Referencing styles presentation


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Referencing styles presentation

  1. 1. Presented to SIR TANVEER KHAN Presented by ZAINAB JAVED MPhil Pharmacognosy THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE
  2. 2. “Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that have been used in assignment and allows the sources to be identified”.
  3. 3. Using others images and videos Quoting others words REFER IT Paraphrasing other words and ideas
  4. 4.  To avoid plagiarism.  To trace origin of ideas.  To support our voice in academic writing.  To validate arguments.  To acknowledge others work.
  5. 5. STYLES DISCIPLINES AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) Psychology, nursing, education and other social sciences MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA) Literature, arts and humanities CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE History, information science and journalism AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (AMA) Health sciences AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (ACS) Chemistry AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY (AMS) Mathematics AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (ASCE) Engineering
  6. 6.  Abbreviation of AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION.  Set of specific formatting conventions.  Origin in 1929.
  7. 7. FORMAT
  8. 8. MARGIN:
  10. 10. SPACING:
  12. 12. References Main Body Abstract Title page
  13. 13. Running head: APA FORMATTING GUIDE PAGE HEADER •Use “Insert Page Header” to set this up. •Title must be flush left + page number flush right. TITLE: •Centered. •Includes titles, author name and institutional affiliation APA Formatting Guide Student Name Colorado Christian University 1
  14. 14. APA uses a system of five heading levels LEVEL OF HEADING 1 FORMAT Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase 2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase with a period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase with a period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase with a period.
  15. 15.  Parenthetical citation  Author-date method of citation Example 1: When the APA style was first conceived eighty years ago, the main purpose was to develop standards for the publication of articles in the fields of anthropology and psychology (American Psychological Association, 2001). Example 2: According to Fox (2007), the internet has played a significant role in the increase of plagiarism in academia today.
  16. 16. AUTHORS FIRST CITATION IN TEXT SUBSEQUENT CITATION IN TEXT PARENTHETICAL FORMAT, FIRST CITATION IN TEXT PARENTHETICAL FORMAT, SUBSEQUENT CITATION IN TEXT One author Morse (1996) Morse (1996) (Morse, 1996) (Morse, 1996) Two authors Ringsven and Bond (1996) Ringsven and Bond (1996) (Ringsven & Bond, 1996) (Ringsven & Bond, 1996) Three to five authors Johnson, Brunn and Platt (2002) Johnson et al. (2002) (Johnson, Brunn, & Platt, 2002) (Johnson et al., 2002) Six or more authors Arpin et al. (2001) Arpin et al. (2001) (Arpin et al., 2001) (Arpin et al., 2001) Group (identified abbreviation) as authors Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2009) CDC (2009) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2009) (CDC, 2009) Group (no abbreviation) as authors The Michener Institute (2002) The Michener Institute (2002) (The Michener (The Michener Institute, Institute, 2002) 2002)
  17. 17.  A similar study was done of students learning to format research paper (“Using APA,” 2001). MORE THAN ONE WORK BY SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR:  Research by Durgin (2003b) has yielded new findings about the role of counseling in treating childhood obesity. PARENTHETICAL CITATION WITH 2 OR MORE WORKS:  (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983) AUTHOR WITH SAME LAST NAME:  (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
  18. 18.  (T. K. Lutes, personal communication, September 28,1998). OR T. K. Lutes (personal communication, September 28, 1998) ELECTRONIC SOURCES:  Kenneth (2000) OR (Kenneth, 2000).  Global warming 101, (2012) OR ("Global warming 101," 2012).  Smith, (n.d.) OR (Smith, n.d.). INDIRECT SOURCES:  Johnson argued that... (as cited in Smith, 2003).
  19. 19.  Less than 40 words: Critser (2003) noted that despite growing numbers of overweight Americans, many health care providers still “remain either in ignorance or outright denial about the health danger to the poor and the young” (p. 5). OR (Critser, 2003, p. 5).  More than 40 words: Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p.199)
  20. 20.  Alphabetic order  Double spacing  Hanging indentation  Authors  Date  Title
  21. 21. REFERENCES
  22. 22. Author's name, publication year, book title, edition (if any), location of publication and publisher. EXAMPLE: Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  23. 23.  Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. BOOK WITH EDITION OTHER THAN FIRST:  Ringsven, M. K., & Bond, D. (1996). Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. (2nd ed). Albany, NY: Delmar. BOOK WITH REVISED EDITION:  Culliney, J. L. (2006). Islands in a far sea: The fate of nature in Hawai'i (Rev. ed.). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i Press.
