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Communication skills


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Communication skills

  1. 2. COMMUNICATION: DEFINITION Communication, the process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place. Communication includes writing and talking, as well as nonverbal communication (such as facial expressions, body language, or gestures), visual communication (the use of images or pictures, such as painting, photography, video, or film), and electronic communication (telephone calls, electronic mail, cable television, or satellite broadcasts). Communication is a vital part of personal life and is also important in business, education, and any other situation where people encounter each other.
  2. 3. What is communication? <ul><li>“ The transmission and reception of information between a signaler and receiver” </li></ul><ul><li>(The Penguin Dictionary of Language by David Crystal) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Communication <ul><li>“ The term refers to every kind of mutual transmission of information, using signs and symbols between living beings (humans, animals), between people and data processing machines” </li></ul><ul><li>(Ruthledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics) </li></ul>
  4. 5. Types of Communication <ul><li>A. Early Methods </li></ul><ul><li>B. Paper and Printing </li></ul><ul><li>C. Postal Services </li></ul><ul><li>D. Telegraphy </li></ul><ul><li>E. Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>F. Radio </li></ul><ul><li>G. Television </li></ul><ul><li>H. Computers </li></ul>
  5. 6. Animal Communication <ul><li>Interaction between animals in which information transmitted from one animal or group of animals affects the behavior of other animals. Animals typically exchange information using a signal, such as facial expression, sound, or touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication between animals helps them coordinate the vital functions of their lives—namely, gathering food and hunting, staking out territory, caring for young, and defending themselves. </li></ul>
  6. 7. COMPONENTS / ELEMENTS OF LINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFORMATION GAP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHOICE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEEDBACK/ RESPONSE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Language Language, the principal means used by human beings to communicate with one another. Language is primarily spoken, but it can also be transferred to other media, such as writing Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
  9. 10. COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE <ul><li>Spoken human language is composed of sounds that do not in themselves have meaning, but that can be combined with other sounds to create entities that do have meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Language also is characterized by complex syntax whereby elements, usually words, are combined into more complex constructions, called phrases, and these constructions in turn play a major role in the structures of sentences. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Language Skills <ul><li>Listening Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Skills </li></ul>
  11. 12. LISTENING PROCESS Decoding Process Output Input <ul><li>Raw Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Significant noise </li></ul><ul><li>Insignificant noise, gestures , facial expressions, etc. </li></ul>Appropriate response: Verbal / Non- verbal Interpretation of discourse taking account of age, sex, topic, accent, setting, role, status, attitude, degree of shared knowledge, etc. <ul><li>Recognition: </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Significant Items at </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactical </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical Levels </li></ul>Short-term Memory Capacity <ul><li>Anticipation Completion Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactical </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetorical </li></ul>
  12. 13. SPEAKING SKILLS <ul><li>What Where </li></ul><ul><li>When How </li></ul><ul><li>Why Whom </li></ul>Speaker Listener
  13. 14. Reading <ul><li>Reading is an activity characterized by the translation of symbols, or letters, into words and sentences that have meaning to the individual. The ultimate goal of reading is to be able to understand written material, to evaluate it, and to use it for one's needs. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Writing <ul><li>Writing is a method of human intercommunication by means of arbitrary visual marks forming a system. Writing can be achieved in either limited or full systems, a full system being one that is capable of expressing unambiguously any concept that can be formulated in language. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Mechanics of Writing <ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Words: Spellings & Kinds of Words </li></ul><ul><li>Phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>
  16. 17. TYPES OF WRITING <ul><li>Informal Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Writing </li></ul>
  17. 18. Communication Skills : Importance, Benefits, seven c’s, Theories, Barriers Non-Verbal communication Mr. Saboor
  18. 19. Communication Skills : <ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven c’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Non-Verbal communication: <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>How to Improve non verbal communication? </li></ul>
  20. 21. WHY COMMUNICATION SKILLS ARE SO IMPORTANT ? <ul><li>The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others clearly and unambiguously. </li></ul><ul><li>You convey your ideas and thoughts effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills, including written and oral presentation, as well as an ability to work with others, are the main factors contributing to job success. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>The inability to communicate makes it nearly impossible for the students to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career progression. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting your message across is paramount to progressing. To do this, you must understand what your message is, what audience you are sending it to, and how it will be perceived. You must also weigh-in the circumstances surrounding your communication, such as situational and cultural context. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Good communication basically has following effects: <ul><li>Leads to personal effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in developing networking abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in developing collaborative skills with people around </li></ul><ul><li>Influences, motivates & persuades people for improving performance </li></ul><ul><li>Creates better inter personal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Builds better understanding between people at different levels in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Creates an understanding about the need to change </li></ul><ul><li>Helps reduce resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Helps defuse or minimize conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Improves substantially listening ability </li></ul>
  23. 24. BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: <ul><li>Gives you happiness : Effective communication skills make you happier by having joyous relationships, reduces anger of both parties talking, correctly expresses yourself, and other reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes you attractive : Communication goes way beyond verbal and non-verbal language. It is also the self development aspects such as confidence that create effective communication. Communication is what makes you interesting, it lets you connect with people and build friendships. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>You become intimate : Good communication of course because it is the only “bridge” between a relationship. Intimacy is about both people being open in a relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased popularity : Effective communication can definitely make you popular amongst others because you learn to manage your emotions and thoughts to control stressful experiences. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Self control : By developing self understanding (very important part in communication) you develop self control. Controlling yourself isn’t limited to stopping yourself from doing actions, but it also ‘controls’ you to do the right things. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand others : By using effective communication you learn to read another person’s emotions, understand another person’s emotions, and communicate about another person’s emotions. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Understand yourself : There are an abundance of further benefits to effective communication such as anger management, increased likelihood of receiving a job promotion, more persuasion, better leadership skills, and the list goes on. </li></ul>
