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UNIT 1
 Meaning
 Objective
 Forms of communication
 Communication model
 Communication process
 Principles of effective communication
 The word ‘communication’ which comes from
the word communicare, is used in common
talk, usually, to mean speaking or writing or
sending a message to another person.
 Communication is really much more than
that.
Communication is a process of passing
information and understanding from one
person to another.
- Keith Davis
Communication is any behavior that results in
an exchange of meaning.
-American ManagementAssociation
 The term Business Communication is used
for all messages that we send an receive for
official purposes like running a business,
managing an organization, conducting the
formal affairs of a voluntary organization and
so on.
 Communication is unintentional as well as
intentional
 Communication is a dynamic process
 Communication is systematic
 Communication is both interaction and
transaction.
Communication
helps
organizations
Accomplish individual and
organizational goals
Implement and respond to
organizational change
Coordinate activities
Engage in virtually all organizational
relevant behaviors
Communication
breakdowns are
pervasive
Ineffective communication =
ineffective organizations
Problems arise
when… Directives are misunderstood
Kidding leads to anger
Informal remarks are distorted
 Coordination
 Smooth
working
 Effective
decision
making
 Managerial
efficiency
 Co-operation
 Effective
leadership
 Job
satisfaction
 Increases
productivity
 Morale
building
 Achieving
managerial
roles
 Sources / sender, is the one who initiates the action of
communicating.
 Audience /receiver is the person for whom the
communication is intended.
 Goal/purpose is the sender’s reason for
communicating, the desired result of the
communication.
 Context/environment is the background in which the
communication takes place.
 Message/content is the information conveyed.
 Medium/channel is the means or method used for
conveying the message.
 Feedback is the receiver’s response to the
communication as observed by the sender.
 Sender
 Message
 Encoding
 Channel/medium
 Decoding
 Feedback
Sender Message Receiver Feedback
Encoding Medium Decoding
1. One-way communication
2. Two –way communication
3. Non verbal communication
4. Verbal communication
5. Interpersonal communication
6. Intrapersonal communication
VERBAL
NON -
VERBAL
ONE
WAY
TWO
WAY
INTER-
PERSONAL
INTRA-
PERSONAL
 Communication with words is calledVerbal
Communication.
 Communication using sounds and symbols
like pictures, colors, signs to communicate is
called Non –VerbalCommunication.
 Speed
 Record
 Precision and accuracy
 Length
 Expense
 Body language
 Feedback
Oral
Written
 Oral Communication is more natural and
immediate. It is natural to speak when other
person is present.
 It occurs in situations like
conversations, telephone
talk, interviews, conferences, presentations,
negotiations, group discussions and
meetings.
 Face-to-face conversation
 Telephone conversation
 Presentations
 Public speech
 Interview
 Group Discussion
 Negotiation
 Meeting
 Letter
 Memo
 Notice
 Circular
 Report
 Minutes
Each of these has a format and layout which is
fixed by custom.They act as documents printed
on official stationery.
 Powerful means of control
 Cost – economy
 Time economy
 Precision in Communication
 Personal influence
 Faith of employees
 Soundness of mutual relations
 Useful for Communication in meetings &
conferences
 Presentation of voice and facial expressions.
 Clear accent and appropriate word choice
 Natural voice and logical sequence
 Brevity
 Precision
 Conviction
 A permanent record
 A legal document
 Accurate and precise
 Repeatedly referred to
 Facilitates defining responsibilities
 Essential in some circumstances.
 Not confidential
 Expensive
 Quick clarification is not possible
 Time consuming
 Problem of interpretation
 Intelligible
 Clear and concise
 Due emphasis on cardinal points
 Simple and positive language
 Courtesy
 Communication through other symbols is called non
– verbal Communication.
 Non –Verbal methods of communication include all
things, other than words and language, that convey
meaning.
PICTURES
MAPS
CHARTS
DIAGRAMS
GRAPHS
 To provide information
 To control flow of messages
 To make task easy
 To complement verbal message
 To express feelings
 Efficient
 Reliable
 Economic Communication
 Credibility
 Accurate understanding of attitude
 No written proof
 Lack of secrecy
 Applicable only in brief messages
 Difficult to collect information
 Wrong meaning
 Physical presence
 Difficulty in perceiving
 Visual sign language
 Audio sign language
 Body language
(Kinesics)
 Proxemics
 Para language
 There is no feedback from receiver to sender.
 Sender is not sure of receipt of information as well
as understanding by the receipt.
Encode Message Channel
Receiver
decode
message
ReceiverSender
 There is active feedback from the receiver to
sender to ensure the receiver understand the
same meaning which the sender intended to
convey.
Encode Message Channel
Receiver
Decode
Message
Decode As
Receiver
Channel Message
Encode As
Sender
Sender Receiver
 IntrapersonalCommunication takes place
within a single person, often for the purpose
of clarifying ideas or analyzing a situation.
