Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_10

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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_10

  1. 1. Communication Chapter 10 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Describe the communication process </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast the advantages and disadvantages of oral versus written communication </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the effectiveness of the chain, wheel and all-channel networks </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the factors affecting the use of the grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how computer-aided technology is changing organizational communication </li></ul><ul><li>Identify common barriers to effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the potential problems in cross-cultural communication </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Communication <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional expression </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Communication Process
  5. 5. Direction of Communication <ul><li>Downward – flows from one level to a lower level </li></ul><ul><li>Upward – flows to a higher level </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral – between people at the same level </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Oral </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oral Communication <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for distorted message when passed through a number of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content at destination may be different from the original </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Written Communication <ul><li>Provide a tangible and verifiable record </li></ul><ul><li>Record can be stored for an indefinite period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Physically available for later reference </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to be well thought-out, logical, and clear </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>No guarantee how reader will interpret it </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages
  9. 9. Non-verbal Communication <ul><li>Two most important messages that body language conveys are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his or her views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the relative perceived status between a sender and receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meaning of words changes with intonation, facial expression and physical distance </li></ul>
  10. 10. Formal Small-Group Networks
  11. 11. Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria
  12. 12. The Grapevine <ul><li>Not controlled by management </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as being more believable and reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Largely used to serve self-interest </li></ul><ul><li>Rumors emerge as a response to situations that are important to us, where there is ambiguity and under conditions that arouse anxiety </li></ul>
  13. 13. Computer-aided Communication <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Instant messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet and Extranet links </li></ul><ul><li>Video-conferencing </li></ul>
  14. 14. E-Mail <ul><li>Can be quickly written, edited and stored </li></ul><ul><li>Can be easily distributed to many </li></ul><ul><li>Can be read at the convenience of the recipient </li></ul><ul><li>Cost is lower than printed form </li></ul><ul><li>Can be impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks emotional cues </li></ul>
  15. 15. Instant Messaging <ul><li>Is essentially real-time e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Fast and inexpensive means for employees to stay in touch with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred for one or two line messages </li></ul><ul><li>Not as good as e-mail for long messages that need to be saved </li></ul><ul><li>Some find it intrusive and distracting </li></ul>
  16. 16. Intranet and Extranet Links <ul><li>Intranets give access only to employees and are used to communicate internal messages </li></ul><ul><li>Extranets links employees with selected suppliers, customers and strategic partners to facilitate communication </li></ul>
  17. 17. Videoconferencing <ul><li>Permits employees to conduct interactive meetings without being physically in the same room </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming more accessible to desktops with new technology </li></ul>
  18. 18. Knowledge Management <ul><li>Process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time </li></ul>
  19. 19. Importance of Knowledge Management <ul><li>Intellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assets </li></ul><ul><li>An increasing awareness that retiring workers represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it </li></ul><ul><li>Well-designed KM system will reduce redundancy and make the organization more efficient </li></ul>
  20. 20. Barriers to Effective Communication <ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Information Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Apprehension </li></ul>
  21. 21. Current Issues in Communication <ul><li>Communication barriers between women and men </li></ul><ul><li>“Politically Correct” communication </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural communication </li></ul>
  22. 22. Communication barriers between Women and Men <ul><li>Men speak and hear a language of status, power and independence </li></ul><ul><li>For many men, conversations are a means to preserve independence and maintain status </li></ul><ul><li>Women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>For many women, conversations are negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give confirmation and support </li></ul>
  23. 23. “ Politically Correct” Communication <ul><li>In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others </li></ul><ul><li>But eliminating words reduces options for conveying messages in the cleanest and most accurate form </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cultural Barriers <ul><li>Semantics – words mean different things to different people </li></ul><ul><li>Word connotations – words imply different things in different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Tone differences – in some cultures tone changes depending on context </li></ul><ul><li>Differences among perceptions – different world views </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cultural Context <ul><li>High-context cultures Rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others </li></ul><ul><li>Low-context cultures Rely essentially on words to convey meaning </li></ul>
  26. 26. A Cultural Guide <ul><li>Assume differences until similarity is proved </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Practice empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis </li></ul>
  27. 27. Implications for Managers <ul><li>Greater certainty leads to greater satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use multiple channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be consistent with verbal and non-verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective communication improves productivity and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Convey honest and accurate information during hiring process to reduce turnover </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Described the communication process </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasted the advantages and disadvantages of oral versus written communication </li></ul><ul><li>Compared the effectiveness of the chain, wheel and all-channel networks </li></ul><ul><li>Identified the factors affecting the use of the grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed how computer-aided technology is changing organizational communication </li></ul><ul><li>Identified common barriers to effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Described the potential problems in cross-cultural communication </li></ul>

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