Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_02

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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_02

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Explain the relationship between ability and job performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast the three components of an attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss similarities and differences between job satisfaction and the other job attitudes discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the causes and consequences of job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to shape the behavior of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among the four schedules of reinforcement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ability <ul><li>Refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job </li></ul><ul><li>Is a current assessment of what one can do </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual ability is one of the best predictors of performance </li></ul><ul><li>The correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is about zero </li></ul><ul><li>Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability-job fit </li></ul>
  4. 4. Attitudes <ul><li>Evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable – concerning objects, people or events </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes reflect how one feels about something </li></ul>
  5. 5. Major Components of Attitude <ul><li>Cognition – an opinion or belief </li></ul><ul><li>Affect – the emotional or feeling segment </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior – the intention to behave in a certain way </li></ul>
  6. 6. Consistency of Attitudes <ul><li>People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>When there is an inconsistency, the individual may alter either the attitudes or behavior, or develop a rationalization for the discrepancy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>Any inconsistency between two or more attitudes, or between behavior and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals seek to minimize dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of the elements creating the dissonance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rewards that may be involved in dissonance </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship <ul><li>Importance of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity of the attitude or behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of social pressures </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s direct experience with the attitude </li></ul>
  9. 9. Self-Perception Theory <ul><li>The view that behavior influences attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Argues that attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than as devices that precede and guide action </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to infer attitude from behavior when you have had few experiences regarding an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes likely to guide behavior when your attitudes have been established for a while </li></ul>
  10. 10. Major Job Attitudes <ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Job involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuance commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceived organizational support </li></ul><ul><li>Employee engagement </li></ul>
  11. 11. What causes job satisfaction? <ul><li>Work itself – the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Pay – not correlated after individual reaches a level of comfortable living </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s personality </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effects of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees <ul><li>Job performance – strong correlation </li></ul><ul><li>OCB – modest relationship but more related to conceptions of fair outcomes, treatment and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction – strong correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism – moderate to weak negative correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover – moderate negative correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace deviance – strong correlation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning <ul><li>Learning involves change </li></ul><ul><li>The change must become ingrained </li></ul><ul><li>Some form of experience is necessary for learning </li></ul>Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  14. 14. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don’t want </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals can learn by observing what happens to other people and just being told about something, as well as by direct experiences </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Methods of Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>
  16. 16. Schedules of reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous – reinforces behavior each and every time it is demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed or variable ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed or variable interval </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Schedules of Reinforcement
  18. 18. Implications for Managers <ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective selection process improves fit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion and transfer based on abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine-tune job to better match abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes – raise satisfaction by focusing on making work challenging and interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Learning – Use reinforcement instead of punishment </li></ul>
  19. 19. Summary <ul><li>Explained the relationship between ability and job performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasted the three components of an attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed similarities and differences between job satisfaction and the other job attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed the causes and consequences of job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to shape the behavior of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguished among the four schedules of reinforcement. </li></ul>

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