 Other times, intrapersonal communication
is undertaken in order to reflect upon or
appreciate something.
 Inter Personal Communications takes place
when two or more person are sharing their
information with each other ,face to face or
through any other method.
 Downward Communication: this form of
communication is frequent where higher levels
communicate with staff below them. In this
category are communications like memos,
notices, in-house newsletters, company
handbook, procedure manuals.
 Upward Communication: the upward flow is
equally important as the downward flow.
Communications are directed upwards to
managers, supervisors or directors by using
memos, reports, meetings, informal discussions.
 Horizontal Communication: this occurs b/w
people of the same status – sales
staff, departmental
heads, directors, supervisors. As well as memos
and reports, and also includes committee
meetings, seminars and conferences.
 Diagonal Communication: this include tasks
which involve more than one department and
there is often no obvious line of authority.This
type of communication often relies largely on
cooperation, goodwill and respect b/w the
parties concerned.
 Murphy’s model
 Thill and Bovee model
 David Berlo’s smcr model
 Shannon and Weaver model
 Aristotle’s model
 SMCRE model
 Mass communication model
 Transper model
 Dahama model
 Leagan’s circular model
 Westley’s and Maclean’s model
◦ Most widely used communication model
developed by Berlo.
◦ Simple and versatile.
◦ This model includes four basic concepts
1. Source
2. Message
3. Channel
4. Receivers.
Attitudes
Communicati
on skills
Knowledge
Social system
Culture
Seeing
Comm.
skills
AttitudesHearing
Knowledg
e
Social
system
Touching
Smelling
CultureTasting
Elements
Treatment Treatment
Structure
Content Code
Source (S) Message (M) Channel(C) Receiver()R
Information
source Transmitter Receiver Destination
Noise source
Message
Signal Received
signal
Message
Idea
Communicator Or Sender
Message
Medium OfTransmission
Receiver Or Group
Feedback
 Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and
non verbal messages.
 It is a continuous process.The message must be
conveyed through some medium to the recipient.
 It is essential that this message must be understood
by the recipient in same terms as intended by the
sender.
 He must respond within a time frame.
 Thus, communication is a two way process and is
incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to
the sender on how well the message is understood by
him.
 Context -
 Sender / Encoder -
 Message -
 Medium -
 Recipient / Decoder -
 Feedback -
 PRIDE
 PAIBOC
Acc.ToVardaman &Vardaman, an effective
communication is on the basis of 5 English
letters PRIDE.
P : Purpose Of Communication
R : Receiver’s Role
I : Impact Desired
D : Design of the Communication
E : Execution of the Communication
P : Purpose
A : Audience
I : Information
B : Benefit
O : Objection
C : Context
 Clear, brief and complete statement.
 Ideal behaviour.
 Courtesy.
 Adequate transmission technique.
 Confirmation of communication.
 Co-operation.
 Communication must continue.
 Communication at proper time.
 Clarity
 Correctness
 Conciseness
 Courtesy
 Consideration
 Completeness
 Concreteness
 Clarity is the soul of good business
correspondence.
 The receiver should get the same idea which
the sender wants to communicate.
 It means that we have a definite purpose of
writing and make sure it is clear.
 Clarity demands us that each and every
points and aspects of our message should be
clear to the reader.
 Use short and simple words.
 Use common and simple language.
 Do not give wrong and unwanted
information.
 Right spellings and accurate facts and figure.
 Wrong use of words gives bad impression to the
receiver.
 There should be no mistake of
grammar, punctuation or spelling.
 If our message or documents is not of good level
of correctness then it has no effect on reader so
it may cause lot of difficulties. So the objective
of communication will be failed.
 Double check your spellings and grammar.
 While writing figures one should be very
careful.
 Think clear, plan wisely, and write correctly.
 All information should be accurate and
timely.
 Read it before you send it.
 Conciseness means to convey information in
fewest possible words.
 The writer is a looser if he was unable to
convey information in fewest possible words
because none have enough time to read
wordy messages.
 Include all relevant material.
 Avoid unnecessary explanation.
 Courtesy means that to show our expressions and
respect to the reader.
 Courtesy increase good relationship among different
business organization.
 Courteous message strengthen present relations and
make new friends.
 Harsh words should be avoided at every cost.
Use expressions that shows respect.
 Courteous message always makes it place in heart
because it shows lot of respect and sincerity.
 It promotes respect, build confidence, and increase
mutual trust.
 Consideration means the message with the
receiver in mind.
 Keep your reader's needs in mind as you write.
 A writer should give maximum attention and care
to the reader.
Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”.
Show reader’s benefit or interest in reader.
Emphasize positive and pleasant facts.
Apply integrity to your message.