  24. 24.  Rich, J. M. (Ed.). (1972). Readings in the philosophy of education (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. BOOK WITH SOCIETY, ASSOCIATION OR INSTITUTION AS AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER:  American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. EDITED BOOK WITH ONE OR MORE AUTHOR:  Adler, A. (1956). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler: A systematic presentation of selections from his writings. (H. L. Ansbacher & R. R. Ansbacher, Eds.). New York: Basic Books.
  25. 25.  Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814) EDITED BOOK WITH CHAPTERS WITH OWN AUTHOR:  Phillips, S. J., Whisnant, J. (1995). Hypertension and stroke. In J. H. Laragh, & B. Brenner (Eds.), Hypertension: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management (pp. 465-78). New York: Raven Press.
  26. 26. BOOKS
  27. 27. Author names, date, title, location, publisher (with ereader book type in square brackets if applicable), and source (URL or DOI). Example:  Post, E. (1923). Etiquette in society, in business, in politics, and at home. New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved from  Hadler .N. M. (2008). Worried sick: A prescription for health in an over-treated America [Net Library version] Retrieved from  Conoloff, A. (2012). Salvaging the suburbs. doi:11.8870/6001/2122.442.26 
  28. 28. REFERENCES
  29. 29. Author's name, publication year, journal title written in full, a comma, volume number issue number in parentheses if available, comma, and the page range, followed by a period. Examples  Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.  The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. (1986). Clinical exercise testing, Safety and performance guidelines. Medical Journal of Australia, 164, 282-4. 
  30. 30. Mates, B. F., & Strommen, L. (1995). Why Ernie can't read: 'Sesame Street' and literacy. The Reading Teacher, 49(4), 300-306. Retrieved from T.aspx  Alejos, A., Weingartner, A. Scharff, D.P., Ablah, E., Frazier, L., Hawley,S.R.,…Wr ight, K.S. (2008). Ensuring the success of local public health workforce assessments: Using a participatorybased research approach with a rural population. Public Health, 122 (12), 1447-1455. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2008.06.008 
  31. 31. REFERENCES
  32. 32. Give author's names, publication date, title of article, name of magazine, volume number, issue number and page number. Examples:  Ives, F., & Lydon, J. (2005, January). Freud's Vienna revisited. Discover, 26(2), 16-17.  Smith, J. (2009, January 21). Obama inaugurated as President. Time,171, 21-23. Retrieved from
  33. 33. Give author's names, publication date, tile of article, title of publication and page numbers. For example:  Rimer, S. (2003, September 3). A campus fad that’s being copied: Internet plagiarism seems on the rise. New York Times, p. B7.  Brown, P. L. (1999, September 5).Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. The New York Times, pp. 1, 5. Retrieved from
  34. 34. REFERENCES
  35. 35. Give author names (if known), date of publication, copyright date, or date of last update, title of Web site, date of accessing information and web address of the site For examples:  Kraizer, S. (2005). Safe child. Retrieved February 29, 2008, from
  37. 37.  Abbreviation of AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION.  The first publication came out in 1962 and latest 10th publication came out in 2007
  38. 38.  End notes are given in text to to indicate reference For example Duration of surgery, the surgeon's experience ², …
  39. 39.  Numeric order  No indentation  Double-spacing  No space between authors initials.
  40. 40. Give the author's last name then initials, title of book, publication location, publisher and year. BASICBOOKS: Lugalla JB. Poverty, AIDS, and Street Children in East Africa. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press; 2003.  BOOK WITH EDITOR AS AUTHOR: Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. 
  41. 41.  O'Brien C. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGrawHill; 2005: 607-629.
  42. 42.  Give author's names, title of work, place of publication, publisher name, year of publication, URL, date accessed. Example: Fox, M. Including children 3-11 with physical disabilities: Practical guidance for mainstream schools. London: David Fulton; 2003. Accessed December 3, 2007.
  43. 43. Give the author's name, article title, journal title abbreviation, year, volume, issue number in parentheses if available, comma, and the page range. Examples Bakewell J. Choosing support equipment in children's therapy. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2007;14(8): 379-381. Mao DW, Hong Y, Li JX. Characteristics of foot movement in Tai Chi exercise. Phys Ther. 2006; 86(2): 215-222. Accessed December 3, 2007. 
  44. 44. Wolf W. State’s mail-order drug plan launched. Minneapolis Star Tribune. May 14, 2004:1B. WEBPAGE REFERENCES: Give author’s name or responsible body, title of webpage, URL and date accessed. Example: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Rehabilitation. Medline Plus. l. Last updated November 30, 2007. Accessed December 3, 2007.