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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_10

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  • 1. Communication Chapter 10 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  • 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • Describe the communication process
    • Contrast the advantages and disadvantages of oral versus written communication
    • Compare the effectiveness of the chain, wheel and all-channel networks
    • Identify the factors affecting the use of the grapevine
    • Discuss how computer-aided technology is changing organizational communication
    • Identify common barriers to effective communication
    • Describe the potential problems in cross-cultural communication
  • 3. Functions of Communication
    • Control
    • Motivation
    • Emotional expression
    • Information
  • 4. The Communication Process
  • 5. Direction of Communication
    • Downward – flows from one level to a lower level
    • Upward – flows to a higher level
    • Lateral – between people at the same level
  • 6. Interpersonal Communication
    • Oral
    • Written
    • Non-verbal
  • 7. Oral Communication
    • Advantages
      • Speed
      • Feedback
    • Disadvantages
      • Potential for distorted message when passed through a number of people
      • Content at destination may be different from the original
  • 8. Written Communication
    • Provide a tangible and verifiable record
    • Record can be stored for an indefinite period of time
    • Physically available for later reference
    • More likely to be well thought-out, logical, and clear
    • Time consuming
    • Lack of feedback
    • No guarantee how reader will interpret it
    Advantages Disadvantages
  • 9. Non-verbal Communication
    • Two most important messages that body language conveys are:
      • the extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his or her views
      • the relative perceived status between a sender and receiver
    • Meaning of words changes with intonation, facial expression and physical distance
  • 10. Formal Small-Group Networks
  • 11. Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria
  • 12. The Grapevine
    • Not controlled by management
    • Perceived as being more believable and reliable
    • Largely used to serve self-interest
    • Rumors emerge as a response to situations that are important to us, where there is ambiguity and under conditions that arouse anxiety
  • 13. Computer-aided Communication
    • E-mail
    • Instant messaging
    • Intranet and Extranet links
    • Video-conferencing
  • 14. E-Mail
    • Can be quickly written, edited and stored
    • Can be easily distributed to many
    • Can be read at the convenience of the recipient
    • Cost is lower than printed form
    • Can be impersonal
    • Lacks emotional cues
  • 15. Instant Messaging
    • Is essentially real-time e-mail
    • Fast and inexpensive means for employees to stay in touch with each other
    • Preferred for one or two line messages
    • Not as good as e-mail for long messages that need to be saved
    • Some find it intrusive and distracting
  • 16. Intranet and Extranet Links
    • Intranets give access only to employees and are used to communicate internal messages
    • Extranets links employees with selected suppliers, customers and strategic partners to facilitate communication
  • 17. Videoconferencing
    • Permits employees to conduct interactive meetings without being physically in the same room
    • Becoming more accessible to desktops with new technology
  • 18. Knowledge Management
    • Process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time
  • 19. Importance of Knowledge Management
    • Intellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assets
    • An increasing awareness that retiring workers represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it
    • Well-designed KM system will reduce redundancy and make the organization more efficient
  • 20. Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Filtering
    • Selective Perception
    • Information Overload
    • Emotions
    • Language
    • Communication Apprehension
  • 21. Current Issues in Communication
    • Communication barriers between women and men
    • “Politically Correct” communication
    • Cross-cultural communication
  • 22. Communication barriers between Women and Men
    • Men speak and hear a language of status, power and independence
    • For many men, conversations are a means to preserve independence and maintain status
    • Women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy
    • For many women, conversations are negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give confirmation and support
  • 23. “ Politically Correct” Communication
    • In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others
    • But eliminating words reduces options for conveying messages in the cleanest and most accurate form
  • 24. Cultural Barriers
    • Semantics – words mean different things to different people
    • Word connotations – words imply different things in different languages
    • Tone differences – in some cultures tone changes depending on context
    • Differences among perceptions – different world views
  • 25. Cultural Context
    • High-context cultures Rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others
    • Low-context cultures Rely essentially on words to convey meaning
  • 26. A Cultural Guide
    • Assume differences until similarity is proved
    • Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation
    • Practice empathy
    • Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis
  • 27. Implications for Managers
    • Greater certainty leads to greater satisfaction:
      • Use multiple channels
      • Be consistent with verbal and non-verbal
    • Effective communication improves productivity and motivation
    • Convey honest and accurate information during hiring process to reduce turnover
  • 28. Summary
    • Described the communication process
    • Contrasted the advantages and disadvantages of oral versus written communication
    • Compared the effectiveness of the chain, wheel and all-channel networks
    • Identified the factors affecting the use of the grapevine
    • Discussed how computer-aided technology is changing organizational communication
    • Identified common barriers to effective communication
    • Described the potential problems in cross-cultural communication