 It means that our message should include all
necessary facts and background information.
 It should include everything the reader needs for
the reaction we desire.
 We must include all information which our
reader wants.
 We should be answered all questions, gave
examples if necessary.
 We should be answered all questions.
 Never give incomplete information.
 Provide all the information.
 It means “to the point” and “error free”.
 Business message should be in plain
language.
 By using concrete facts and figures we can
make our message easy to understand.
 Always use specific facts and figures.
 Put active verbs in the sentence.
 Message should be specific and definite.
Business communication

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Business communication

  • 2.  Meaning  Objective  Forms of communication  Communication model  Communication process  Principles of effective communication
  • 3.  The word ‘communication’ which comes from the word communicare, is used in common talk, usually, to mean speaking or writing or sending a message to another person.  Communication is really much more than that.
  • 4. Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. - Keith Davis Communication is any behavior that results in an exchange of meaning. -American ManagementAssociation
  • 5.  The term Business Communication is used for all messages that we send an receive for official purposes like running a business, managing an organization, conducting the formal affairs of a voluntary organization and so on.
  • 6.  Communication is unintentional as well as intentional  Communication is a dynamic process  Communication is systematic  Communication is both interaction and transaction.
  • 7. Communication helps organizations Accomplish individual and organizational goals Implement and respond to organizational change Coordinate activities Engage in virtually all organizational relevant behaviors
  • 8. Communication breakdowns are pervasive Ineffective communication = ineffective organizations Problems arise when… Directives are misunderstood Kidding leads to anger Informal remarks are distorted
  • 9.  Coordination  Smooth working  Effective decision making  Managerial efficiency  Co-operation  Effective leadership  Job satisfaction  Increases productivity  Morale building  Achieving managerial roles
  • 10.  Sources / sender, is the one who initiates the action of communicating.  Audience /receiver is the person for whom the communication is intended.  Goal/purpose is the sender’s reason for communicating, the desired result of the communication.  Context/environment is the background in which the communication takes place.  Message/content is the information conveyed.  Medium/channel is the means or method used for conveying the message.  Feedback is the receiver’s response to the communication as observed by the sender.
  • 11.  Sender  Message  Encoding  Channel/medium  Decoding  Feedback
  • 12. Sender Message Receiver Feedback Encoding Medium Decoding
  • 13. 1. One-way communication 2. Two –way communication 3. Non verbal communication 4. Verbal communication 5. Interpersonal communication 6. Intrapersonal communication
  • 15.  Communication with words is calledVerbal Communication.  Communication using sounds and symbols like pictures, colors, signs to communicate is called Non –VerbalCommunication.
  • 16.  Speed  Record  Precision and accuracy  Length  Expense  Body language  Feedback
  • 18.  Oral Communication is more natural and immediate. It is natural to speak when other person is present.  It occurs in situations like conversations, telephone talk, interviews, conferences, presentations, negotiations, group discussions and meetings.
  • 19.  Face-to-face conversation  Telephone conversation  Presentations  Public speech  Interview  Group Discussion  Negotiation  Meeting
  • 20.  Letter  Memo  Notice  Circular  Report  Minutes Each of these has a format and layout which is fixed by custom.They act as documents printed on official stationery.
  • 21.  Powerful means of control  Cost – economy  Time economy  Precision in Communication  Personal influence  Faith of employees  Soundness of mutual relations  Useful for Communication in meetings & conferences  Presentation of voice and facial expressions.
  • 22.  Clear accent and appropriate word choice  Natural voice and logical sequence  Brevity  Precision  Conviction
  • 23.  A permanent record  A legal document  Accurate and precise  Repeatedly referred to  Facilitates defining responsibilities  Essential in some circumstances.
  • 24.  Not confidential  Expensive  Quick clarification is not possible  Time consuming  Problem of interpretation
  • 25.  Intelligible  Clear and concise  Due emphasis on cardinal points  Simple and positive language  Courtesy
  • 26.  Communication through other symbols is called non – verbal Communication.  Non –Verbal methods of communication include all things, other than words and language, that convey meaning.
  • 28.  To provide information  To control flow of messages  To make task easy  To complement verbal message  To express feelings
  • 29.  Efficient  Reliable  Economic Communication  Credibility  Accurate understanding of attitude
  • 30.  No written proof  Lack of secrecy  Applicable only in brief messages  Difficult to collect information  Wrong meaning  Physical presence  Difficulty in perceiving
  • 31.  Visual sign language  Audio sign language  Body language (Kinesics)  Proxemics  Para language
  • 32.  There is no feedback from receiver to sender.  Sender is not sure of receipt of information as well as understanding by the receipt. Encode Message Channel Receiver decode message ReceiverSender
  • 33.  There is active feedback from the receiver to sender to ensure the receiver understand the same meaning which the sender intended to convey. Encode Message Channel Receiver Decode Message Decode As Receiver Channel Message Encode As Sender Sender Receiver
  • 34.  IntrapersonalCommunication takes place within a single person, often for the purpose of clarifying ideas or analyzing a situation.  Other times, intrapersonal communication is undertaken in order to reflect upon or appreciate something.
