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  1. 1. Communication M Zeeshan Khan
  3. 3. Communication <ul><li>Transference of meaning among a group </li></ul><ul><li>But it is merely not imparting meaning, it must also be understood. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication <ul><li>Research indicates that poor communication is the most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflicts. Because individuals spend 70% of their waking hours communicating---writing, reading , speaking or listening. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functions of Communication <ul><li>It serves four major functions within a group or organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>
  6. 6. Functions of Communication <ul><li>Control:- </li></ul><ul><li>It acts to control member behavior in several ways . </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines that employees are required to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a controlling function when they are required to </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate job related grievances. </li></ul><ul><li>To follow job description </li></ul><ul><li>To comply with company policy . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Functions of Communication <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>It fosters motivation by clarifying what needs to be done </li></ul><ul><li>How well employees are doing </li></ul><ul><li>What can be done to improve performance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Functions of Communication <ul><li>Emotional Expression </li></ul><ul><li>For many employees the work group[ is a primary source of social interaction . </li></ul><ul><li>They share their feelings of frustration and satisfaction with each other </li></ul>
  9. 9. Functions of Communication <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Primary role relating to decision making by transmitting data and evaluating different choices. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Communication Process channel Noise feedbac k message to be sent Encoding message Message received Message decoding Sender Receiver
  11. 11. Direction of Communication <ul><li>Communication can flow vertically or laterally. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical is further divided into </li></ul><ul><li>Upward communication </li></ul><ul><li>Downward communication </li></ul>
  12. 12. Direction of Communication <ul><li>Downward </li></ul><ul><li>Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level. </li></ul><ul><li>it is used to </li></ul><ul><li>Assign goals </li></ul><ul><li>provide job instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Informing about policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Point out problems that need attention </li></ul><ul><li>Offer feedback about performance </li></ul>
  13. 13. Direction of Communication <ul><li>Upward Communication </li></ul><ul><li>It flows to a higher level in the group or organization </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to provide feedback to higher ups </li></ul><ul><li>Inform them of progress towards goals </li></ul><ul><li>Relay current problems </li></ul>
  14. 14. Direction of Communication <ul><li>Lateral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>When it takes place among members of the same group or managers at same level or among any horizontally equivalent personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to </li></ul><ul><li>Save time </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate coordination </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>People essentially rely on oral ,written and nonverbal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Speeches </li></ul><ul><li>formal one-on-one </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Informal rumor mill and grapevine </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Advantages of Oral Communication are </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>The major disadvantage of oral communication surfaces in organization whenever the message has to be passed through a number of people </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Written Communication -- any communication transmitted via written words or symbols </li></ul><ul><li>It includes </li></ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Fax transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic mail </li></ul><ul><li>Instant messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational periodicals , etc. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Non Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>When we give a message to anyone we impart non verbal message as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Such as </li></ul><ul><li>Lift an eyebrow for disbelief </li></ul><ul><li>Rub your nose for puzzlement </li></ul><ul><li>Shrug shoulders for indifference </li></ul><ul><li>Slap our forehead for forgetfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Tap our fingers for impatience </li></ul>
  19. 19. Organizational communication <ul><li>Formal organizational networks can be very complicated as they may include hundreds of people and few hierarchical levels. </li></ul><ul><li>To simplify these are condensed into three common small groups of five people. </li></ul><ul><li>These are chain , wheel and all- channel </li></ul>
  20. 20. Organizational communication Chain Wheel All channel
  21. 21. Organizational communication <ul><li>Grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>It is informal </li></ul><ul><li>Yet an important source of information </li></ul><ul><li>It is not controlled by the management </li></ul><ul><li>It is perceived more believable </li></ul><ul><li>It is largely used to serve the self interests of the people within it </li></ul>
  22. 22. Organizational communication <ul><li>Computer aided Communication </li></ul><ul><li>E- mail </li></ul><ul><li>Instant messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet and extranet links </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul>
  23. 23. Barriers to effective Communication <ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. It happens where there are lots of vertical levels in hierarchy. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Barriers to effective Communication <ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>The receivers in communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience , background and other personal characteristics. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Barriers to effective Communication <ul><li>Information Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have a finite capacity to process data and when it exceeds our processing capacity the result is information load. Then people tend to select out, ignore, pass over or forget information. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Barriers to effective Communication <ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme emotions like jubilation or depression are more likely to hinder effective communication </li></ul>
  27. 27. Barriers to effective Communication <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Communication apprehensions </li></ul>
  28. 28. Seven C's of communication design <ul><li>Do you design your communications or do they just kind of happen? When your communication is important -- that is, when you want it to be remembered -- you need to think carefully and design it to resonate with your intended audience. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Seven C's of communication design <ul><li>Designing your communication is an interactive process. It begins at a high level, with good questions and good listening ; and ends in details; constructing a presentation, document, system or user experience. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Seven C’s <ul><li>The seven C's lay out a simple sequence which can help you start broadly and work your way down to specifics. 1. Context. What's going on? Do you understand the situation? Ask good questions . You'll need a clear goal before you begin to design any communication. Ask: who are you talking to and what do you want them to do? </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Seven C’s <ul><li>2. Content. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on your goal, define a single question that your communication is designed to answer. This is the best possible measure of communication effectiveness. What do you want your audience to walk away with and remember? Once you have defined your prime question, set out to answer it. What information is required? Do you have the answer already, or do you need to search it out? </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Seven C’s <ul><li>3. Components. Before you build anything, break down your content into basic &quot;building blocks&quot; of content. Formulate the information into clusters and groups. What patterns emerge? How can you make the information more modular? Given your goal, what is the most fundamental unit of information? You can use index cards to break down information into modules. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Seven C’s <ul><li>4. Cuts. This is one of the hardest parts of the process and most often neglected. People's attention will quickly drift -- they expect you to get to the point. Learn to edit . </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Seven C’s <ul><li>5. Composition. Now it's time to design the way you will tell your story. Think in terms of both written and visual composition. When writing; who are your main characters? How will you set up the scene? What are the goals and conflicts that will develop? How will the story reach resolution? In visual terms; where will the reader begin? How will you lead the eye around the page? In all your compositional thinking; how will you engage your audience? How will you keep them engaged? Writing it down forces you to think it through . </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Seven C’s <ul><li>6. Contrast. What are the differences that matter? Use contrast to highlight them: Big vs. little; rough vs. smooth; black vs. white. When making any point, ask, &quot;in comparison with what?&quot; Contrast is a trigger to the brain that says &quot;pay attention!&quot; </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Seven C’s <ul><li>7. Consistency. Unless you're highlighting differences, keep things like color, fonts, spacing and type sizes consistent to avoid distracting people. Research shows that any extraneous information will detract from people's ability to assimilate and learn. </li></ul>