Section 7 - Cell Energy


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Section 7 - Cell Energy

  1. 1. Cellular Energy Biology I Factoids
  2. 2. Factoid 75 <ul><li>Section 7 </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is the cell’s energy and it is made up an adenine molecule, a ribose sugar molecule, and three phosphate groups. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factoid 76 <ul><li>Energy is released when chemical bonds are broken </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factoid 77 <ul><li>ATP breaks down into ADP and a phosphate group, releasing energy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factoid 78 <ul><li>ATP CYCLE </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factoid 79 <ul><li>Cellular respiration is the series of reactions that break down food into energy in the presence of oxygen. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Factoid 80 <ul><li>The three parts of cellular respiration are glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factoid 81 <ul><li>The mitochondria </li></ul>
  9. 9. Factoid 82 <ul><li>Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and breaks down glucose into 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 Pyruvic acids </li></ul>
  10. 10. Factoid 83 <ul><li>The Kreb’s cycle (sometimes called the citric acid cycle) occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria and uses the 2 pyruvic acids to produce 2 FADH 2 , 6 NADH, and 2 ATP. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factoid 84 <ul><li>NADH and FADH 2 are carrier molecules – they carry hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain </li></ul>
  12. 12. Factoid 85 <ul><li>The electron transport chain occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria (cristae) and uses the 2 NADH from glycolysis, the 6 NADH from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 2 FADH 2, from the Kreb’s cycle to produce 32 ATP </li></ul>
  13. 13. Factoid 86 <ul><li>When you add the 2 ATP from glycolysis, the 2 ATP from the Kreb’s cycle, and the 32 ATP from the electron transport chain, you get a total of 36 ATP produced from 1 glucose molecule. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Factoid 87 <ul><li>The overall summary equation for cellular respiration is: </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide +water+energy </li></ul>
  15. 15. Factoid 88 <ul><ul><li>After glycolysis, if there is no oxygen present, some cells can perform anaerobic respiration. (ana=no; aerobic=air) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only produces 2 ATP from glycolysis. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Factoid 89 <ul><ul><li>Lactic acid fermination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells do this when they run out of oxygen. Results in muscle soreness because the lactic acid is poisonous. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Factoid 90 <ul><ul><li>Alcoholic fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvic acid is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes bread rise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for beer and wine production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Factoid 91 <ul><li>Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs use sunlight to change water and carbon dioxide into simple sugar and oxygen. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Factoid 92 <ul><li>The overall summary equation for photosynthesis is: </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 +ATP  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>carbon+water+energy  Glucose+oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>dioxide </li></ul>
  20. 20. Factoid 93 <ul><li>The reactions of photosynthesis are divided into the light dependent reactions and the light independent reactions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Factoid 94
  22. 22. Factoid 95 <ul><li>In the light dependent reactions (which occurs on the thylakoid membrane), sunlight hits a chlorophyll molecule and water is split into H and O. </li></ul><ul><li>NADPH and ATP are produced </li></ul>
  23. 23. Factoid 96 <ul><li>In the light independent reactions (which occur in the stroma), the ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere combine to make glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>AKA – The Calvin Cycle </li></ul>
  24. 24. Factoid 97 <ul><li>C4 plants store extra carbon dioxide during cooler time, to be used in the Calvin Cycle when the hot weather makes them close their stomata (leaf pores). </li></ul><ul><li>Corn, grass, other tropical plants. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Factoid 98 <ul><li>CAM plants close their stomata during the day. They take in extra carbon dioxide at night and store it to be used in the Calvin cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Cactus, aloe vera, other succulent and desert plants. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Factoid 99 <ul><li>Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are basically the reverse of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is a building process and cellular respiration is a tearing down process. </li></ul>