First aid


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This is our report with NSTP. I'm sharing this becasue it is very important to learn first aid.

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First aid

  1. 1. FIRST AID
  2. 2. FIRST AID • The initial process of assessing and addressing the needs of someone who is experiencing medical emergencies. • Allows a “non-medical expert” to quickly determine a person’s physical condition and the course of treatment. • Can make a difference to a person’s recovery and could save their life.
  3. 3. Purpose of First Aid • To Sustain the life • To Prevent suffering • To Prevent secondary complications • To Promote speedy recovery
  4. 4. DO AND DON’Ts DO • Before handling the casualty use: Mask Gloves Head Cover Apron DON’Ts • First Aider can never  Prescribe Medicine  Declare DEATH
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID (4 C’s) • Call for Help • Calmly Take Charge • Check the scene & the casualty • Carefully apply FIRST AID
  6. 6. ACTION PLAN  Assess the Situation  Safety of yourself and the casualty  Assess the casualty  Treat the casualty  Arrange the removal of the casualty to hospital or safe area  Write a report / Communicate the status
  7. 7. Assessing the Skills of a First Aider Observer Listen Feel Talk Touch Provide Build Trust
  8. 8. Responsibility of a First Aider • To assess the situation quickly and safely and call for appropriate help. • To identify the level of injury or the nature of illness affecting the casualty / victim. • To give early and appropriate treatment in a sensible order of priority. • To make and pass on a report, give a further help if its required.
  9. 9. DRABC Danger Response Airway Breathing Circulation
  10. 10. D - DANGER To yourself To others To casualty
  11. 11. R - RESPONSE • Gently “Shake and Shout” at the casualty • Is the casualty is conscious? • Is the casualty drowsy or confused? • Is the casualty unconscious, but reacting? • Is the casualty unconscious with no reaction? • If unconscious, place the casualty in the stable side position.
  12. 12. A - AIRWAY • Is the airway is open and clear? • Is there noisy in breathing? • Are there Potential obstruction such as blood etc? • If so, open and clear the airway!
  13. 13. HOW TO OPEN AN AIRWAY • Tilt Head and Back and Lift Chin up with fingers under the jaw to establish Airway (Move head as little as possible if there may be a neck injury.)
  14. 14. B - BREATHING • Look for chest movements • Listen for sounds for breathing • Feel for breathes on your cheek • If not breathing give 2 rescue breathes
  15. 15. C - CIRCULATION • Is there a carotid pulse? • Is it strong? • Is it regular” • Is there a major blood loss? • IF NO PULSE PRESENT THEN START CPR ( CIRCULATION PULSE RESPIRATION)
  16. 16. NOSE BLEED
  17. 17. The Do and Don’ts for First Aid Treatment DIAGNOSIS Nosebleed • Do not lean back. • Leaning back can be harmful as the blood could block the windpipe, blocking the airway. • Sit in a comfortable upright position and lean forward slightly. • Then pinch your nose just below the bony nose bridge and above the fleshy lobes of the nostrils until the bleeding is stemmed. • Aftercare: Once the bleeding is controlled, do not blow your nose as this might dislodge the clot and make you bleed again.
  18. 18. HEART ATTACK One of the leading cause of death in many parts of the world.
  19. 19. The Do and Don’ts for First Aid Treatment DIAGNOSIS Heart Attack • Even if you are not sure about the symptoms, if you suspect a heart attack at all, do not wait. • If the person is conscious, give them a 300mg tablet of aspirin to chew. • Alert! The main risk is that the heart will stop beating. Be prepared to resuscitate if necessary. • Early warning signs: Pressure in center of chest. • Pain in shoulders, neck or arms. • Chest discomfort with fainting, sweating or nausea. • Call ambulance immediately.
