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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_11

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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_11

  1. 1. Leadership Chapter 11 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Contrast leadership and management </li></ul><ul><li>List the traits of effective leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Define and give examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast trait and behavioral theories </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Fiedler’s contingency model </li></ul><ul><li>Define the qualities of a charismatic leader </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast transformational with transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Identify when leadership may not be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to find and create effective leaders </li></ul>
  3. 3. Leadership vs. Management <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>About coping with change </li></ul><ul><li>Establish direction, align resources and inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>About coping with complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Brings about order and consistency </li></ul>Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals.
  4. 4. Trait Theories <ul><li>Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion related strongest to leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness and openness to experience also strongly related to leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Traits can predict leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Traits are better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness </li></ul>
  5. 5. Behavioral Theories <ul><li>Assumes people can be trained to lead </li></ul><ul><li>Researched the behaviors of specific leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the basis of design for training programs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ohio State Studies <ul><li>Developed two categories of leadership behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure - attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration - concern for followers’ comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. University of Michigan Studies <ul><li>Employee-oriented - emphasize interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Production-oriented - emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job </li></ul><ul><li>Employee-oriented behavior leads to higher productivity and satisfaction </li></ul>
  8. 8. Contingency Theories <ul><li>Fiedler Model </li></ul><ul><li>Leader-Member Exchange Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Path-goal Theory </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fiedler Leadership Model <ul><li>Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader </li></ul><ul><li>Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire used to determine basic leadership style (assumes this style is fixed) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fiedler Contingency Dimensions <ul><li>Dimensions define the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader-member relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position power </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Findings from the Fiedler Model
  12. 12. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory <ul><li>Leaders do differentiate among followers </li></ul><ul><li>Disparities are far from random </li></ul><ul><li>Followers with in-group status have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher performance ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower turnover intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater satisfaction with their superiors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
  14. 14. Path-Goal Theory <ul><li>Leader’s job is to provide followers with the information, support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals </li></ul><ul><li>Four leadership behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directive leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement-oriented leader </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Path-Goal Theory
  16. 16. Charismatic Leadership Theory <ul><li>Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors </li></ul>
  17. 17. Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
  18. 18. How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers <ul><li>Articulates an appealing vision </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence that followers can attain them </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys, through words and actions, a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate </li></ul><ul><li>Engages in emotion-inducing behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership <ul><li>Leaders don’t necessarily act in the best interest of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Use organizational resources for personal benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Remake companies in their own image </li></ul><ul><li>Allow self-interest and personal goals to override organization’s goals </li></ul>
  20. 20. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization </li></ul>
  21. 21. Transactional vs. Transformational Leader
  22. 22. Full Range of Leadership Model
  23. 23. How Transformational Leadership Works <ul><li>Followers are encouraged to be more innovative and creative </li></ul><ul><li>Followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to them </li></ul><ul><li>Vision engenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust </li></ul>
  24. 24. Authentic Leadership <ul><li>Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly </li></ul><ul><li>If we’re looking for the best possible leader, it is not enough to be charismatic or visionary – one must also be ethical and create trust on the part of followers </li></ul>
  25. 25. Challenges to the Leadership Construct <ul><li>Attribution theory of leadership says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders don’t always have an impact on follower outcomes due to organizational variables that can neutralize the leader’s influence or act as substitutes for leadership </li></ul>
  26. 26. Finding and Creating Effective Leaders <ul><li>Selection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality test to look for traits associated with leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match leaders to situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train those willing to change their behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can teach implementation skills and transformational skills </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Implications for Managers <ul><li>Leaders influence group performance </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership success depends somewhat on having “the right stuff” </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership depends on the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational skills becoming more important </li></ul><ul><li>Select and train based on traits and qualities </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Contrasted leadership and management </li></ul><ul><li>Listed the traits of effective leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Defined and gave examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Compared and contrasted trait and behavioral theories </li></ul><ul><li>Described Fiedler’s contingency model </li></ul><ul><li>Defined the qualities of a charismatic leader </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasted transformational with transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Identified when leadership may not be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Explained how to find and create effective leaders </li></ul>

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