Apa style referencing by sohail ahmed


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Apa style referencing by sohail ahmed

  1. 1. The APA style of referencing Sohail Ahmed
  2. 2. The APA style of referencing Consists of two elements: 1. in-text citations, giving author, year andsometimes page number in the body of thepaper2. a reference list at the end of the paper,providing complete details for each in-textcitation. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 2 M.A English Literature
  3. 3. PART 1: In-text citations Formatting QuotationsWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sureto include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number,but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information. Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11). A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 3 M.A English Literature
  4. 4. In-text Citations:Formatting a Summary or ParaphraseProvide the author’s last name and the year ofpublication in parenthesis after a summary or aparaphrase. Though feminist studies focus solely on womens experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 4 M.A English Literature
  5. 5. In-text citations One authorWhen you refer to a single author, includethe author’s family name and year ofpublication using one of the forms shownhere.Clay (2003) argues that having a planned approach to writing essayscan be of great benefit. orEssay writing can be made much more manageable if a plannedapproach is taken (Clay, 2003). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 5 M.A English Literature
  6. 6. In-text citations Multiple authorsFor two authors, include the family namesof both authors and the year as required.According to Antonakos and Kazanis (2003) there are advantages tokeeping design and research methods simple. use ‘and’ when family names are outside parenthesesThere are advantages to keeping design and research methods simple(Antonakos & Kazanis, 2003). use ‘&’ when family names are inside parentheses(bracket) Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 6 M.A English Literature
  7. 7. In-text citations Multiple authorsIn the case of three, four or five authors,cite all authors the first time, then insubsequent citations of this work use thefamily name of the first-listed author plus‘et al.’ and the year as required.Always list the authors in the order theyappear in the publication. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 7 M.A English Literature
  8. 8. In-text citations Multiple authorsWhen citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors inthe signal phrase or in parenthesis. (Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)In subsequent (Already given above) citations, only use the firstauthors last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or inparentheses. (Harklau et al., 1993) Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 8 M.A English Literature
  9. 9. In-text Citations: A Work with Six and More AuthorsWhen citing a work with six and more authors, identify the firstauthor’s name followed by “et al.” Smith et al. (2006) maintained that…. (Smith et al., 2006) Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 9 M.A English Literature
  10. 10. In-text Citations: A Work of Unknown AuthorWhen citing a work of unknown author, use the source’s full title inthe signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by theyear of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of articles and chapters inquotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports. According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System” (2008), … Or, (“Indiana,” 2008) Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 10 M.A English Literature
  11. 11. In-text Citations: OrganizationWhen citing an organization, mention the organization the first timewhen you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parentheticalcitation. The data collected by the Food and Drug Administration (2008) confirmed that…If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include theabbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then useonly the abbreviation in later citations. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed … FDA’s experts tested… Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 11 M.A English Literature
  12. 12. In-text Citations: The same last name/the same authorWhen citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with thelast names. (B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)When citing two or more works by the same author published in thesame year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year of publicationto order the references. Smith’s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants… Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 12 M.A English Literature
  13. 13. In-text Citations: Personal communicationWhen citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include thecommunicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication,and the date of the communication. Do not include personalcommunication in the reference list. Sohail. A also claimed that many of his students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, October 3, 2011). Or, (S. Stella, personal communication, January 4,2011). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 13 M.A English Literature
  14. 14. In-text Citations: Electronic sourcesWhen citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in theauthor-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate andidentify paragraph number/paragraph heading. According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6). Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 14 M.A English Literature
  15. 15. In-text Citations: Electronic sourcesMany online articles are pdf files, i.e. copies of print documents, sothey usually indicate page numbers. Use these page numbers when youcite information from such sources.Some articles are not pdf files and do not have page numbers. In thesecases use paragraph numbers, if these are provided. Smith (2003, para. 3) claims…If paragraph numbers are not provided and the document includesheadings, use these headings and count the number of paragraphs. Smith (2003, Conclusion section, para.3) claims… Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 15 M.A English Literature
  16. 16. In-text Citations: No year of publication providedIf there no year is given for a source, usen.d. (which stands for no date) after theauthor’s name. In a detailed analysis, Ahmed(n.d.) argues … Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 16 M.A English Literature
  17. 17. PART 2: Reference list An important purpose of the reference list is to enable readers to locate sources. Therefore details must be correct and complete. Each in-text citation and the related reference list entry should be identical in spelling and year. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 17 M.A English Literature
  18. 18. Reference listIn compiling your APA reference list, you should:• list references on a new page with a centred heading titled‘References’• include books, journal articles, online sources etc. in one alphabeticallisting• order entries alphabetically by family name of author/s• list works with no author under the first significant word of the title• indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (5–7 spaces)• use double spacing. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 18 M.A English Literature
  19. 19. Reference list BooksBook titles are italicized.The city and state in which the publisher is located are included, using United States postal codes to abbreviate states. However, the state (and/or country) is omitted for major cities and for university presses that include the name of the state. If more than one location is listed, the first is used.Basic Format for Books In ItalicAuthor, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter alsofor subtitle. Location: Publisher. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 19 M.A English Literature
