FIRST AID<br />Prepared by:<br />Adnan Masood<br />Manager QHSE At<br />The Chishtian Goods Transport Co.<br />Cell # 0336-2350594<br />
WHAT IS FIRST AID?<br />It is the immediate assistance or care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly became ill, from the moment of the accident until availability of specialized medical care.<br />Note:<br />First Aid is not restricted to physical but also involves psychological support as well.<br />Who needs First Aid?<br />Cardiac and Respiratory Arrest<br />Electric Shock<br />Wounds<br />Bleeding<br />Burns<br />Fractures and Traumatic Injuries<br />Poisoning<br />Drowning <br />Snake bites<br />
1) Examination of the Pulse<br /><ul><li>Radial Pulse
Feeling Heart Beats on the Chest Wall.</li></ul>Note:<br />It is not necessary to feel the pulse, you can Start chest compressions.<br />If breathing didn’t restart after giving 2 breaths, then starts compressions<br />2) Examination of Breathing<br /><ul><li>Normal Breathing
Continue first aid measures until arrival of medical care providers</li></li></ul><li>Respiratory Arrest<br /><ul><li>Breathing may Stop meanwhile the heart is still beating for few minutes
Breathing may stop because of electrical shock, drowning, suffocation, poisoning, chest, abdomen and head trauma.</li></ul>Steps:<br /><ul><li>Open the airway
Tilt the head back and raise the chin</li></ul>Examine breathing for 5 seconds<br /> a) feel the air<br /> b) hear the sound of breaths.<br /> c) See the chest movements<br /><ul><li>If no breathing close the nose and give 2 breaths
Examine the pulse every minute and give a breath every 5 seconds.
If pulse stopped do CPR</li></li></ul><li>CHOKING<br /><ul><li> Choking is usually caused by a piece of food and or a small object in the mouth.
Choking cause coughing, dyspnea, but the most important sign to </li></ul> see is the victim holding his neck<br />FIRST AID<br /><ul><li> If the victim talks or coughs encourage him to continue coughing.
If the victim can’t talk or cough do 6-10 Abdominal thrusts.
If the victim is unconscious put him on the floor give 2 breaths.
Do 6-10 adominal thrusts, clean the mouth by 2 fingers and give 2 breaths.
Repeat the abdominal thrusts, if needed.</li></ul>If the victim is less than one year<br /><ul><li> Hold the infant face down on your forearm which is resting on your thigh.
Thump the back 5 times by the heel of the hand.
If not improved put him on your forearm and face upward, head is lower than trunk, and apply 5 chest thrusts by 2 fingers (on the middle of the chest bone).
If no response repeat back and chest thrusts as before
If no response call for medical help.</li></ul>Note:<br />Adults and children above one year are given abdominal thrusts only.<br />
C.P.R.<br /><ul><li> C.P.R. is a life saving technique
It is indicated whenever heart and breathing stop.
It is a combination of mouth to mouth breathing and chest compressions.
