Communication Communication :  The transfer of information from a sender to a receiver, with the information being underst...
<ul><li>The Ultimate Purpose Of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>To establish and disseminate the goals of an enterprise. <...
<ul><li>Communication Process Model </li></ul><ul><li>  Sender  Receiver </li></ul>Encoding Thought Transmission  Of  Mess...
<ul><li>Sender :   -  A thought or idea </li></ul><ul><li>  - Encoding the way it would be understood </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
<ul><li>Noise – How it hinders </li></ul><ul><li>A noise or a confined environment may hinder the development of a clear t...
<ul><li>Feedback  </li></ul><ul><li>Whether message is understood and confirmed back. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether necessary ...
Communication Flow Horizonta l Diagonal Upward Downward Downward Communication  flows from people at higher levels to thos...
<ul><li>Examples of Downward Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Written </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions Memorandum </li><...
<ul><li>Cross-wise Communication </li></ul><ul><li>It includes the Horizontal flow of information and diagonal  </li></ul>...
Advantages Disadvantages  Written Communication  <ul><li>- Providing record </li></ul><ul><li>References  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Richness of various communication channels </li></ul>Formal reports Bulletins Prerecorded Speeches Video  Conferen...
<ul><li>Barriers to Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Planning : Thinking, planning, purpose of message,  appropriat...
<ul><li>Gateways to Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify for improving communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use intelligible...
<ul><li>Improving Written Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Use short and fam...
<ul><li>Improving Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a story, an anecdote, and give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Pau...
<ul><li>Electronic Media In Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing  </li></ul><ul><li>Messaging </li></ul><ul><l...
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Communication

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Communication

  1. 1. Communication Communication : The transfer of information from a sender to a receiver, with the information being understood by the receiver. Noise: Obstructs or interferes with communication. Feedback: Facilitates communication.
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Ultimate Purpose Of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>To establish and disseminate the goals of an enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop plans for their achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>To organize human and other resources in the most effective and efficient way. </li></ul><ul><li>To select, develop, and appraise members of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>To lead, direct, motivate and create a climate in which people want to contribute, and </li></ul><ul><li>To control performance. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Communication Process Model </li></ul><ul><li> Sender Receiver </li></ul>Encoding Thought Transmission Of Message Noise Reception Decoding Understanding Feedback
  4. 4. <ul><li>Sender : - A thought or idea </li></ul><ul><li> - Encoding the way it would be understood </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission/Channel : - Memorandum </li></ul><ul><li> - Computer </li></ul><ul><li> - Telephone </li></ul><ul><li> - Telegram </li></ul><ul><li> - Email </li></ul><ul><li> - Televisions and other visual clues. </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver : - Reception </li></ul><ul><li> - Decoding </li></ul><ul><li> - It must be understood </li></ul><ul><li> - Information contrary to value system may not be understood at all. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Noise – How it hinders </li></ul><ul><li>A noise or a confined environment may hinder the development of a clear thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding may be faulty because of the use of ambiguous symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission may be interrupted by static in the channel, such as may be experienced in a poor telephone connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Inaccurate reception may be caused by inattention. </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding may be faulty because of wrong meaning may be attached to words and other symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding can be obstructed by prejudices. </li></ul><ul><li>A desired change that is communicated may not occur because of the fear of possible consequences of the change. </li></ul><ul><li>In cross-cultural communication, not only every expression but also gestures and posture can cause miscommunication. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Whether message is understood and confirmed back. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether necessary change has taken place </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Factors in communication </li></ul><ul><li>- Repressive political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical distance </li></ul><ul><li>Executives not having time to receive or send information </li></ul><ul><li>Organization structure </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>
  7. 7. Communication Flow Horizonta l Diagonal Upward Downward Downward Communication flows from people at higher levels to those at lower levels in the organizational hierarchy.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Examples of Downward Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Written </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions Memorandum </li></ul><ul><li>Speeches Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings Handbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Pamphlets </li></ul><ul><li>Loud Speakers Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevine Electronic news displays </li></ul><ul><li>Upward Communication travels from subordinates to superiors </li></ul><ul><li>and continues up in the organizational hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Upward Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion system - Appeal and grievance procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Complaint system - counseling sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Joint setting of objectives - The grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Group Meetings - the practice of an open-door policy </li></ul><ul><li>Morale questionnaires - exit interviews and </li></ul><ul><li>Ombudsperson. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cross-wise Communication </li></ul><ul><li>It includes the Horizontal flow of information and diagonal </li></ul><ul><li>flow of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal flow of information is among people on the same or similar organizational levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonal flow of information is among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Flow Diagonal Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Internal meetings Speed in information flow </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences Better coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch and leisure time gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Committees </li></ul><ul><li>Task teams </li></ul><ul><li>Project groups </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory role from functional areas. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Advantages Disadvantages Written Communication <ul><li>- Providing record </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Legal defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Large audience can be reached </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity can be promoted </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced cost </li></ul><ul><li>- Mountains of paper </li></ul><ul><li>In effective writing </li></ul><ul><li>No immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Longtime to know whether it has given results </li></ul>Oral Communication <ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Interchange of thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of personal touch </li></ul><ul><li>Does not save time </li></ul><ul><li>May be costly in terms of time and money. </li></ul>Non-verbal Communication (Facial Expressions and body gestures ) <ul><li>Actions often speak louder than words </li></ul><ul><li>May be used to reinforce other methods </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective if used in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to be used incase of complex problems and issues. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Richness of various communication channels </li></ul>Formal reports Bulletins Prerecorded Speeches Video Conferences Live speeches Online Discussion groups Face-to-face Conversations Telephone Conversations Voice Mail Electronic mail Memos, letters Low Channel richness High Channel Richness
  12. 12. <ul><li>Barriers to Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Planning : Thinking, planning, purpose of message, appropriate channel, timing content design </li></ul><ul><li>Unclarified Assumptions: May lead to misinterpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly expressed messages: Words, omissions, lack of coherence, awkward sentence structure, jargons, lack of precision, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language, culture, etiquette: Particularly in international context. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel distortion: Sometimes can be overcome by using multiple channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient period for adjustment of change </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload – can lead to - disregard - make errors in processing - delay - filter - escape from the task </li></ul><ul><li>Selective perception </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational levels </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Gateways to Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify for improving communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use intelligible Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Consult other’s views </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Receivers’ Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate tone and language and ensure credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Get feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Receivers’ Emotions and Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Improving Written Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Use short and familiar words </li></ul><ul><li>Use personal pronouns (such as `you’) whenever appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Give illustrations and examples; use charts </li></ul><ul><li>Use short sentences and paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Use active verbs, such as “the manager plans…..” </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unnecessary words. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Improving Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a story, an anecdote, and give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Pause – do not rush. In a discussion, a pause shows that you are listening. </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual aids, such as diagrams, charts, overhead slides, and computer graphic presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate confidence and create trust. This can be done by a strong and clear voice, good posture, and a smile. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a colourful, specific language and show through your body language that you are confident and are in command of the situation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Electronic Media In Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul>

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