MEALS Eating before exercise is important to prevent fatigue, and prolong performance intensity. 1-4 hours before event (fueling while satisfying hunger): ★ whole grain cereal or oatmeal with low-fat milk and mixed berries ★ whole wheat toast or bagel with peanut butter and a banana ★ whole wheat tortilla wrap with chicken or turkey, lettuce, tomato, green peppers, and cucumber ★ stir-fry made with cooked brown rice or quinoa and tofu, lean beef, chicken, or shrimp, and a mix of your favourite vegetables ★ baked sweet potato, grilled fish or chicken, and cooked vegetables 2 hours or less before event (carb-rich, easy-to-digest): ★ Whole wheat toast or English muffin with low-fat cheese ★ Yogurt with fruit ★ Medium apple or banana with or without trail mix ★ Smoothie made with low-fat milk and fruit
  22. 22. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS... Accommodating the unique issues of individual athletes can be done by a dietician regarding the following: ★ Health ★ Nutrient needs ★ Performance goals ★ Physique characteristics (ie. body size, shape, growth, composition) ★ Practical challenges (access to specific foods) ★ Food preferences ★ Food sensitivities/allergies
  23. 23. ACUTE FUELING STRATEGIES The following guidelines promote high carbohydrate availability to promote optimal performance in competition or key training sessions: Situation Carbohydrate targets Comments General fueling Prep for less than 1.5h event 7-12 g/kg/day as for daily fuel needs Choose carb-rich sources low in fibre/residue & easily consumed to ensure fuel targets are met, and to ensure gut comfort or lighter “racing weight” (not bloated). Carbohydrate loading Prep for more than 1.5h event of sustained/intermittent exercise 36-48 hours of 10- 12 g/kg/day Speedy refueling Less than 8h between two fuel-demanding events 1-1.2 g/kg/h for first 4h, then resume daily fuel needs Consuming small regular snacks is beneficial. Ingest carb-rich food and drinks to meet fuel targets. continued...
  24. 24. continued from last page... Pre-event fueling Within 60 min of event 1-4 g/kg before exercise Timing, amount and type of carb shall suit the practical needs of the event and personal preference. Avoid choices high in fat/protein/fibre to reduce risk of intestinal upset. During brief exercise Less than 45 min Not needed During sustained high intensity exercise 45-75 min of exercise Small amounts including mouth rinse Water may be adequate for this length of time. Other drinks and sport products provide easily consumed carbs. Frequent contact of carbohydrate with the mouth can stimulate the brain to give a feeling of well-being and increase work output. During endurance exercise including “stop & start” sports 1-2.5 hours of exercise 30-60 g/h The athlete may choose from a variety of carb choices as per personal preference/experience, and hydrate often. During ultra- endurance exercise Longer than 2.5-3h Up to 90 g/h Same as above. Glucose:fructose mixtures provide fuel for better performance.
  25. 25. SUPPLEMENTATION There are many sports supplements available on the market today. Research shows, however, that very few supplements will benefit exercise or sport performance. In most cases, good training, a healthy and balanced diet, and enough rest will help your performance more than any supplement. However, here is some general information about three popular sports supplements on the market today that have some evidence that they “work”...
  26. 26. Creatine Creatine is naturally found in muscle. It comes from animal foods such as meat and fish. Creatine supplementation can increase lean muscle and improve performance in sports that use intense short bursts of energy (10 and 30 seconds), such as sprinting, weight lifting or sprint cycling. This seems particularly true for those who have a lower intake of animal protein, like vegetarians. Creatine does not improve performance for longer endurance sports such as long distance running, swimming or cycling. Creatine works best if taken separately from caffeine. Side effects may include bloating, muscle cramping, nausea or diarrhea, especially at higher doses. If side effects are experienced, the dose should be reduced. Short-term studies show that creatine is safe in the doses recommended above for healthy adults. Less is known about the long-term safety of creatine. A doctor should always be consulted before taking creatine. Creatine should not be taken if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or under 18 years of age.