  20. 20. BURNS
  21. 21. BURNS
  22. 22. The Do and Don’ts for First Aid Treatment DIAGNOSIS BURNS • Never put ice on the burn, as it delay healing or cause extra damage (think frostbite). Also leave the butter in the kitchen, unless you want to make it worse. • Do not break blisters and attempt to remove the skin, as it can cause infection. 1st Degree burn • Put the burn part in cold water. 2nd Degree burn • Put cold, wet dressing on burn. Cover the burned part with a loose bandage (or clean washed cotton sheet for a larger area) and go to the doctor. 3rd Degree burn • Leave burned clothes on the skin. If the face is burned, keep victim sitting up. Keep airway open, tilt head back. Evaluate burned arms, legs, hands. Keep burn higher than heart. Call ambulance.
  23. 23. The Do and Don’ts for First Aid Treatment DIAGNOSIS BURNS • Immediately help victim who suffered from electrical burn without looking out if the victim be in contact with it. Chemical Burn • Remove chemical causing burn by washing the skin under cool running water for at least 20 minutes. Remove all clothing or jewelry that may be contaminated by the chemical. After washing, apply cool, wet cloth on the burn to relieve the pain. Electrical Burn • Call the ambulance immediately. • Look out if there is any contact with the electric source. • Turn off the electrical source or try move it by non – conducting object. • Prevent shock by lying the child down and raising the legs with an object. e.g. Pillow
  24. 24. CHOKING
  25. 25. The Do and Don’ts for First Aid Treatment DIAGNOSIS CHOKING ASK! Are you choking? If the victim able to talk, groan, wheeze or cough, he is partially choked. • Slap the victim back’s hard. • Using your fingers to force out the item out of the victim’s mouth. • Remain calm and encourage the victim to keep coughing to try and clear the blockage. • Stand slightly behind the person to one side. • Support their chest with one hand. Lean the person forward so that the object blocking the airway will come out of their mouth, rather than going further down. • Give at least 5 sharp blows between the person’s shoulder blades with the heel on your hand. Stop after each blows to check if the blockage has cleared. If not, give up to five abdominal thrusts.
  26. 26. CHOKING
  27. 27. The Do and Don’ts for First Aid Treatment DIAGNOSIS CHOKING Complete blockage If the victim unable to make any sound at all. • Using your fingers to force out the item out of the victim’s mouth. Steps in Abdominal thrusts 1. Stand behind the person who is choking. 2. Place your arms around the waist and bend them well forward. 3. Clench your fist and place it right and place it right above the person’s navel (belly button) 4. Place your other hand on top, thrust both hands backwards into their stomach with a hard, upward movement. Do it five times (1 cycle), stop each cycle to check if the blockage has been cleared. Alert! • Do not thrusts on pregnant and on a very large sized adult.
  28. 28. Bites and Stings • Insect stings and bites • What to Look For: • Check the sting site to see if a stinger and venom sac are embedded in the skin. • Bees are the only stinging insects that leave their stingers and venom sacs behind. • Scrape the stinger and venom sac away with a hard object such as a long fingernail, credit card, scissor edge, or knife blade. • Reactions generally localized pain, itching, and swelling. • Allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) occurs will be a life threatening.
  29. 29. Bites and Stings • What to Do: • Ask the victim if he/she has had a reaction before. • Wash the sting site with soap and water to prevent infection. • Apply an ice pack over the sting site to slow absorption of the venom and relieve pain. • Because bee venom is acidic, a paste made of baking soda and water can help. • Seek medical attention if necessary.
  30. 30. Bites and Stings • Tick bites • Tick can remain embedded for days without the victim’s realizing it. • Most tick bites are harmless, although ticks can carry serious diseases. • Symptoms usually begin 3 to 12 days after a tick bites.
  31. 31. Bites and Stings • What to Do: • The best way to remove a tick is with fine-pointed tweezers. Grab as closely to the skin as possible and pull straight back, using steady but gentle force. • Wash the bite site with soap and water. • Apply rubbing alcohol to further disinfect the area. • Apply an ice pack to reduce pain. • Calamine lotion may provide relief from itching. • Keep the area clean. • Continue to watch the bite site for about one month for a rash. • If rash appears, see a physician. • Also watch for other signs such as fever, muscle aches, sensitivity to bright light, and paralysis that begins with leg weakness.
