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First aid presentation


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First aid presentation

  1. 1. FIRST AID<br />Prepared by:<br />Adnan Masood<br />Manager QHSE At<br />The Chishtian Goods Transport Co.<br />Cell # 0336-2350594<br />
  2. 2. WHAT IS FIRST AID?<br />It is the immediate assistance or care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly became ill, from the moment of the accident until availability of specialized medical care.<br />Note:<br />First Aid is not restricted to physical but also involves psychological support as well.<br />Who needs First Aid?<br />Cardiac and Respiratory Arrest<br />Electric Shock<br />Wounds<br />Bleeding<br />Burns<br />Fractures and Traumatic Injuries<br />Poisoning<br />Drowning <br />Snake bites<br />
  3. 3. 1) Examination of the Pulse<br /><ul><li>Radial Pulse
  4. 4. Brachial Pulse
  5. 5. Carotid Pulse
  6. 6. Feeling Heart Beats on the Chest Wall.</li></ul>Note:<br />It is not necessary to feel the pulse, you can Start chest compressions.<br />If breathing didn’t restart after giving 2 breaths, then starts compressions<br />2) Examination of Breathing<br /><ul><li>Normal Breathing
  7. 7. Dyspnea
  8. 8. Respiratory Arrest</li></li></ul><li>First Aid Priorities<br /><ul><li>Save the victim and self
  9. 9. Keep breathing and heart beats
  10. 10. Control Bleeding
  11. 11. Treat Poisoning
  12. 12. Prevent Shock
  13. 13. Examine the victim carefully
  14. 14. Ask for specialized Medical Care
  15. 15. Continue first aid measures until arrival of medical care providers</li></li></ul><li>Respiratory Arrest<br /><ul><li>Breathing may Stop meanwhile the heart is still beating for few minutes
  16. 16. Breathing may stop because of electrical shock, drowning, suffocation, poisoning, chest, abdomen and head trauma.</li></ul>Steps:<br /><ul><li>Open the airway
  17. 17. Tilt the head back and raise the chin</li></ul>Examine breathing for 5 seconds<br /> a) feel the air<br /> b) hear the sound of breaths.<br /> c) See the chest movements<br /><ul><li>If no breathing close the nose and give 2 breaths
  18. 18. Examine the pulse every minute and give a breath every 5 seconds.
  19. 19. If pulse stopped do CPR</li></li></ul><li>CHOKING<br /><ul><li> Choking is usually caused by a piece of food and or a small object in the mouth.
  20. 20. Choking cause coughing, dyspnea, but the most important sign to </li></ul> see is the victim holding his neck<br />FIRST AID<br /><ul><li> If the victim talks or coughs encourage him to continue coughing.
  21. 21. If the victim can’t talk or cough do 6-10 Abdominal thrusts.
  22. 22. If the victim is unconscious put him on the floor give 2 breaths.
  23. 23. Do 6-10 adominal thrusts, clean the mouth by 2 fingers and give 2 breaths.
  24. 24. Repeat the abdominal thrusts, if needed.</li></ul>If the victim is less than one year<br /><ul><li> Hold the infant face down on your forearm which is resting on your thigh.
  25. 25. Thump the back 5 times by the heel of the hand.
  26. 26. If not improved put him on your forearm and face upward, head is lower than trunk, and apply 5 chest thrusts by 2 fingers (on the middle of the chest bone).
  27. 27. If no response repeat back and chest thrusts as before
  28. 28. If no response call for medical help.</li></ul>Note:<br />Adults and children above one year are given abdominal thrusts only.<br />
  29. 29. C.P.R.<br /><ul><li> C.P.R. is a life saving technique
  30. 30. It is indicated whenever heart and breathing stop.
  31. 31. It is a combination of mouth to mouth breathing and chest compressions.