  20. 20. Reference list Books No authorWorld development report. (1989). New York: Oxford University Press. One authorPerloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: rlbaum. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 20 M.A English Literature
  21. 21. Reference listOrganization as Author: American Psychological Association. (2003).Unknown Author: Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 21 M.A English Literature
  22. 22. Reference list BooksTwo authors: Separated by “&” Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of book. City: Publisher.Crawford, P., Brown, B., & Nolan, P. (1998). Communicating care: The language ofnursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 22 M.A English Literature
  23. 23. Reference list BooksThree to Seven Authors:List by last names and initials; commas separate authornames, while the last author name is preceded again byampersand(&).Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993).Communicating care: The language of nursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 23 M.A English Literature
  24. 24. Reference list Books More Than Seven Authors: Provide the family names and initials of the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points and the last author’s family name and initial.Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F., …Author, M. (year). Details of the work as appropriate to its form.Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A.,Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Communication. London: LondonPublishers. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 24 M.A English Literature
  25. 25. Reference list BooksBook other than first edition:Abbott, C. (1982). Colorado: A history of the Centennial State (Rev. ed.). Boulder:Colorado Associated University Press. Other abbreviations include: 1st ed., 2nd ed, etc. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 25 M.A English Literature
  26. 26. Reference list BooksArticle or chapter in an edited book :Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of chapter. In C. Editor & D. Editor(Eds.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). City: Publisher. Page NumbersCapitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article or chaptertitle, and any proper nouns.Naidoo, B. (2000). Evaluating the use of public health risk factor simulation models. InM. Thorogood & Y. Coombes (Eds.), Evaluating health promotion: Practice andmethods (pp. 99–109). Oxford: Oxford University Press.For multiple editors, use abbreviation, Eds. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 26 M.A English Literature
  27. 27. Reference list BooksBook, online: Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of book. [details about the format if available]. doi or Retrieved from web address.– Munsterberg, H. (1916). The photoplay: A psychological study. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15383/15383-8.txt Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 27 M.A English Literature
  28. 28. Reference list Journal articleAuthor, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of article. Title ofJournal, volume number (issue number), page numbers.The issue number should be indicated only if each issue of a journalbegins on page 1.Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article title andsubtitle, and any proper nouns.Capitalize the first letter of every main word in the journal title.Include a digital object identifier (DOI) if provided. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 28 M.A English Literature
  29. 29. Reference list Journal articleArticle in Journal Paginated by Volume:Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issueone, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.Article in Journal Paginated by Issue:Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 29 M.A English Literature
  30. 30. Reference list Journal article, online Author, A. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page numbers. doi or Retrieved from web address.If a digital object identifier (DOI) is provided then it should be given; if noDOI is available then the home page web address of the journal, oruniform resource locator (URL), should be given. Date of retrieval is notrequired. Ekwall, A., Gerdtz, M., & Manias, E. (2008). The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers. Journal of Clinical Nursing,17,800–809. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x Midford, R. (2005). Australia and alcohol: Living down the legend. Addiction,100, 891–896. Retrieved from http://www.addictionjournal.org Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 30 M.A English Literature
  31. 31. Reference list Newspaper article Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p. x.Wroe, D. (2004, June 24). Canberra enlists GPs in war on smoking. The Age, p. 3. Newspaper article, no author: Title of article. (year, month day). Title of Newspaper, p. x. Embryo study nod, OK say IVF couples. (2004, May 31). Herald Sun, p.10. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 31 M.A English Literature
  32. 32. Reference list Newspaper article, onlineAuthor, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper.Retrieved from home page web address Nader, C. (2009, June 19). Mental health issues soar among children. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.auLetter to the Editor: Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 32 M.A English Literature
  33. 33. Reference list Document, online Author, A. (year). Title of document. Retrieved from web addressRetrieval date is given if it is believed the information could change over time. Northern Territory Department of Justice. (2007). Step forward: Getting help about sexual violence. Retrieved fromttp://www.nt.gov.au/justice/documents/stepforward.pdf Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 33 M.A English Literature
  34. 34. Reference list Web pageWeb page Author, A. (year). Title of page. Retrieved month, day, year from web address.The title of a web page is not italicized. Diabetes Australia. (2010). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved July 22, 2010 fromhttp://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Understanding-Diabetes/What-is- Diabetes/Gestational-Diabetes-/ Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 34 M.A English Literature
  35. 35. Reference listOnline Encyclopedias and DictionariesOften encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authorsnames). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front ofthe citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if nodate is present in the entry.Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved fromhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 35 M.A English Literature
  36. 36. Reference list Audiovisual materialsPersons primarily responsible for the item are named; their roles areidentified in parentheses after their names.• The medium, placed in brackets, is supplied after the title. Mediadesignations include [Audio recording], [CD] (for music CD), and[Motion picture] for both film and videotape.Videotape Weir, P. B. (Producer), & Harrison, B. F. (Director). (1992). Levels of consciousness [Motion Picture].Boston: Filmways.Audio cassette – Carter, B. (Speaker). (1977). The growth of English [Audio Recording]. New York: Audio Associates. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 36 M.A English Literature
  37. 37. Further reading The APA website provides further examples at <www.apastyle.org>. Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 37 M.A English Literature
  38. 38. Enjoy It! »GOOD LUCK Complied by: SOHAIL AHMED 38 M.A English Literature