  32. 32. Wounds • Open Wounds • A break in the skin’s surface that results in external bleeding and may allow bacteria to enter the body that can cause infection • Abrasion • The top layer of skin is removed with little or no blood loss • Scrape • Laceration • A cut skin with jagged, irregular edges and caused by a forceful tearing away of skin tissue • Incisions • Smooth edges and resemble a surgical or paper cut
  33. 33. Wounds • Punctures • Deep, narrow wounds such as a stab wound from a nail or a knife in the skin and underlying organs • Avulsion • Flap of skin is torn loose and is either hanging from the body or completely removed • Amputation • Cutting or tearing off of a body part such as a finger, toe, hand, foot, arm, or leg
  34. 34. Wounds • What to Do: • Wear gloves (if possible) and expose wound • Control bleeding • Clean wounds • To prevent infection • Wash shallow wound gently with soap and water • Wash from the center out / Irrigate with water • Severe wound? • Clean only after bleeding has stopped
  35. 35. Wounds • Wounds Care • Remove small objects that do not flush out by irrigation with sterile tweezers. • If bleeding restarts, apply direct pressure. • Use roller bandages (or tape dressing to the body) • Keep dressings dry and clean • Change the dressing daily, or more often if it gets wet or dirty.
  36. 36. Wounds • Signs of Wound Infection: • Swelling, and redness around the wound • A sensation of warmth • Throbbing pain • Fever / chills • Swollen lymph nodes • Red streaks • Tetanus (lock jaw), should receive injection in first 72 hours.
  37. 37. Dressings and Bandages • The purpose of a dressing is to: • Control bleeding • Prevent infection and contamination • Absorb blood and fluid drainage • Protect the wound from further injury • What to Do: • Always wear gloves (if possible) • Use a dressing large enough to extend beyond the wound’s edges. • Cover the dressing with bandages.
  38. 38. Dressings and Bandages • Bandage can be used to: • Hold a dressing in place over an open wound • Apply direct pressure over a dressing to control bleeding • Prevent or reduce swelling • Provide support and stability for an extremity or joint • Bandage should be clean but need not be sterile.
  39. 39. Amputation • What to Do: • Control the bleeding • Treat the victim for shock • Recover the amputated part and whenever possible take it with the victim • To care for the amputated body part: • The amputated part does not need to be cleaned • Wrap the amputated part with a dry sterile gauze or other clean cloth • Put the wrapped amputated part in a plastic bag or other waterproof container • Keep the amputated part cool, but do not freeze • Place the bag or container with the wrapped part on a bed of ice • Seek medical attention immediately
  40. 40. Checking for Spinal Injuries • Spinal Injuries • Head injuries may indicate that there are possible spinal injuries • It may have been moved suddenly in one or more directions, damaging the spine. • What to Look For • General signs & symptoms • Painful movement of the arms or legs • Numbness, tingling, weakness, or burning sensation in the arms or legs • Loss of bowel or bladder control • Paralysis of the arms or legs • Deformity (odd-looking angle of the victim’s head & neck
  41. 41. Checking for Spinal Injuries • What to Do: • Stabilize the victim against any movement. • Check ABCs. (Airway Breathing Circulation) • Unresponsive Victim: • Look for cuts, bruise, and deformities. • Test response by pinching the victim’s hand, and bare foot. • If no reaction, assume the victim may have spinal damage.
  42. 42. Checking for Spinal Injuries • Responsive Victim • Upper Extremity Checks: • Victim wiggles fingers. • Victim feels rescuer squeeze fingers. • Victim squeeze rescuer’s hand. • Lower Extremity Checks: • Victim wiggles toes. • Victim feels rescuer squeezes toes. • Victim pushes foot against rescuer’s hand.
  43. 43. FIRST AID KIT • Bandages • Adhesive Bandages • Gauze Pads • Surgical Tape • Small Mirror • Over the counter drugs • Alcohol • Alcohol wipes • Hand sanitizer • Thermometer
  44. 44. FIRST AID KIT • Scissors • Tweezers • Nail Scissors • Antibiotic Cream • Matches • Ziploc Bags • First Aid Manual
  45. 45. Thank you for listening