  32. 32. If breathing stops -> brain damage occurs within few minutes but death occurs within 8-10 minutes.</li></ul>STEPS BEFORE STARTING C.P.R.<br /> - Make sure that victim is unconscious (by shaking shoulders and asking loudly are you ok.?) <br /> - Call 999 before starting C.P.R. but if the victim is a child between 1-8 years start C.P.R. for 2 minutes before calling 999<br />
  33. 33. 8<br />C.P.R. STEPS ARE CALLED ABC<br /> 1. AIRWAY STEP<br /> - Put the victim on his back on a firm surface<br /> - Kneel close to the victim neck or shoulders<br /> - Tilt the chin upward to open the airway<br /> - Check breathing for 10 seconds.<br />BREATHING STEP<br /> - Close the nostrile and give 2 breaths (mouth to mouth) and observe the chest rises.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  34. 34. CIRCULATORY STEP<br />- Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest<br /> between the nipples.<br />- Apply the other hand over it.<br />- Push the chest down (1.5 – 2 inches) in an average of 2 <br /> compressions per second (100 times)<br />- Give 2 breaths after each 30 compressions.<br /><ul><li>If the victim didn’t breath after 5 cycles (2 minutes) we can use Automatic External Defibrillator (if available) otherwise, we continue C.P.R., however this device is not recommended for infants less than one year.</li></ul>NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR CHILDREN<br />- For children 1-8 years we start C.P.R. before calling 999 <br /> for 5 cycles (minutes)<br />- We use one hand only for chest compressions.<br /><ul><li>Rate of chest compressions to breathing is the same as adults 30/2.</li></ul>NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR INFANTS LESS THAN 1 YEAR.<br />- Start C.P.R. 5 cycles (2 minutes) before calling 999.<br />- No need for deep breath.<br />- Use 2 fingers of one hand for chest compressions<br />- Compressions should compress the chest from 1/3 – ½ its depth.<br />
  35. 35. 10<br />WOUNDS<br />First Aid <br /> - Bleeding stops on its own, but pressure with a clean <br /> cloth or bandage can be applied for 20-30 minutes.<br /> - Use water if the wound needs cleaning but don’t <br /> use antiseptics (iodine or others)<br />FIRST AID FOR CUTS<br /> - Apply direct pressure by a piece of cloth and raise the limb above the level of the trunk.<br /> - Add more pieces of cloth and apply pressure on the major artery that supply the limb, if needed.<br /> - Minimize Movement by fixing the wounded limb on the body.<br /> - Transfer the victim to Medical Facility.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  36. 36. 11<br />EPISTAXIS (Nose Bleeding)<br /> - Tilt head down to prevent bleeding to the throat.<br /> - Close the victim’s nostrils with the tips of 2 fingers.<br /> - Ask victim to breath through mouth<br /> - We may apply a gauze packing to the bleeding nose.<br /> - If bleeding didn’t stop after 20 minutes we ask Medical Care Provider.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  37. 37. 12<br />SHOCK<br />It is a state characterized by low blood pressure, rapid pulse, and decrease blood supply to brain and other vital organs.<br />CAUSES<br />Fluid loss (as in severe vomiting, severe diarrhea, major burns, sun strokes….) and severe bleeding.<br />FIRST AID<br />Call Ambulance <br />Restore breathing<br />Try to stop bleeding<br />Assurance<br />Transfer the victim to the hospital with lower limbs elevated and the victim is lying on his back (if there is no neck injury)<br />In case of suspected neck injury don’t move the victims during transfer<br />Keep the victim warm.<br />Continue observation and give mouth breathing if needed and put him on his side if he vomits.<br />If you are not sure of correct position keep victim on his back.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  38. 38. 13<br />POISONINGFIRST AID MEASURES<br />Conscious Victim<br />Give water or milk<br />Recognize the poisonous substance if possible<br />Call Doctor or Poison Center<br />Induce Vomiting<br />Observe for breathing<br />Unconscious Victim<br />Observe for cardiac and respiratory arrest.<br />Keep him on his side and transfer him.<br /> Do not induce vomiting.<br />NOTE; NEVER INDUCE VOMITING IN CASE OF:<br />kerosene, petroleum and its derivatives, strong alkalies and acids.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  39. 39. 14<br />BURNS<br />DEGREES OF BURNS<br />1st degree – Skin only<br /> 2nd degree – Vesicles<br />3rd degree – Deep tissues<br />FIRST AID MEASURES<br />1st degree – Cold water + Sterile gauze<br />2nd & 3rd degree – Don’t use water<br /> - Apply sterile gauze<br /> - Prevent shock<br /> - Call for assistance<br /> - Don’t remove clothes<br /> - Don’t apply oil or salt<br />EYE BURNS<br />Heat Burns – Same as above<br />Chemical Burns – Eye wash for 15 minutes<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  40. 40. 15<br />ANIMAL BITES<br />AnimalsDogs/CatsMouse Rats<br />First aid1. Clean wound with water and soap2. Cover with guaze3. Try to catch the animal or kill it.<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  41. 41. 16<br />DROWNING<br />Remove the victim from water<br />Clean the mouth from sands and other foreign bodies<br />Put him on the floor and raise his body<br />Start C.P.R.<br />Call for Medical Help<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />
  42. 42. 17<br />ELECTRIC SHOCK<br />Avoid direct contact with the victim<br />Before touching the victim<br />wear plastic gloves<br />stand on dry wooden chair<br />push the victim with a wooden ladder or chair or wooden stick<br />Disconnect power if possible<br />Do C.P.R. if needed<br />Treat burns<br />Call for Medical Help<br />Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE<br />