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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

  1. 1. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
  2. 2. Conceptual Literature Research Literature
  3. 3. It contains literature coming from books, journalism, and other forms of material, concerning or relevant to the study, but are data-free or non – empirical material, coming from both foreign and local sources.
  4. 4. These are empirically – based, like scientific paper, thesis, and dissertations, both published and unpublished, coming from local and foreign sources.
  5. 5.  It gives researcher several ideas on how to select and formulate his own research problem.  It helps the researcher identify studies that have been done related to the topic he is interested in.  It avoids possible duplication of similar studies.  It guides the researcher on the possible theoretical framework he can use for his current study.
  6. 6.  It gives direction to the researcher on how he will create his own conceptual framework.  It allows the researcher to browse several kinds of research designs, sampling techniques, statistical procedures, questionnaires and processes of presenting, analyzing , and interpreting data, from where he could base his own choice for his paper.  It gives a picture of a comparative analysis between variables used in reviewed materials and those used in the current study.
  7. 7. The review material must be current. Literature and studies reviewed must be relevant to the study. Findings or result of reviewed study should be objective and free of biases.
  8. 8.  The data used in the reviewed materials should be scrutinized in terms of sampling technique used to ensure that generalizations are based on normal population.  Reviewed materials related to the current study should be enough to establish a strong and viable trending of result.
  9. 9.  Graduate theses and Dissertation  Encyclopedia of Educational research  Books  Internet sites and resources (website, e- journals, e-books)  Dictionaries in education and psychology
  10. 10.  Identify the general topic of the sources under discussion. Thus, you will provide the context of your review of related literature;  Discuss what was already presented about the topic of your paper: conflicts in a theory, conclusions, gaps in research and scholarship, etc.  Explain why the literature used is worth reviewing How to Write the Introduction of a Review of Related Literature
  11. 11.  It is a way of strengthening or concretizing one’s idea by citing the similar or relevant ideas or findings of other researchers and authorities. Documentation was done through footnoting or parenthetical reference citation. Modern writers is now using parenthetical reference style. The style is called “American Psychological Association style” or APA style
  12. 12. The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)
  13. 13. If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information in parentheses. Simon (1945) said that
  14. 14. When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)
  15. 15. In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and.“ as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated
  16. 16. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found
  17. 17. In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Kahneman et al. (1991) found
  18. 18. In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Kahneman et al. (1991) found
  19. 19. In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Kahneman et al. (1991) found
  20. 20. References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
  21. 21.  Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.  Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.  Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title.
  22. 22.  Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.  Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent".  Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals.

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