  • 35.  Inter Personal Communications takes place when two or more person are sharing their information with each other ,face to face or through any other method.
  • 36.  Downward Communication: this form of communication is frequent where higher levels communicate with staff below them. In this category are communications like memos, notices, in-house newsletters, company handbook, procedure manuals.  Upward Communication: the upward flow is equally important as the downward flow. Communications are directed upwards to managers, supervisors or directors by using memos, reports, meetings, informal discussions.
  • 37.  Horizontal Communication: this occurs b/w people of the same status – sales staff, departmental heads, directors, supervisors. As well as memos and reports, and also includes committee meetings, seminars and conferences.  Diagonal Communication: this include tasks which involve more than one department and there is often no obvious line of authority.This type of communication often relies largely on cooperation, goodwill and respect b/w the parties concerned.
  • 38.  Murphy’s model  Thill and Bovee model  David Berlo’s smcr model  Shannon and Weaver model  Aristotle’s model  SMCRE model  Mass communication model  Transper model  Dahama model  Leagan’s circular model  Westley’s and Maclean’s model
  • 39. ◦ Most widely used communication model developed by Berlo. ◦ Simple and versatile. ◦ This model includes four basic concepts 1. Source 2. Message 3. Channel 4. Receivers.
  • 41. Information source Transmitter Receiver Destination Noise source Message Signal Received signal Message
  • 42. Idea Communicator Or Sender Message Medium OfTransmission Receiver Or Group Feedback
  • 43.  Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages.  It is a continuous process.The message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient.  It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender.  He must respond within a time frame.  Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.
  • 44.  Context -  Sender / Encoder -  Message -  Medium -  Recipient / Decoder -  Feedback -
  • 46. Acc.ToVardaman &Vardaman, an effective communication is on the basis of 5 English letters PRIDE. P : Purpose Of Communication R : Receiver’s Role I : Impact Desired D : Design of the Communication E : Execution of the Communication
  • 47. P : Purpose A : Audience I : Information B : Benefit O : Objection C : Context
  • 48.  Clear, brief and complete statement.  Ideal behaviour.  Courtesy.  Adequate transmission technique.  Confirmation of communication.  Co-operation.  Communication must continue.  Communication at proper time.
  • 49.  Clarity  Correctness  Conciseness  Courtesy  Consideration  Completeness  Concreteness
  • 50.  Clarity is the soul of good business correspondence.  The receiver should get the same idea which the sender wants to communicate.  It means that we have a definite purpose of writing and make sure it is clear.  Clarity demands us that each and every points and aspects of our message should be clear to the reader.
  • 51.  Use short and simple words.  Use common and simple language.  Do not give wrong and unwanted information.  Right spellings and accurate facts and figure.
  • 52.  Wrong use of words gives bad impression to the receiver.  There should be no mistake of grammar, punctuation or spelling.  If our message or documents is not of good level of correctness then it has no effect on reader so it may cause lot of difficulties. So the objective of communication will be failed.  Double check your spellings and grammar.
  • 53.  While writing figures one should be very careful.  Think clear, plan wisely, and write correctly.  All information should be accurate and timely.  Read it before you send it.
  • 54.  Conciseness means to convey information in fewest possible words.  The writer is a looser if he was unable to convey information in fewest possible words because none have enough time to read wordy messages.  Include all relevant material.  Avoid unnecessary explanation.
  • 55.  Courtesy means that to show our expressions and respect to the reader.  Courtesy increase good relationship among different business organization.  Courteous message strengthen present relations and make new friends.  Harsh words should be avoided at every cost. Use expressions that shows respect.  Courteous message always makes it place in heart because it shows lot of respect and sincerity.  It promotes respect, build confidence, and increase mutual trust.
  • 56.  Consideration means the message with the receiver in mind.  Keep your reader's needs in mind as you write.  A writer should give maximum attention and care to the reader. Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”. Show reader’s benefit or interest in reader. Emphasize positive and pleasant facts. Apply integrity to your message.
  • 57.  It means that our message should include all necessary facts and background information.  It should include everything the reader needs for the reaction we desire.  We must include all information which our reader wants.  We should be answered all questions, gave examples if necessary.  We should be answered all questions.  Never give incomplete information.  Provide all the information.
  • 58.  It means “to the point” and “error free”.  Business message should be in plain language.  By using concrete facts and figures we can make our message easy to understand.  Always use specific facts and figures.  Put active verbs in the sentence.  Message should be specific and definite.