If breathing stops -> brain damage occurs within few minutes but death occurs within 8-10 minutes.</li></ul>STEPS BEFORE STARTING C.P.R.<br /> - Make sure that victim is unconscious (by shaking shoulders and asking loudly are you ok.?) <br /> - Call 999 before starting C.P.R. but if the victim is a child between 1-8 years start C.P.R. for 2 minutes before calling 999<br />
8<br />C.P.R. STEPS ARE CALLED ABC<br /> 1. AIRWAY STEP<br /> - Put the victim on his back on a firm surface<br /> - Kneel close to the victim neck or shoulders<br /> - Tilt the chin upward to open the airway<br /> - Check breathing for 10 seconds.<br />BREATHING STEP<br /> - Close the nostrile and give 2 breaths (mouth to mouth) and observe the chest rises.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
CIRCULATORY STEP<br />- Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest<br /> between the nipples.<br />- Apply the other hand over it.<br />- Push the chest down (1.5 – 2 inches) in an average of 2 <br /> compressions per second (100 times)<br />- Give 2 breaths after each 30 compressions.<br /><ul><li>If the victim didn’t breath after 5 cycles (2 minutes) we can use Automatic External Defibrillator (if available) otherwise, we continue C.P.R., however this device is not recommended for infants less than one year.</li></ul>NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR CHILDREN<br />- For children 1-8 years we start C.P.R. before calling 999 <br /> for 5 cycles (minutes)<br />- We use one hand only for chest compressions.<br /><ul><li>Rate of chest compressions to breathing is the same as adults 30/2.</li></ul>NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR INFANTS LESS THAN 1 YEAR.<br />- Start C.P.R. 5 cycles (2 minutes) before calling 999.<br />- No need for deep breath.<br />- Use 2 fingers of one hand for chest compressions<br />- Compressions should compress the chest from 1/3 – ½ its depth.<br />
10<br />WOUNDS<br />First Aid <br /> - Bleeding stops on its own, but pressure with a clean <br /> cloth or bandage can be applied for 20-30 minutes.<br /> - Use water if the wound needs cleaning but don’t <br /> use antiseptics (iodine or others)<br />FIRST AID FOR CUTS<br /> - Apply direct pressure by a piece of cloth and raise the limb above the level of the trunk.<br /> - Add more pieces of cloth and apply pressure on the major artery that supply the limb, if needed.<br /> - Minimize Movement by fixing the wounded limb on the body.<br /> - Transfer the victim to Medical Facility.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
11<br />EPISTAXIS (Nose Bleeding)<br /> - Tilt head down to prevent bleeding to the throat.<br /> - Close the victim’s nostrils with the tips of 2 fingers.<br /> - Ask victim to breath through mouth<br /> - We may apply a gauze packing to the bleeding nose.<br /> - If bleeding didn’t stop after 20 minutes we ask Medical Care Provider.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
12<br />SHOCK<br />It is a state characterized by low blood pressure, rapid pulse, and decrease blood supply to brain and other vital organs.<br />CAUSES<br />Fluid loss (as in severe vomiting, severe diarrhea, major burns, sun strokes….) and severe bleeding.<br />FIRST AID<br />Call Ambulance <br />Restore breathing<br />Try to stop bleeding<br />Assurance<br />Transfer the victim to the hospital with lower limbs elevated and the victim is lying on his back (if there is no neck injury)<br />In case of suspected neck injury don’t move the victims during transfer<br />Keep the victim warm.<br />Continue observation and give mouth breathing if needed and put him on his side if he vomits.<br />If you are not sure of correct position keep victim on his back.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
13<br />POISONINGFIRST AID MEASURES<br />Conscious Victim<br />Give water or milk<br />Recognize the poisonous substance if possible<br />Call Doctor or Poison Center<br />Induce Vomiting<br />Observe for breathing<br />Unconscious Victim<br />Observe for cardiac and respiratory arrest.<br />Keep him on his side and transfer him.<br /> Do not induce vomiting.<br />NOTE; NEVER INDUCE VOMITING IN CASE OF:<br />kerosene, petroleum and its derivatives, strong alkalies and acids.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
14<br />BURNS<br />DEGREES OF BURNS<br />1st degree – Skin only<br /> 2nd degree – Vesicles<br />3rd degree – Deep tissues<br />FIRST AID MEASURES<br />1st degree – Cold water + Sterile gauze<br />2nd & 3rd degree – Don’t use water<br /> - Apply sterile gauze<br /> - Prevent shock<br /> - Call for assistance<br /> - Don’t remove clothes<br /> - Don’t apply oil or salt<br />EYE BURNS<br />Heat Burns – Same as above<br />Chemical Burns – Eye wash for 15 minutes<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
15<br />ANIMAL BITES<br />AnimalsDogs/CatsMouse Rats<br />First aid1. Clean wound with water and soap2. Cover with guaze3. Try to catch the animal or kill it.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
16<br />DROWNING<br />Remove the victim from water<br />Clean the mouth from sands and other foreign bodies<br />Put him on the floor and raise his body<br />Start C.P.R.<br />Call for Medical Help<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
17<br />ELECTRIC SHOCK<br />Avoid direct contact with the victim<br />Before touching the victim<br />wear plastic gloves<br />stand on dry wooden chair<br />push the victim with a wooden ladder or chair or wooden stick<br />Disconnect power if possible<br />Do C.P.R. if needed<br />Treat burns<br />Call for Medical Help<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />