First Aid Presentation

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First Aid Presentation

  1. 1. First Aid
  2. 2. You will learn how to… <ul><li>Stop bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Treat fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Care for burns </li></ul><ul><li>Treat someone in shock </li></ul><ul><li>Care for someone with hypothermia </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bleeding (if you have gloves, wear them) <ul><li>Have the injured person lie down </li></ul><ul><li>Clean out any obvious dirt and debris from wound if they have something impaled in them, do not remove it, if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a cloth or your hand to cover the wound and apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops. </li></ul>
  4. 4. If the bleeding continues <ul><li>Continue to apply direct pressure to the wound </li></ul><ul><li>If the cloth you are using bleeds through, Do Not Remove it! Put more cloth on top of the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the person to the emergency room as quickly as possible. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fractures <ul><li>Stop any bleeding using direct pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Immobilize the area by making a splint if you are unable to get to an emergency room. </li></ul>
  6. 6. To make a splint for a broken arm <ul><li>Find a piece of wood that is long enough to fit above and below the broken bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Use strips of cloth or gauze if available to tie the wood to the arm above and below the broken bone. </li></ul><ul><li>The splint should be tied tight enough to provide support for the broken bone, but not so tight that it cuts off the blood supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek medical attention immediately </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example of a Splint
  8. 8. Burns <ul><li>3 Kinds of Burns: </li></ul><ul><li>First Degree- first layer of skin is burned. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Degree- first and second layers of skin are burned. </li></ul><ul><li>Third Degree- multiple layers of skin burned, resulting in permanent damage. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1st Degree Burn <ul><li>Least serious of the burns. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is usually red, sometimes with pain and swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat it as a minor burn. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2nd Degree Burn <ul><li>Blisters develop, skin takes on a blotchy appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe pain and swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>If burn is no larger than 3 inches in diameter, treat as a minor burn. </li></ul><ul><li>If larger than 3 inches in diameter, treat as a major burn and seek medical help immediately. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Treatment for minor burns <ul><li>Cool the burn under cold running water until the pain subsides. Do not ice the burn. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap the burn loosely with gauze, to decrease pain and to protect the blisters. </li></ul><ul><li>Take an over the counter pain reliver such as Tylenol or Ibuprofen. </li></ul><ul><li>Will usually heal on their own, but watch for oozing, fever, swelling and redness. This could indicate an infection. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3rd Degree Burn <ul><li>Most serious of the burns and will not be painful because of permanent tissue damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas may be charred black or appear white. </li></ul><ul><li>Person may have difficulty breathing. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Treating a Major Burn <ul><li>Call 911 </li></ul><ul><li>Do not remove burned clothing, but do make sure clothing is not on fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not immerse in cold water-this could cause shock. </li></ul><ul><li>Check to make sure they are breathing-do CPR if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the burned body part if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the area with a cool, moist, sterile cloth. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Shock <ul><li>May result from trauma, heat stroke, allergic reactions, severe infection, poisoning, or other causes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Signs of Shock <ul><li>Skin is cool and clammy, may appear pale </li></ul><ul><li>Weak and rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Person may seem to stare off into space </li></ul><ul><li>If conscious, they may feel faint, weak, or confused. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes shock may make a person overly excited or anxious. </li></ul>
  16. 16. If a person is in shock <ul><li>Dial 911 </li></ul><ul><li>Have them lie down with their feet higher than their head. </li></ul><ul><li>Check to see if they are breathing, if they aren’t begin CPR. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the person warm and comfortable, but do not give them anything to drink. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn them on their side if vomiting or bleeding from their mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for help to arrive. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Hypothermia Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Shivering </li></ul><ul><li>Slurred Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing very slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, pale skin </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue, lethargy, and apathy </li></ul>
  18. 19. Treatment for Hypothermia <ul><li>Move person out of the cold </li></ul><ul><li>Remove wet clothing and replace with a dry covering, try not to move the person too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulate the person’s body from the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor their breathing, do CPR if they stop. </li></ul><ul><li>Share body heat, and if they are conscious, encourage them to drink warm non-alcholic beverages. </li></ul>
  19. 20. What not to do if someone has Hypothermia <ul><li>Don’t apply direct heat-this could burn the person. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rub or massage the person, they are at risk of having a heart attack so they should be handled gently. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t give them alcohol-alcohol lowers the body’s ability to retain heat. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Now a few questions… <ul><li>How do you stop a wound from bleeding? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you make a splint for a person with a broken leg? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you treat a minor burn? Major burn? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some reasons a person may go into shock? What symptoms might they have? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you treat someone with shock? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do for someone if they have hypothermia? </li></ul>

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