Writing A Bibliography
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Writing A Bibliography

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This is a brief presentation on how to add in-text citations and write bibliographies.

This is a brief presentation on how to add in-text citations and write bibliographies.

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Writing A Bibliography Writing A Bibliography Presentation Transcript

  • Writing a Bibliography What you need to know to write an effective and efficient bibliography
  • Purposes of Bibliographies
    • To give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas.
    • To inform your readers where your information was found.
    • To avoid plagiarism , or borrowing words and ideas without acknowledging their original sources.
  • Styles of Bibliographies
    • Modern Language Association (MLA)
      • Most commonly used in English classes
    • American Psychological Association (APA)
      • Used mainly in social sciences classes (psychology, sociology, etc.)
    • The Chicago Manual of Style, or Chicago-style
      • Used mainly by history and humanities professors
  • MLA Style
    • It is common practice to cite your sources in two areas of the research paper
      • In-text , or inside the paper
      • A Works Cited page that follows the conclusion of the paper
  • In-Text Citation
    • According to Diana Hacker’s Pocket Style Manual , “MLA in-text citations are made with a combination of signal phrases and parenthetical references.” (122)
    • Depending on whether or not the author is named in a signal phrase will determine if the author’s name is included in the citation.
    • Example: Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).
      • In this example, the author is not mentioned in the signal phrase, so they are cited at the end of the sentence, along with the page number where the information was found.
  • In-Text Citation (cont’d.)
    • Example: Turback claims that “regulated sport hunting has never driven any wild species into extinction” (74). (Hacker 123)
      • In this example, the signal phrase mentions the name of the author, so only the page number is needed at the end of the sentence.
    • Since electronic sources don’t always provide page numbers, identifying paragraphs or sections in an abbreviated form is helpful.
      • When an electronic source does not have a known author, according to Hacker, “use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in parentheses.” (126)
    • Example: According to a Web page sponsored by the Children’s Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day. (“Child”)
      • In this example, the author is not known, so the complete title is cited at the end of the sentence.
  • Works Cited List
    • Is displayed at the conclusion of a paper in alphabetical order.
    • “… gives full publication information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper.” (Hacker 127)
    • All entries on this page must have a corresponding cited work in the main text of the paper (“The Owl at Purdue”).
  • Works Cited List (cont’d.)
    • Book Format
      • “… arrange the information into three units, each followed by a period and one space: (1) the author’s name, last name first; (2) the title and subtitle, underlined or italicized; and (3) the place of publication, the publisher, and the date.” (Hacker 129)
      • Last name, First name. Title of Book . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. (“The Owl at Purdue.”)
      • Example: Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science . New York: Penguin Books, 1987. (“The Owl at Purdue.”)
    • When there are two or three authors, begin in the one author format, then any additional authors are written first name first, then last name.
      • Example: Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring . Boston: Allyn, 2000.
  • Works Cited List (cont’d.)
    • Book Format
      • “… arrange the information into three units, each followed by a period and one space: (1) the author’s name, last name first; (2) the title and subtitle, underlined or italicized; and (3) the place of publication, the publisher, and the date.” (Hacker 129)
      • Last name, First name. Title of Book . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. (“The Owl at Purdue.”)
      • Example: Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science . New York: Penguin Books, 1987. (“The Owl at Purdue.”)
    • “… gives full publication information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper.” (Hacker 127)
    • All entries on this page must have a corresponding cited work in the main text of the paper (“The Owl at Purdue”).