Forms of communication
Principles of effective communication
The word ‘communication’ which comes from
the word communicare, is used in common
talk, usually, to mean speaking or writing or
sending a message to another person.
Communication is really much more than
Communication is a process of passing
information and understanding from one
person to another.
- Keith Davis
Communication is any behavior that results in
an exchange of meaning.
The term Business Communication is used
for all messages that we send an receive for
official purposes like running a business,
managing an organization, conducting the
formal affairs of a voluntary organization and
Communication is unintentional as well as
Communication is a dynamic process
Communication is systematic
Communication is both interaction and
Accomplish individual and
Implement and respond to
Engage in virtually all organizational
Ineffective communication =
when… Directives are misunderstood
Kidding leads to anger
Informal remarks are distorted
Sources / sender, is the one who initiates the action of
Audience /receiver is the person for whom the
communication is intended.
Goal/purpose is the sender’s reason for
communicating, the desired result of the
Context/environment is the background in which the
communication takes place.
Message/content is the information conveyed.
Medium/channel is the means or method used for
conveying the message.
Feedback is the receiver’s response to the
communication as observed by the sender.
Oral Communication is more natural and
immediate. It is natural to speak when other
person is present.
It occurs in situations like
talk, interviews, conferences, presentations,
negotiations, group discussions and
Each of these has a format and layout which is
fixed by custom.They act as documents printed
on official stationery.
Powerful means of control
Cost – economy
Precision in Communication
Faith of employees
Soundness of mutual relations
Useful for Communication in meetings &
Presentation of voice and facial expressions.
Clear accent and appropriate word choice
Natural voice and logical sequence
A permanent record
A legal document
Accurate and precise
Repeatedly referred to
Facilitates defining responsibilities
Essential in some circumstances.
Quick clarification is not possible
Problem of interpretation
Clear and concise
Due emphasis on cardinal points
Simple and positive language
Communication through other symbols is called non
– verbal Communication.
Non –Verbal methods of communication include all
things, other than words and language, that convey
To provide information
To control flow of messages
To make task easy
To complement verbal message
To express feelings
Accurate understanding of attitude
No written proof
Lack of secrecy
Applicable only in brief messages
Difficult to collect information
Difficulty in perceiving
Visual sign language
Audio sign language
There is no feedback from receiver to sender.
Sender is not sure of receipt of information as well
as understanding by the receipt.
Encode Message Channel
There is active feedback from the receiver to
sender to ensure the receiver understand the
same meaning which the sender intended to
Encode Message Channel
IntrapersonalCommunication takes place
within a single person, often for the purpose
of clarifying ideas or analyzing a situation.
Other times, intrapersonal communication
is undertaken in order to reflect upon or
Inter Personal Communications takes place
when two or more person are sharing their
information with each other ,face to face or
through any other method.
Downward Communication: this form of
communication is frequent where higher levels
communicate with staff below them. In this
category are communications like memos,
notices, in-house newsletters, company
handbook, procedure manuals.
Upward Communication: the upward flow is
equally important as the downward flow.
Communications are directed upwards to
managers, supervisors or directors by using
memos, reports, meetings, informal discussions.
Horizontal Communication: this occurs b/w
people of the same status – sales
heads, directors, supervisors. As well as memos
and reports, and also includes committee
meetings, seminars and conferences.
Diagonal Communication: this include tasks
which involve more than one department and
there is often no obvious line of authority.This
type of communication often relies largely on
cooperation, goodwill and respect b/w the
Thill and Bovee model
David Berlo’s smcr model
Shannon and Weaver model
Mass communication model
Leagan’s circular model
Westley’s and Maclean’s model
◦ Most widely used communication model
developed by Berlo.
◦ Simple and versatile.
◦ This model includes four basic concepts
Source (S) Message (M) Channel(C) Receiver()R
source Transmitter Receiver Destination
Communicator Or Sender
Receiver Or Group
Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and
non verbal messages.
It is a continuous process.The message must be
conveyed through some medium to the recipient.
It is essential that this message must be understood
by the recipient in same terms as intended by the
He must respond within a time frame.
Thus, communication is a two way process and is
incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to
the sender on how well the message is understood by
Acc.ToVardaman &Vardaman, an effective
communication is on the basis of 5 English
P : Purpose Of Communication
R : Receiver’s Role
I : Impact Desired
D : Design of the Communication
E : Execution of the Communication
P : Purpose
A : Audience
I : Information
B : Benefit
O : Objection
C : Context
Clear, brief and complete statement.
Adequate transmission technique.
Confirmation of communication.
Communication must continue.
Communication at proper time.
Clarity is the soul of good business
The receiver should get the same idea which
the sender wants to communicate.
It means that we have a definite purpose of
writing and make sure it is clear.
Clarity demands us that each and every
points and aspects of our message should be
clear to the reader.
Use short and simple words.
Use common and simple language.
Do not give wrong and unwanted
Right spellings and accurate facts and figure.
Wrong use of words gives bad impression to the
There should be no mistake of
grammar, punctuation or spelling.
If our message or documents is not of good level
of correctness then it has no effect on reader so
it may cause lot of difficulties. So the objective
of communication will be failed.
Double check your spellings and grammar.
While writing figures one should be very
Think clear, plan wisely, and write correctly.
All information should be accurate and
Read it before you send it.
Conciseness means to convey information in
fewest possible words.
The writer is a looser if he was unable to
convey information in fewest possible words
because none have enough time to read
Include all relevant material.
Avoid unnecessary explanation.
Courtesy means that to show our expressions and
respect to the reader.
Courtesy increase good relationship among different
Courteous message strengthen present relations and
make new friends.
Harsh words should be avoided at every cost.
Use expressions that shows respect.
Courteous message always makes it place in heart
because it shows lot of respect and sincerity.
It promotes respect, build confidence, and increase
Consideration means the message with the
receiver in mind.
Keep your reader's needs in mind as you write.
A writer should give maximum attention and care
to the reader.
Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we”.
Show reader’s benefit or interest in reader.
Emphasize positive and pleasant facts.
Apply integrity to your message.
It means that our message should include all
necessary facts and background information.
It should include everything the reader needs for
the reaction we desire.
We must include all information which our
We should be answered all questions, gave
examples if necessary.
We should be answered all questions.
Never give incomplete information.
Provide all the information.
It means “to the point” and “error free”.
Business message should be in plain
By using concrete facts and figures we can
make our message easy to understand.
Always use specific facts and figures.
Put active verbs in the sentence.
Message should be specific and definite.