  27. 28. SEVEN C’s OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Although technology has changed, the essential elements of good communication have not changed. For effective and powerful communication, 7 Cs of communication have to be considered which are as follows: </li></ul>
  28. 29. 1. COMPLETENESS <ul><li>A complete message contains all the facts and/or pertinent questions a listener, viewer, or reader needs for a communicator to achieve the desired results. </li></ul><ul><li>A complete message which includes all the essential components is more likely to motivate the receiver than a message that is vague or obscure. Completeness involves the quality of the message in terms of substance, style and delivery of the message with a clear understanding of the likely reaction of the recipient for appropriate reaction. </li></ul>
  29. 30. BENEFITS OF COMPLETENESS: <ul><li>Complete Messages are more likely to bring desired response. </li></ul><ul><li>They can do a better job of building Goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Complete messages are likely to avert costly lawsuits. </li></ul>
  30. 31. 2. CONCISENESS <ul><li>The communication has to be concise and hence all redundant words and terminology has to be avoided for effectiveness. Conciseness is based on relevant words and phrases only. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes all of the necessary facts and ideas in the fewest possible words, without sacrificing meaning or artistry. </li></ul>
  31. 32. BENEFITS OF CONCISENESS: <ul><li>It saves time and expenses for both the sender and the receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>By eliminating unnecessary words you let important ideas stand out. </li></ul><ul><li>When combined with YOU ATTITUDE the concise messages are more interesting to the recipients. </li></ul>
  32. 33. 3. CONSIDERATE <ul><li>Consideration implies assignment of due importance to the knowledge, level of understanding, purpose and feelings of recipient. Consideration helps build a quick rapport and improves efficacy of the communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Be considerate and sensitive to the communication needs of your recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Handle matters from his/her point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize positive facts and keep ‘you’ instead of ‘I’ in mind. </li></ul>
  33. 34. 4. CONCRETENESS <ul><li>Concrete communication is definite, specific, and vivid rather than general or vague. Whenever possible, exact words and figures should be used rather than general words, as general words may have different meanings for the sender than for the receiver of the communication. Strong verbs in the active voice help make sentences definite. Concrete rather than abstract nouns and well-chosen modifiers can make messages vivid and forceful. </li></ul>
  34. 35. BENEFITS OF BEING CONCRETE <ul><li>Your reader knows exactly what is required or desired. </li></ul><ul><li>When your approach is concrete, the reader interprets the message in the way you intend. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete messages are clear, dynamic and vivid. </li></ul>
  35. 36. 5. CLARITY <ul><li>Effective communication depends on the choice of right words, simple and precise terminology to express ideas. This choice is based on a correct idea of the recipient in terms of knowledge level and understanding of the issue at hand. Clear expression removes ambiguity and improves clarity. To improve clarity one has to avoid: </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of camouflaged words </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of long, convoluted, bureaucratic style </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of clichés </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of unfamiliar words </li></ul>
  36. 37. 6. COURTESY <ul><li>There is no area that irks clients more than a lack of common courtesy. </li></ul><ul><li>A good rule of thumb is to treat your clients' time as if it is as valuable as your own. Start meetings on time. Hold your calls during client meetings. If you have to take a call, never take it in front of the client. Excuse yourself and take the call in another room. </li></ul>
  37. 38. 7. CORRECT NESS <ul><li>Correctness in communication refers to use of the appropriate level of language (formal or informal), the employment of acceptable writing mechanics and usage practices, and the selection of language and expressions that are not discriminatory. Correctness also refers to accuracy. Information which is communicated needs to be as up to date and accurate as possible. </li></ul>
  38. 39. THEORIES IN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Human communication permeates the human condition. Human communication surrounds us and is an in-built aspect of everything human beings are and do. That makes any effort to explain, predict, or to some extent control human communication a pretty big order. How does one get a handle on the totality of human communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Frank Dance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Major Theories in Communication <ul><li>Mechanistic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Social Constructionist Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Theory </li></ul>
  40. 41. Mechanistic Theory <ul><li>This view considers communication as a perfect transaction of a message from the sender to the receiver. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Psychological Theory <ul><li>This view considers communication as the act of sending a message to a receiver, and the feelings and thoughts of the receiver upon interpreting the message. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Social Constructionist Theory <ul><li>(Symbolic Interactionist): This view considers communication to be the product of the interactants sharing and creating meaning. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Systemic Theory <ul><li>This view considers communication to be the new messages created via “through-put”, or what happens as the message is being interpreted and re-interpreted as it travels through people. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Critical Theory <ul><li>This view considers communication as a source of power and oppression of individuals and social groups. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Barriers to communication <ul><li>Language Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Barriers (on the part of listener) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Barriers </li></ul>
  46. 47. Language Barriers <ul><li>Lack of common language </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual words </li></ul><ul><li>Rumbling </li></ul>
  47. 48. Semantic Barriers <ul><li>Poor Vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Know-how of Grammar and </li></ul><ul><li>punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Roundabout Verbiage. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Psychological Barriers (on the part of listener) <ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Shyness </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Know-it-all </li></ul><ul><li>Too old to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Past experience </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo types </li></ul>
  49. 50. Other barriers to Listening <ul><li>Hearing difficulties and seating position. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of thought, being ahead of the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker's apparent experience (or lack of it). </li></ul><ul><li>Different views from speaker's. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal environmental distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>External distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Not interested in subject (and determined not to be). </li></ul><ul><li>Only present because of being sent. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanting to hear only what you want to hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming what is being said. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotive words and phrases (&quot;with respect,&quot; etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Daydreaming. </li></ul><ul><li>Other things on your mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiredness. </li></ul>