  27. 27. Caffeine Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in the world. Caffeine is found in tea, coffee, cola beverages, energy drinks and shots, chocolate, certain herbs, sports gels, and caffeine tablets. Caffeine stimulates your central nervous system, giving a feeling of being more alert. It may make exercise feel easier, increase endurance, or delay tiredness especially during intense exercise. Caffeine can be taken before or during exercise to feel the benefits. Caffeine affects people differently. Attempting to use caffeine as a stimulant for exercise should first be done during training, not during the day of an event. It may in fact hurt your performance. Caffeine can cause jitters and nervousness, cause an upset stomach, a racing heartbeat, or affect sleep quality, all of which can hurt performance. Athletes who are affected in these ways should reduce the dosage, or simply avoid it.
  28. 28. Protein supplements Protein is essential in building and maintaining muscle and supporting muscle recovery after exercise. Research shows that taking protein shortly after intense exercise (the recovery phase) can help build muscle and repair muscle damage. Nutritious, protein-rich foods should be chosen first, but in some cases, protein supplements can be an easy, portable way to meet protein needs. Protein supplements have NOT been shown to be better than protein rich foods like meat, fish, poultry, milk, yogurt, eggs and soy for building muscle. To get the most from protein supplementation, it is important to eat enough total calories and carbohydrate to meet the body’s needs. Otherwise, the protein may be used as an energy source. If that extra energy is not required, it will be stored as fat. Remember that consuming more protein supplement than recommended does not result in building more muscle.
  29. 29. A FINAL FEW WORDS... Many athletes find many ways to fuel their performance. It is a personal journey that should focus on achieving: ● Optimal energy for life and sport ● Optimal mood ● Optimal sleep quality ● Optimal digestive comfort Sports nutrition guidelines are a good starting point to improve performance. Improving nutrition in general (see first line of quote on next slide) is key for optimal performance in any sport or activity - whether strength/power focused, or endurance focused.
  30. 30. WORLD-CLASS FITNESS IN 100 WORDS Eat meat and vegetables, nuts and seeds, some fruit, little starch and no sugar. Keep intake to levels that will support exercise but not body fat. Practice and train major lifts: Deadlift, clean, squat, presses, C&J, and snatch. Similarly, master the basics of gymnastics: pull-ups, dips, rope climb, push-ups, sit-ups, presses to handstand, pirouettes, flips, splits, and holds. Bike, run, swim, row, etc, hard and fast. Five or six days per week mix these elements in as many combinations and patterns as creativity will allow. Routine is the enemy. Keep workouts short and intense. Regularly learn and play new sports. ~Coach Greg Glassman, CrossFit Founder and CEO (Courtesy of CrossFit Inc.)
  31. 31. Sources http://www.livestrong.com/article/297416-diet-for-the-sedentary/ http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/good-diet-sedentary-lifestyle-3007.html http://www.dietitians.ca/Your-Health/Nutrition-A-Z/Sports-Nutrition-(Adult)/Fuelling-up-before-exercise.aspx http://www.dietitians.ca/Downloads/Public/noap-position-paper.aspx https://iota-fitness.com/what-is-crossfit/worldclass-fitness/ http://www.scandpg.org/nutrition-info/nutrition-for-collegiate-sports-and-athletics/articles/ http://scan-dpg.s3.amazonaws.com/media/files/fa520054-ac44-4d8e-bf29-3cd2828a2b4a/The%20Perfect%20Athlete's%20Snack%20Final%20032415.pdf http://scan-dpg.s3.amazonaws.com/media/files/3bab0bcc-85b4-4ff5-a831-e705b498772b/SCAN%20NCAA%20Article%20-%20Fueling%20for%20Endurance.pdf http://fitness.mercola.com/sites/fitness/archive/2012/06/29/whey-protein-for-sports-nutrition.aspx http://athletesacceleration.com/can-fit-agility-training-program-2/ http://athletesacceleration.com/nutrition-for-sports-performance/ http://athletesacceleration.com/training-performance-recovery/

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